Difference between revisions of "synonyms"

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Revision as of 14:34, 23 March 2014

In popular literary acceptation, and as employed in special dictionaries of such words, synonyms are words sufficiently alike in general signification to be liable to be confounded, but yet so different in special definition as to require to be distinguished. --G. P. Marsh.


It would be nice to provide each of the gismu clusters below with an advice on good usage


se papri | cukta | se tcidu | datni

recent proposal by Nick Nicholas: se papri < cukta < se tcidu < datni

The proposal is retracted, but the fine semantics of these gismu is obviously something that should be made explicit (and probably has been :-( : [1])

  • Is a blank notebook a cukta, a se tcidu or a datni?
  • Is a pictures only book a se tcidu or a datni?
  • Is a text of random words a datni?

klama | muvdu | litru

klama has all the places of muvdu plus x5 for vehicle, hence klama < muvdu.

litru lacks places for destination and origin, hence klama < litru surely this should be the other way around? mi'e filip.


nelci | se pluka | prami| se dirba

prami differs from others in greater degree of emotional attachment. By the way, is there any difference between prami and se dirba?

se pluka, compared to nelci, has the place x3 'under conditions'. is there any reasonable way to make it work?

  • there is also melbi which is similar to pluka. We need to do more thorough work on this cluster --najrut

drata | frica

roda rode zo'u le du'u da de frica cu nibli le du'u da de drata

ijeku'i le du'u da de drata na nibli le du'u da de frica

i mu'a lo djacu dirgo na frica lo drata

drata = 'another' (not the same one), opposite to mintu

frica = 'different' (not of the same kind), opposite to dunli

see [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/lojban/message/1954


mintu] | dunli

mintu = same, identical, opposite to drata

dunli = of the same kind, opposite to frica


pikta | jaspu

Are the following pikta or jaspu (or neither):

  • foreign passport
  • driver's licence
  • a university's diploma
  • marriage certificate
  • credit card
  • other borderline examples?

molki | fanri

The gismu definition list says: 'molki, unlike fanri, need not produce a product'. However, even the prototypical grain mill for molki can be argued to produce flour from grain. Maybe molki puts more stress on processing/treatment rather than producing something radically different. But where does the border lie?

Are the following molki or fanri (or neither):

  • grain mill
  • foundry
  • oil station
  • hairdresser's saloon
  • tattoo studio
  • tailor's workshop
  • other borderline examples?

botpi = se gacri


Some general gismu are needless as they can be replaced with other gismu or lujvo. Which will simplify the language and it's learning.

    • xe klama > marce
    • pluta > ve klama
    • nixli > fetyve'a
    • nakla > nakyve'a
    • mensi > fetytunba
    • bruna > naktunba
    • ninmu > fetre'a
    • nanmu > nakre'a
    • tixnu > fetpanzi
    • bersa > nakpanzi
    • mamta > fetrirni (logical but really not smart replacement). See also esson for an explanation of the difference between fetsi rorci, se jbena and fetsi rirni.
    • patfu > nakrirni (logical but really not smart replacement) --najrut

Other

cilre tadni ctuca

bacru tavla casnu cusku skicu

cpacu lebna te dunda=terdu'a

frati spuda

notci pinka xatra

zgana catlu viska

karce marce carce

gasnu rinka bapli zukte

mokca jipno

flecu rirxe

djuno krici fatci

krefu rapli

mukti krinu nibli rinka

simla simsu should this be simlu simsa? mi'e filip

sanmi cidja se citka

dertu terdi gugde tutra tumla

tricu mudri

pagbu spisa

palta palne

sraku guska katna

grasu matne

ganse sanji

ratni kantu selci

jdari tinsa sligu ranti ralci

parbi frinu

cenba galfi stika

curve jinsa

tabno kolme

bancu ragve sepli (se ragve=te sepli?)

ckana matci kicne

dargu klaji

zbasu finti

xamgu zabna

xlali palci ?mabla

zbepi tsina ?matci ?ckana

cabra minji tutci

jivbu nivji

burna cfipu ?xanka ?badri

badri dunku

xanka burna

manci spaji jenca

fanza raktu cfipu ?xanka

rigni xebni

cnano fadni kampu

bandu snura

bebna fenki cizra

nupre kajde

stidi friti

kucli | se cinri

xajmi zdile

zungi xenru

pikci cpedu

vecnu ve jdima = veldi'a

pruce te cupra = terpra

damba jamna

turni | se tutra

xabju | se zdani

ckini srana