# BPFK Section: brivla Negators

### cmavo: na (NA)

#### Proposed Definition

Contradictory negator. Negates the bridi in which it appears. It has scope over quantifiers that follow.

• {ja'a}
• {na'e}
• {nai}

• not

#### Usage Examples

ko nelci lo nalci gi'e na kelci lo kalci
"Be fond of wings and don't play with feces."

### cmavo: ja'a (NA)

#### Proposed Definition

Bridi affirmer. Affirms the bridi in which it appears.

• {na}

• really

#### Usage Examples

.i ju'o cu'i lo finpe ja'a nitcu lo relselxi'u
"Maybe a fish does need a bicycle."

{BOX}

### cmavo: na'e (NAhE)

#### Proposed Definition

Contrary negator. Converts a tanru-unit into another tanru-unit with a complementary meaning, such that they can't both be true at the same time. With BO, it converts a sumti into another sumti whose referent is the complement of the unconverted sumti.

• {je'a}
• {to'e}
• {no'e}
• {na}
• {nai}

• non-

#### Usage Examples

salci fa ro na'ebo le mlatu
"It's a party for everyone but the cat."
ma na'e vofli cipni
"What's a non-flying bird?"

#### Notes

• NAhEs can also be used with tags and operators, and NAhE BO with operands.
• na'e bo "sumti" | lo drata be "sumti"

{BOX}

### cmavo: je'a (NAhE)

#### Proposed Definition

Converts a tanru-unit into another tanru-unit with the same meaning. With BO, it converts a sumti into another sumti whose referent is the same as the referent of the unconverted sumti.

• {na'e}
• {to'e}
• {no'e}

#### Usage Examples

ta je'a titla nanba

#### Notes

• NAhEs can also be used with tags and operators, and NAhE BO with operands.
• je'a bo "sumti" | lo mintu be "sumti"

{BOX}

### cmavo: to'e (NAhE)

#### Proposed Definition

Converts a tanru-unit into another tanru-unit with opposite meaning. With BO, it converts a sumti into another sumti whose referent is opposite of the referent of the unconverted sumti.

• {na'e}
• {je'a}
• {no'e}

• opposite
• un-

#### Usage Eaxmples

mi to'e cirko lo sfani lo mi stasu
"I found a fly in my soup."

#### Notes

• NAhEs can also be used with tags and operators, and NAhE BO with operands.
• to'e bo "sumti" | lo dukti be "sumti"

{BOX}

### cmavo: no'e (NAhE)

#### Proposed Definition

Converts a tanru-unit into another tanru-unit with neutral meaning between the original meaning and its opposite. With BO, it converts a sumti into another sumti whose referent is neutral between the referent of the unconverted sumti and its opposite.

• {na'e}
• {to'e}
• {je'a}

• neutral

#### Usage Examples

xu lo do cmene cu pu na pe'a jinsa lo no'e lerfu
"Was your name not 'clean' of not-really-letters?"

#### Notes

• NAhEs can also be used with tags and operators, and NAhE BO with operands.
• no'e bo "sumti" | lo nutli be lo te dukti be "sumti" bei to'e "sumti"

{BOX}

### General Section Issues

1. scope of na here I (xorxes) am sketching an argument for restricting the scope of NA to be just over those bridi operators that follow it. The traditional interpretation is that it has scope over all other bridi operators, including those that precede it in the bridi. Also: Reduced logical form
2. NA with connectives/termsets.
3. na go'i issue by guskant.