controversial points in the morphology

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These are the current settings in the PEG morphology:


Vocalic syllables


There are 139 possible onsets:

., ', i, u,

b, c, d, f, g, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, x, z,

bi, ci, di, fi, gi, ji, ki, li, mi, ni, pi, ri, si, ti, vi, xi, zi,

bu, cu, du, fu, gu, ju, ku, lu, mu, nu, pu, ru, su, tu, vu, xu, zu,

br, cr, dr, fr, gr, jr, kr, mr, sr, tr, vr, xr, zr,

bl, cl, fl, gl, jl, kl, ml, sl, vl, xl, zl,

jb, jd, cf, jg, ck, cl, cm, jm, cn, cr, ct, jv,

zb, zd, sf, zg, sk, sl, sm, zm, sn, sr, st, zv,

jbr, jdr, cfr, jgr, ckr, cmr, jmr, ctr, jvr,

zbr, zdr, sfr, zgr, skr, smr, zmr, str, zvr,

jbl, cfl, jgl, ckl, cml, jml, jvl,

zbl, sfl, zgl, skl, sml, zml, zvl,

ts, tc, dz, dj.

There are 10 possible nuclei:

a, e, i, o, u, ai, au, ei, oi, y.

There are 18 possible codas:

none, b, c, d, f, g, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, x, z.

This gives a total of 139*10*18 = 25020 possible vocalic syllables.

Consonantal syllables

There are 64 possible consonantal syllables:

bl, cl, dl, fl, gl, jl, kl, ml, nl, pl, rl, sl, tl, vl, xl, zl,

bm, cm, dm, fm, gm, jm, km, lm, nm, pm, rm, sm, tm, vm, xm, zm,

bn, cn, dn, fn, gn, jn, kn, ln, mn, pn, rn, sn, tn, vn, xn, zn,

br, cr, dr, fr, gr, jr, kr, lr, mr, nr, pr, sr, tr, vr, xr, zr.


  • All fu'ivla can be used as final rafsi, and all have a non-final rafsi by adding 'y.
  • fu'ivla that start with a vowel add ' in front for non-initial rafsi: example mily'enri from milti .enri
  • Any fu'ivla that ends in a single vowel gets a short rafsi by dropping the final vowel and replacing with y if that doesn't create a conflict with normal lujvo.

CVC-y- and CVV-r/n- hyphens

These hyphens are allowed always. Officially they are allowed only when required (i.e. between an impermissible pair or to correct a tosmabru failure or to prevent CVV from falling off).

RATIONALE: If one gets used to a lujvo like tosymabru, it is nice to be able to produce further formations like {naltosymabru} without having to remember to remove the hyphen in this case. If one gets used to the lujvo {li'erla'i}, it is a pain to remember that {nalyli'erla'i} is not a lujvo and one should use {nalyli'ela'i} instead. Allowing the hyphen always makes things easier for the user.

doi-la-lai-la'i in cmene

Currently these syllables are allowed in cmene, which requires cmene to always begin and end with a pause.

other issues