Difference between revisions of "User:Gleki/Grammatical mood"
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Revision as of 16:14, 4 August 2021
|Mood||Event, as intended by speaker||Example||Lojban||Problem with adaptation to Lojban||Found in|
|Subjunctive||Event is considered unlikely (mainly used in dependent clauses).||"If I loved you...", "May I love you"||ganai la'anai ... gi ...
ganai ju'onai ... gi
|doesn't take into account unlikeliness and assertion of not possibly becoming real thus not being different from Conditional (add to na ku da'i toi?)||English | Latin | German | Romance languages | Vedic Sanskrit | Proto-Indo-European | Hindi|
|Conditional||Event depends upon another condition.||"I would love you"||da'i
ganai ... gi
|English | German | Romance languages | Icelandic | Irish | Hindi | Finnish | Hungarian|
|Optative||Event is hoped, expected, or awaited.||"May I be loved!"||.a'o
|doesn't relay expectation||Albanian | Ancient Greek | Sanskrit | Avestan | Proto-Indo-European|
|Jussive||Event is pleaded, implored or asked.||"Everyone should be loved"||.ei||Arabic | Hebrew | Esperanto|
|Potential||Event is probable or considered likely||"She probably loves me"||la'a||Finnish | Japanese | Sanskrit | Sami languages | Proto-Indo-European|
|Imperative and Prohibitive||Event is directly ordered or requested by the speaker. Prohibitive is the negation of an imperative statement, i.e., the speaker prohibits an event (orders to it not occur).||"Love me!", "Do not love me"||.e'i (BPFK)||The CLL doesn't have an example of .e'i||English | Seri | Latin | Portuguese (Portuguese has distinct Imperative and Prohibitive moods) | Finnish | Hungarian|
|Desiderative||Event is desired/wished by a participant in the state of affairs referred to in the utterance||"I wish she loved me."||.au||Sanskrit | Japanese | Proto-Indo-European|
|Dubitative||Event is uncertain, doubtful, dubious.||"I think she loves me."||ju'ocu'i||The CLL uses ju'o and la'a scales for hypothetical worlds||Ojibwe | Turkish|
|Hypothetical||Event is hypothetical, or it is counterfactual, but possible.||"I might love you [if...]"||da'i||Russian | Lakota|
|Presumptive||Event is assumed, presupposed by the speaker||There is no exact English example, although it could be translated as: "[Even if] he loves you [...]"||no translation?||Romanian | Hindi | Punjabi | Gujarati|
|Permissive||Event is permitted by the speaker.||"You may [not] love me..."||.e'a||Lithuanian (as a form of optative mood)|
|Admirative||Event is surprising or amazing (literally or in irony or sarcasm).||"Wow! She loves me!"||u'e, ue||Turkish | Bulgarian | Macedonian | Albanian | Megleno-Romanian|
|Hortative||Event is exhorted, implored, insisted or encouraged by speaker.||"Let us love!"||.e'ei||Latin (as a form of jussive) | Greek (as a form of the subjunctive) | Hindi|
|Template:Visanc||Event is likely but depends upon a condition. It is a combination of the potential and the conditional moods.||"I would probably love you [if...]"||ganai ... gi la'a ...||Finnish (in the epic poem Kalevala) | Estonian, in some dialects|
|Precative||Event is requested by the speaker.||"Will you love me?"||.e'o|
|Volitive||Event is desired, wished or feared by the speaker.||"Would that you loved me!" / "God forbid [that] you love me!"||.au|
|Inferential||Event is nonwitnessed, and not confirmed.||There is no exact English example, although it could be translated as: "She is said to love me"||ti'e||?||Turkish | Bulgarian (Inferential mood is called "renarrative mood") | Estonian (It is called "oblique mood")|
|Necessitative||Event is necessary, or it is both desired and encouraged. It is a combination of hortative and jussive.||.ei .e'ei||Armenian | Turkish|
|Interrogative||Event is asked or questioned by the speaker||"Does she love me?"||xu||Welsh | Nenets|
- "Optative Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- Cite error: Invalid
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- "Jussive Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- "Imperative Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- "Prohibitive Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- "WALS Online - Chapter The Optative". wals.info. Retrieved 2021-05-11.
- "Dubitative Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- "Hypothetical Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- Loos, Eugene E.; Anderson, Susan; Day, Dwight H. Jr.; Jordan, Paul C.; Wingate, J. Douglas (eds.). "What is permissive mood?". Glossary of linguistic terms. SIL International. Retrieved 2009-12-28.
- Smyth, Herbert (1984). Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 403–404 (§1797–1799). ISBN 0-674-36250-0.
- "Precative Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- "Volitive Modality". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12.