Difference between revisions of "pronunciation guide in Hindi"

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Tag: 2017 source edit
(Change remarks for Lojban "x")
Tag: 2017 source edit
 
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| v || [v] || As in English "v" (not व [ʋ], which does not appear in Lojban). [v] is the typical (but not ubiquitous) pronunciation of व in व्रत; the upper lip and bottom teeth must meet to produce this sound. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustani_phonology#Allophony_of_%5Bv%5D_and_%5Bw%5D See here for more info.]
 
| v || [v] || As in English "v" (not व [ʋ], which does not appear in Lojban). [v] is the typical (but not ubiquitous) pronunciation of व in व्रत; the upper lip and bottom teeth must meet to produce this sound. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustani_phonology#Allophony_of_%5Bv%5D_and_%5Bw%5D See here for more info.]
 
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| x || [x] || ख़ (not ख), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword अख़बर (the name "Akhbar"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
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| x || [x] || ख़ (not ख), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword ख़ुश (''khush'', meaning "happy"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
 
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| y || [ə] || The sound of अ (not आ) when it appears by the juxtaposition of consonants, e.g. the sound transliterated as ''a'' in कर ''kar'', but notably not as in the start of अंदर/अन्दर ''andar'', which is [ʌ].
 
| y || [ə] || The sound of अ (not आ) when it appears by the juxtaposition of consonants, e.g. the sound transliterated as ''a'' in कर ''kar'', but notably not as in the start of अंदर/अन्दर ''andar'', which is [ʌ].

Latest revision as of 14:49, 26 September 2021

Lojban letteral Accepted phonemes (IPA) Hindi equivalents
' [h]
, [.] Syllable break
. [ʔ] Glottal stop. This sound doesn't appear in Hindi. It is the pause/catch between some words/syllables, such as in the English phrase "uh-oh", or as represented in Khasi by the consonant h (written in Bengali/Assamese script as হ) when it appears at the end of word. It also appears before many Arabic words that begin with a, such as الله‎ ("Allah") and أغاني (agaani, meaning "songs").
a [ɑ] आ (not अ)
b [b] ब (not भ)
c [ʃ] preferred, [ʂ] acceptable श preferred, ष acceptable
d [d] or any variant ड, द (not ढ or ध)
e [ɛ], [e] ए (not ऐ)
f [f], [ɸ] फ (strictly फ़ [f]; the modern pronunciation of फ is somewhere between [f] and [ɸ], usually closer to [f], and is thus acceptable; whereas the historic/Sanskrit pronunciation is [pʰ], which maps to Lojban p, and thus is not acceptable)
g [g] ग (not घ)
i [i] ई (not इ). When the first letteral in a diphthong, equivalent to य, i.e. Lojban ia, ie, ii, io, iu are pronounced या, ये, यी, यो, यु/यू, respectively.
j [ʒ] झ़ (not झ), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword अझ़दहा (azhdahaa, meaning "dragon"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
k [k] क, ख
l [l]
m [m]
n [n] न (not ण)
o [o], [ɔ] ओ, औ
p [p] प (not फ)
r [r] preferred, [ɾ] acceptable र preferred, ड़ (not ड) acceptable
s [s]
t [t] or any variant ट, ठ, त, थ
u [u] उ, ऊ. When the first letteral in a diphthong, almost equivalent to व, i.e. Lojban ua, ue, ui, uo, uu are pronounced almost like वा, वे, वी, वो, वु/वू, respectively.
v [v] As in English "v" (not व [ʋ], which does not appear in Lojban). [v] is the typical (but not ubiquitous) pronunciation of व in व्रत; the upper lip and bottom teeth must meet to produce this sound. See here for more info.
x [x] ख़ (not ख), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword ख़ुश (khush, meaning "happy"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
y [ə] The sound of अ (not आ) when it appears by the juxtaposition of consonants, e.g. the sound transliterated as a in कर kar, but notably not as in the start of अंदर/अन्दर andar, which is [ʌ].
z [z] ज़ (not ज), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword मेज़ (mez, meaning "desk"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.