Difference between revisions of "pronunciation guide in Hindi"

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(Add Hindi equivalents and remarks for Lojban "j")
Tag: 2017 source edit
(Change remarks for Lojban "x")
Tag: 2017 source edit
 
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{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
! Lojban letteral !! Accepted phonemes (IPA) !! Hindi equivalents
 
! Lojban letteral !! Accepted phonemes (IPA) !! Hindi equivalents
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| ' || [h] || ह
 
| ' || [h] || ह
 
|-
 
|-
| , || [.] || syllable break
+
| , || [.] || Syllable break
 
|-
 
|-
| . || [ʔ] || [glottal stop, TODO: add note/explanation of what this is, maybe with reference to Arabic/Khasi words]
+
| . || [ʔ] || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glottal_stop Glottal stop.] This sound doesn't appear in Hindi. It is the pause/catch between some words/syllables, such as in the English phrase "uh-oh", or as represented in Khasi by the consonant ''h'' (written in Bengali/Assamese script as হ) when it appears at the end of word. It also appears before many Arabic words that begin with ''a'', such as الله‎ ("Allah") and أغاني (''agaani'', meaning "songs").
 
|-
 
|-
 
| a || [ɑ] || आ (not अ)
 
| a || [ɑ] || आ (not अ)
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| i || [i] || ई (not इ). When the first letteral in a diphthong, equivalent to य, i.e. Lojban ''ia'', ''ie'', ''ii'', ''io'', ''iu'' are pronounced या, ये, यी, यो, यु/यू, respectively.
 
| i || [i] || ई (not इ). When the first letteral in a diphthong, equivalent to य, i.e. Lojban ''ia'', ''ie'', ''ii'', ''io'', ''iu'' are pronounced या, ये, यी, यो, यु/यू, respectively.
 
|-
 
|-
| j || [ʒ] || झ़ (not झ), as in the Arabic/Persian pronunciation of अझ़दहा (''azhdahaa'', meaning "dragon"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
+
| j || [ʒ] || झ़ (not झ), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword अझ़दहा (''azhdahaa'', meaning "dragon"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| k || [k] || क, ख
 
| k || [k] || क, ख
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| t || [t] or any variant || ट, ठ, त, थ
 
| t || [t] or any variant || ट, ठ, त, थ
 
|-
 
|-
| u || [u] || उ, ऊ. When the first letteral in a diphthong, almost equivalent to व, i.e. Lojban ''ua'', ''ue'', ''ui'', ''uo'', ''uu'' are pronounced वा, वे, वी, वो, वु/वू, respectively.
+
| u || [u] || उ, ऊ. When the first letteral in a diphthong, almost equivalent to व, i.e. Lojban ''ua'', ''ue'', ''ui'', ''uo'', ''uu'' are pronounced almost like वा, वे, वी, वो, वु/वू, respectively.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| v || [v] || As in English "v" (not व [ʋ], which does not appear in Lojban). [v] is the typical (but not ubiquitous) pronunciation of व in व्रत; the upper lip and bottom teeth must meet to produce this sound. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustani_phonology#Allophony_of_%5Bv%5D_and_%5Bw%5D See here for more info.]
 
| v || [v] || As in English "v" (not व [ʋ], which does not appear in Lojban). [v] is the typical (but not ubiquitous) pronunciation of व in व्रत; the upper lip and bottom teeth must meet to produce this sound. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustani_phonology#Allophony_of_%5Bv%5D_and_%5Bw%5D See here for more info.]
 
|-
 
|-
| x || [x] || ख़ (not ख), as in the Arabic/Persian pronunciation of अख़बर (the name "Akhbar"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
+
| x || [x] || ख़ (not ख), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword ख़ुश (''khush'', meaning "happy"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| y || [ə] || The sound of अ (not आ) when it appears by the juxtaposition of consonants, e.g. the sound transliterated as ''a'' in कर ''kar'', but notably not as in the start of अंदर/अन्दर ''andar'', which is [ʌ].
 
| y || [ə] || The sound of अ (not आ) when it appears by the juxtaposition of consonants, e.g. the sound transliterated as ''a'' in कर ''kar'', but notably not as in the start of अंदर/अन्दर ''andar'', which is [ʌ].
 
|-
 
|-
| z || [z] || ज़ (not ज), as in the Arabic/Persian pronunciation of मेज़ (''mez'', meaning "desk"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
+
| z || [z] || ज़ (not ज), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword मेज़ (''mez'', meaning "desk"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
 
|}
 
|}
 
'' I just want to give it a try and start this chart with my - admittedly - poor knowledge of the language Hindi. I'm having available here a narrow vocabulary and some knowledge of Hindi phonology.''
 
 
''First, we'd have to decide which contrasts should match the Lojban voiced/unvoiced consonant pairs, since most Hindi consonants can be distinguished according voiced/unvoiced, aspirated/unaspirated, retroflex/'normal', which e.g. for the dental stops or labial plosives means:''
 
 
'''d - dh - d(retro) - dh(retro) - t - th - t(retro) - th(retro)'''
 
 
'''b - bh - b(retro) - bh(retro) - p - ph - p(retro) - ph(retro)'''
 
 
''etc.''
 
 
''The vowels are:''
 
 
'''a, i, u, e, o''' ''- each coming in pairs: short-open (a, i, u) or moreorless long-moreorless closed (e, o). There are still two diphtongs'' '''ae-e''' ''and'' '''o-o''' ''with pretty different articulation according different local pronunciation. So what?''
 
 
a  r'''a'''str-bh'''a'''s'''a''' (national language)
 
 
e  d'''e'''n'''e''' (give)
 
 
i  pahl'''i''' (first)
 
 
o  praj'''o'''g (application), h'''o''' (of)
 
 
u  p'''u'''ri tarah (fully, full manner/way)
 
 
y  -
 
 
ai  sth'''ai''' prakriti (enduring nature)
 
 
au -
 
 
ei -
 
 
oi -
 
 
ia  kri'''ja'''tmak (effective), '''ja'''tha (namely)
 
 
ie  li'''je''' (for)
 
 
ii  -
 
 
io  pra'''jo'''g (application)
 
 
iu  -
 
 
ua  -
 
 
ue  -
 
 
ui  -
 
 
uo  -
 
 
uu  -
 
 
b  '''bh'''arat (India) -''there's no 'normal' '''b''' in my sample text, sorry!''
 
 
c  ki'''sh'''t (rate, instalment?)
 
 
d  '''d'''ene (give), '''d'''ija/'''di'''je (given), hin'''d'''i (Hindi)
 
 
f  -
 
 
g  a'''g'''ja-patra (laws)
 
 
j  -
 
 
k  sar'''k'''ari (official)
 
 
l  '''l'''e '''l'''egi (will take/occupy/replace)
 
 
m  kra'''m''' (system)
 
 
n  '''n'''ishcaj (decision)
 
 
p  '''p'''arivartan (conversion)
 
 
r  '''r'''up (form)
 
 
s  '''s'''than (place, location), '''s'''ath-'''s'''ath (together with)
 
 
t  '''t'''arah (manner, form, way)
 
 
v  '''v'''ikas (developement), patra-'''v'''ja'''v'''ahar (correspondence)
 
 
x  -
 
 
z  �'gre'''z'''i (English)
 
 
'  '''h'''indi (the language Hindi)
 
 
''Comments, corrections and improvements are highly welcome :-) and - needed! :[[-- [.aulun.|.aulun.]]''
 
 
Needed urgently, folks; if I don't get what I need soon, I'm going to Berlitz. By soon, I mean end of November 2002. -- [[User:Nick Nicholas|nitcion]]
 

Latest revision as of 14:49, 26 September 2021

Lojban letteral Accepted phonemes (IPA) Hindi equivalents
' [h]
, [.] Syllable break
. [ʔ] Glottal stop. This sound doesn't appear in Hindi. It is the pause/catch between some words/syllables, such as in the English phrase "uh-oh", or as represented in Khasi by the consonant h (written in Bengali/Assamese script as হ) when it appears at the end of word. It also appears before many Arabic words that begin with a, such as الله‎ ("Allah") and أغاني (agaani, meaning "songs").
a [ɑ] आ (not अ)
b [b] ब (not भ)
c [ʃ] preferred, [ʂ] acceptable श preferred, ष acceptable
d [d] or any variant ड, द (not ढ or ध)
e [ɛ], [e] ए (not ऐ)
f [f], [ɸ] फ (strictly फ़ [f]; the modern pronunciation of फ is somewhere between [f] and [ɸ], usually closer to [f], and is thus acceptable; whereas the historic/Sanskrit pronunciation is [pʰ], which maps to Lojban p, and thus is not acceptable)
g [g] ग (not घ)
i [i] ई (not इ). When the first letteral in a diphthong, equivalent to य, i.e. Lojban ia, ie, ii, io, iu are pronounced या, ये, यी, यो, यु/यू, respectively.
j [ʒ] झ़ (not झ), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword अझ़दहा (azhdahaa, meaning "dragon"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
k [k] क, ख
l [l]
m [m]
n [n] न (not ण)
o [o], [ɔ] ओ, औ
p [p] प (not फ)
r [r] preferred, [ɾ] acceptable र preferred, ड़ (not ड) acceptable
s [s]
t [t] or any variant ट, ठ, त, थ
u [u] उ, ऊ. When the first letteral in a diphthong, almost equivalent to व, i.e. Lojban ua, ue, ui, uo, uu are pronounced almost like वा, वे, वी, वो, वु/वू, respectively.
v [v] As in English "v" (not व [ʋ], which does not appear in Lojban). [v] is the typical (but not ubiquitous) pronunciation of व in व्रत; the upper lip and bottom teeth must meet to produce this sound. See here for more info.
x [x] ख़ (not ख), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword ख़ुश (khush, meaning "happy"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.
y [ə] The sound of अ (not आ) when it appears by the juxtaposition of consonants, e.g. the sound transliterated as a in कर kar, but notably not as in the start of अंदर/अन्दर andar, which is [ʌ].
z [z] ज़ (not ज), as in the Arabic pronunciation of the loanword मेज़ (mez, meaning "desk"). Usually difficult for native Hindi speakers.