Difference between revisions of "pronunciation guide in English"

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* (WaE) = [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_English Welsh English]
 
* (WaE) = [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_English Welsh English]
  
== Tables ==
+
== Phonology for all dialects ==
  
 
=== Vowels (preferred) ===
 
=== Vowels (preferred) ===
Line 26: Line 26:
 
| [ɛ]
 
| [ɛ]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-mid_front_unrounded_vowel Open-mid front unrounded vowel]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-mid_front_unrounded_vowel Open-mid front unrounded vowel]
|''e'' in ''b''<u>ed</u>
+
|''e'' in ''b''<u>ed</u>, dr<u>e</u>ss (GA)
 
|-
 
|-
! i
+
!i
| [i]
+
|[i]
 
|[[wikipedia:Close_front_unrounded_vowel|Close front unrounded vowel]]
 
|[[wikipedia:Close_front_unrounded_vowel|Close front unrounded vowel]]
|''ee'' in ''fr''<u>ee</u>
+
|''ee'' in ''fr''<u>ee</u>, b<u>ea</u>m (GA)
 
|-
 
|-
! o
+
!o
| [o]
+
|[o]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close-mid_back_rounded_vowel Close-mid back rounded vowel]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close-mid_back_rounded_vowel Close-mid back rounded vowel]
 
|''aw'' in y<u>aw</u>n (AuE), ''o'' in ''g''<u>o</u> (ScE)
 
|''aw'' in y<u>aw</u>n (AuE), ''o'' in ''g''<u>o</u> (ScE)
 
|-
 
|-
! u
+
!u
| [u]
+
|[u]
 
|[[wikipedia:Close_back_rounded_vowel|Close back rounded vowel]]
 
|[[wikipedia:Close_back_rounded_vowel|Close back rounded vowel]]
|''oo'' in ''b''<u>oo</u>''t''
+
|''oo'' in ''b''<u>oo</u>''t'', tr<u>ue</u> (GA)
 
|-
 
|-
! y
+
!y
| [ə]
+
|[ə]
 
|[[wikipedia:Mid-central_vowel|Mid-central vowel]]
 
|[[wikipedia:Mid-central_vowel|Mid-central vowel]]
 
|''a'' in <u>a</u>''bove''
 
|''a'' in <u>a</u>''bove''
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Vowels (allowed) ===
+
===Vowels (allowed) ===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
! scope="col" width="64px" | lojban
+
! scope="col" width="64px" |lojban
! scope="col" width="64px" | IPA
+
! scope="col" width="64px" |IPA
! scope="col" width="256px" | Names
+
! scope="col" width="256px" |Names
! scope="col" width="224px" | Examples
+
! scope="col" width="224px" |Examples
! scope="col" width="200px" | Notes
+
! scope="col" width="200px" |Notes
 
|-
 
|-
! a
+
!a
| [ɑ]
+
|[ɑ]
 
|[[wikipedia:Open_back_unrounded_vowel|Open back unrounded vowel]]
 
|[[wikipedia:Open_back_unrounded_vowel|Open back unrounded vowel]]
| ''a'' in f<u>a</u>ther
+
|''a'' in f<u>a</u>ther (GA)
 
|-
 
|-
! e
+
!e
| [e]
+
|[e]
 
|[[wikipedia:Close-mid_front_unrounded_vowel|Close-mid front unrounded vowel]]
 
|[[wikipedia:Close-mid_front_unrounded_vowel|Close-mid front unrounded vowel]]
 
|''ay'' in pl<u>ay</u> (ScE, not GA)
 
|''ay'' in pl<u>ay</u> (ScE, not GA)
 
| Be careful not to confuse with the diphthong '''ei'''!
 
| Be careful not to confuse with the diphthong '''ei'''!
 
|-
 
|-
! o
+
!o
 
| [ɔ]
 
| [ɔ]
 
|[[wikipedia:Open-mid_back_rounded_vowel|Open-mid back rounded vowel]]
 
|[[wikipedia:Open-mid_back_rounded_vowel|Open-mid back rounded vowel]]
 
|''o'' in n<u>o</u>t (AuE, not GA)
 
|''o'' in n<u>o</u>t (AuE, not GA)
 +
|
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Diphthongs ===
+
===Diphthongs===
 
A diphthong is a vowel sound that consists of two elements: a short vowel sound and a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semivowel glide]. A labial (IPA [w]) or palatal (IPA [j]) glide either precedes (an on-glide) or follows (an off-glide) the main vowel. Diphthongs always constitute a single syllable.
 
A diphthong is a vowel sound that consists of two elements: a short vowel sound and a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semivowel glide]. A labial (IPA [w]) or palatal (IPA [j]) glide either precedes (an on-glide) or follows (an off-glide) the main vowel. Diphthongs always constitute a single syllable.
  
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
! lojban
+
!lojban
! IPA
+
!IPA
! Examples
+
!Examples
 
|-
 
|-
! ai
+
!ai
| [aj]
+
|[aj]
| h<u>igh</u>, T<u>ai</u>pei
+
|h<u>igh</u>, T<u>ai</u>pei, pr<u>i</u>ze (GA)
 
|-
 
|-
! ei
+
!ei
 
| [ɛj]
 
| [ɛj]
| w<u>eigh</u>, Taip<u>ei</u>
+
|w<u>eigh</u>, Taip<u>ei</u>
 
|-
 
|-
! oi
+
!oi
| [oj]
+
|[oj]
| b<u>oy</u>
+
|b<u>oy</u>
 
|-
 
|-
! au
+
!au
| [aw]
+
|[aw]
| c<u>ow</u>
+
|c<u>ow</u>
 
|-
 
|-
! ia
+
!ia
| [ja]
+
|[ja]
| <u>ya</u>rd
+
|<u>ya</u>rd
 
|-
 
|-
! ie
+
!ie
| [jɛ]
+
|[jɛ]
| <u>ye</u>ll
+
|<u>ye</u>ll
 
|-
 
|-
! ii
+
!ii
| [ji]
+
|[ji]
 
|<u>ye</u>
 
|<u>ye</u>
 
|-
 
|-
! io
+
!io
| [jo]
+
|[jo]
 
| <u>yo</u>gurt
 
| <u>yo</u>gurt
 
|-
 
|-
! iu
+
!iu
| [ju]
+
|[ju]
| b<u>eau</u>ty
+
|b<u>eau</u>ty
 
|-
 
|-
! ua
+
!ua
| [wa]
+
|[wa]
| <u>wa</u>nder
+
|
 +
<u>wa</u>nder
 
|-
 
|-
! ue
+
!ue
| [wɛ]
+
|[wɛ]
| <u>we</u>ll
+
|<u>we</u>ll
 
|-
 
|-
! ui
+
!ui
| [wi]
+
|[wi]
| <u>we</u>ak
+
|<u>we</u>ak
 
|-
 
|-
! uo
+
!uo
| [wo]
+
|[wo]
 
| <u>woe</u>
 
| <u>woe</u>
 
|-
 
|-
! uu
+
!uu
| [wu]
+
|[wu]
| <u>woo</u>
+
|<u>woo</u>
 
|-
 
|-
! iy
+
!iy
| [jə]
+
|[jə]
|mill<u>io</u>n
+
| mill<u>io</u>n
 
|-
 
|-
! uy
+
!uy
| [wə]
+
|[wə]
| <u>wa</u>s (unstressed)
+
|<u>wa</u>s (unstressed)
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Sibilants ===
+
===Sibilants===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
! scope="col" width="64px" | lojban
+
! scope="col" width="64px" |lojban
! scope="col" width="64px" | IPA
+
! scope="col" width="64px" |IPA
! scope="col" width="256px" | Names
+
! scope="col" width="256px" |Names
! scope="col" width="224px" | Examples
+
! scope="col" width="224px" |Examples
 
|-
 
|-
! c
+
!c
| [ʃ]
+
|[ʃ]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_palato-alveolar_sibilant Voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_palato-alveolar_sibilant Voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant]
| sh in <u>sh</u>ape
+
|sh in <u>sh</u>ape
 
|-
 
|-
! j
+
!j
| [ʒ]
+
|[ʒ]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_palato-alveolar_sibilant Voiced palato-alveolar sibilant]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_palato-alveolar_sibilant Voiced palato-alveolar sibilant]
| s in mea<u>s</u>ure, j in dé<u>j</u>à vu
+
|s in mea<u>s</u>ure, j in dé<u>j</u>à vu
 
|-
 
|-
! s
+
!s
| [s]
+
|[s]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolar_fricative Voiceless alveolar sibilant]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolar_fricative Voiceless alveolar sibilant]
| s in <u>s</u>oon
+
|s in <u>s</u>oon
 
|-
 
|-
! z
+
!z
| [z]
+
|[z]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_alveolar_fricative Voiced alveolar sibilant]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_alveolar_fricative Voiced alveolar sibilant]
| z in <u>z</u>inc
+
|z in <u>z</u>inc
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Fricatives ===
+
===Fricatives===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
! scope="col" width="64px" | lojban
+
! scope="col" width="64px" |lojban
! scope="col" width="64px" | IPA
+
! scope="col" width="64px" |IPA
! scope="col" width="256px" | Names
+
! scope="col" width="256px" |Names
! scope="col" width="224px" | Examples
+
! scope="col" width="224px" |Examples
 
|-
 
|-
! f
+
!f
| [f]
+
|[f]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_labiodental_fricative Voiceless labiodental fricative]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_labiodental_fricative Voiceless labiodental fricative]
| f in <u>f</u>all
+
|f in <u>f</u>all
 
|-
 
|-
! v
+
!v
| [v]
+
|[v]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_labiodental_fricative Voiced labiodental fricative]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_labiodental_fricative Voiced labiodental fricative]
| v in <u>v</u>oice
+
|v in <u>v</u>oice
 
|-
 
|-
! x
+
!x
| [x]
+
|[x]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_velar_fricative Voiceless velar fricative]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_velar_fricative Voiceless velar fricative]
| ch in lo<u>ch</u> (ScE)
+
|ch in lo<u>ch</u> (ScE)
 
|-
 
|-
 
!<nowiki>'</nowiki>
 
!<nowiki>'</nowiki>
| [h]
+
|[h]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_glottal_fricative Voiceless glottal fricative]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_glottal_fricative Voiceless glottal fricative]
| h in <u>h</u>ose
+
|h in <u>h</u>ose
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Affricates ===
+
===Affricates===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
! scope="col" width="64px" | lojban
+
! scope="col" width="64px" |lojban
! scope="col" width="64px" | IPA
+
! scope="col" width="64px" |IPA
! scope="col" width="256px" | Names
+
! scope="col" width="256px" |Names
! scope="col" width="224px" | Examples
+
! scope="col" width="224px" |Examples
 
|-
 
|-
! dj
+
!dj
| [dʒ]
+
|[dʒ]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_palato-alveolar_affricate Voiced palato-alveolar affricate]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_palato-alveolar_affricate Voiced palato-alveolar affricate]
| j in <u>j</u>oke
+
|j in <u>j</u>oke
 
|-
 
|-
! tc
+
!tc
| [tʃ]
+
|[tʃ]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_palato-alveolar_affricate Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_palato-alveolar_affricate Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate]
| ch in <u>ch</u>at
+
|ch in <u>ch</u>at
 
|-
 
|-
! dz
+
!dz
| [ʣ]
+
|[ʣ]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_alveolar_affricate Voiced alveolar affricate]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_alveolar_affricate Voiced alveolar affricate]
| ds in pa<u>ds</u>
+
|ds in pa<u>ds</u>
 
|-
 
|-
 
! ts
 
! ts
| [ʦ]
+
|[ʦ]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolar_affricate Voiceless alveolar affricate]
 
|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolar_affricate Voiceless alveolar affricate]
| ts in ca<u>ts</u>
+
|ts in ca<u>ts</u>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Rhotics===
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 +
!lojban
 +
!IPA
 +
!Examples
 +
|-
 +
!r
 +
|[r], [ɹ], [ɾ], [ʀ], [r̩], [ɹ̩], [ɾ̩], [ʀ̩]
 +
|<u>r</u>ock
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Rhotics ===
+
===Nasals===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
! lojban
+
!lojban
! IPA
+
!IPA
 
! Examples
 
! Examples
 
|-
 
|-
! r
+
!n
| [r], [ɹ], [ɾ], [ʀ], [], [ɹ̩], [ɾ̩], [ʀ̩]
+
|[n], [], [ŋ̍], [ŋ̩]
| <u>r</u>ock
+
|<u>n</u>ose
 +
|-
 +
!m
 +
|[m], []
 +
|<u>m</u>ove
 +
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Nasals ===
+
===Approximants===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
! lojban
+
!lojban
 +
!IPA
 +
!Examples
 +
|-
 +
!l
 +
|[l], [l̩]
 +
|''l'' in <u>l</u>ake
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Stops===
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 +
!lojban
 
! IPA
 
! IPA
 
! Examples
 
! Examples
 
|-
 
|-
! n
+
!b
| [n], [n̩], [ŋ̍], [ŋ̩]
+
| [b]
| <u>n</u>ose
+
|<u>b</u>ottle
 
|-
 
|-
! m
+
!d
| [m], [m̩]
+
|[d]
| <u>m</u>ove
+
|
 +
<u>d</u>ance
 
|-
 
|-
 +
!g
 +
|[g]
 +
|<u>g</u>oose
 +
|-
 +
!k
 +
|[k]
 +
|<u>k</u>een
 +
|-
 +
!p
 +
|[p]
 +
|<u>p</u>owder
 +
|-
 +
!t
 +
|[t]
 +
|<u>t</u>ime
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Approximants ===
+
==Phonology for GA speakers==
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
! lojban
+
!lojban
! IPA
+
!IPA
 
! Examples
 
! Examples
 
|-
 
|-
! l
+
!'
| [l], []
+
|[h]
| <u>l</u> in lake
+
|''h'' in <u>h</u>am
 +
|-
 +
!.
 +
|[ʔ]
 +
|the catch in your throat that sometimes occurs prior to the beginning of a word (and sometimes a syllable) which starts with a vowel.
 +
In some kinds of American English, it is used between vowels instead of “t” : “bottle” [boʔl̩].
 +
 
 +
The English interjection “uh-oh!” almost always has it between the syllables.
 +
|-
 +
!a
 +
|[ɑ]
 +
|''a'' in f<u>a</u>ther
 +
|-
 +
!b
 +
|[b]
 +
|''b'' in <u>b</u>ottle
 +
|-
 +
!c
 +
|[ʃ]
 +
|''sh'' in <u>sh</u>ape
 +
|-
 +
!d
 +
|[d]
 +
|''d'' in <u>d</u>ance
 +
|-
 +
!e
 +
|[ɛ]
 +
|''e'' in dr<u>e</u>ss
 +
|-
 +
!f
 +
|[f]
 +
|''f'' in <u>f</u>all
 +
|-
 +
!g
 +
|[g]
 +
|''g'' in <u>g</u>oose
 +
|-
 +
!i
 +
|[i]
 +
|''ea'' in b<u>ea</u>m
 +
|-
 +
!j
 +
|[ʒ]
 +
|s in mea<u>s</u>ure, j in dé<u>j</u>à vu
 +
|-
 +
!k
 +
|[k]
 +
|''k'' in <u>k</u>een
 +
|-
 +
!l
 +
|[l]
 +
|''l'' in <u>l</u>ake
 +
|-
 +
!m
 +
|[m]
 +
|''m'' in <u>m</u>ove
 +
|-
 +
!n
 +
|[n]
 +
|''n'' in <u>n</u>ose
 +
|-
 +
!o
 +
|[o]
 +
|''au'' as in the French « haute » or ''o'' in the Spanish “c<u>o</u>mo”. No exact GA equivalent
 +
|-
 +
!p
 +
|[p]
 +
|''p'' in <u>p</u>owder
 +
|-
 +
!r
 +
|[ɹ], [r̩]
 +
|''r'' in <u>r</u>ight, ''r'' in bi<u>r</u>d
 +
|-
 +
!s
 +
|[s]
 +
|''s'' in <u>s</u>oon
 +
|-
 +
!t
 +
|[t]
 +
|''t'' in <u>t</u>ime
 +
|-
 +
!u
 +
|[u]
 +
|''ou'' as in the French « b<u>ou</u>le » or <u>u</u> in the German „St<u>u</u>hl“. No exact GA equivalent
 +
|-
 +
!v
 +
|[v]
 +
|''v'' in <u>v</u>oice
 +
|-
 +
!x
 +
|[x]
 +
|''ch'' in the German „A<u>ch</u>-Laut“
 +
|-
 +
!y
 +
|[ə]
 +
|totally relaxed sound made with the tongue in the middle of the mouth
 +
|-
 +
!z
 +
|[z]
 +
|''z'' in <u>z</u>oo
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Stops ===
+
=== Diphthongs ===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
! lojban
+
!lojban
! IPA
+
!IPA
! Examples
+
!Examples
 +
|-
 +
!ai
 +
|[aj]
 +
|''i'' in br<u>i</u>de
 +
|-
 +
!ei
 +
| [ɛj]
 +
|''ay'' in st<u>ay</u>
 +
|-
 +
!oi
 +
|[ɔj]
 +
|''oy'' in b<u>oy</u>
 +
|-
 +
!au
 +
|[aw]
 +
|''ow'' in n<u>ow</u>
 +
|-
 +
!ia
 +
|[jɑ]
 +
|''ya'' in <u>ya</u>rd
 +
|-
 +
!ie
 +
|[jɛ]
 +
|''ye'' in <u>ye</u>s
 +
|-
 +
!ii
 +
|[ji]
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
!io
 +
|[jo]
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
!iu
 +
|[ju]
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
!ua
 +
|[wa]
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
! b
+
!ue
| [b]
+
|[]
| <u>b</u>ottle
+
|
 
|-
 
|-
! d
+
!ui
| [d]
+
|[wi]
| <u>d</u>ance
+
|
 
|-
 
|-
! g
+
!uo
| [g]
+
|[wo]
| <u>g</u>oose
+
|  
 
|-
 
|-
! k
+
!uu
| [k]
+
|[wu]
| <u>k</u>een
+
|
 
|-
 
|-
! p
+
!iy
| [p]
+
|[]
| <u>p</u>owder
+
|  
 
|-
 
|-
! t
+
!uy
| [t]
+
|[]
| <u>t</u>ime
+
|
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==External Links==
 
==External Links==
  
* [http://lojban.github.io/cll/3/10/ Notes on IPA symbols used here.]
+
*[http://lojban.github.io/cll/3/10/ Notes on IPA symbols used here.]
* [http://lojban.github.io/cll/3/2/ Alphabet]
+
*[http://lojban.github.io/cll/3/2/ Alphabet]
* [http://lojban.github.io/cll/3/4/ Diphthongs]
+
*[http://lojban.github.io/cll/3/4/ Diphthongs]
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_phonology English phonology]
+
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_phonology English phonology]
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet_chart_for_English_dialects International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects]
+
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet_chart_for_English_dialects International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects]

Latest revision as of 17:59, 29 March 2021

Tags

Examples are tagged with an English dialect. Any example that is not tagged is considered "General American" (GA).

Tags currently used:

Phonology for all dialects

Vowels (preferred)

lojban IPA Names Examples
a [a] Open front unrounded vowel a in hat (WaE)
e [ɛ] Open-mid front unrounded vowel e in bed, dress (GA)
i [i] Close front unrounded vowel ee in free, beam (GA)
o [o] Close-mid back rounded vowel aw in yawn (AuE), o in go (ScE)
u [u] Close back rounded vowel oo in boot, true (GA)
y [ə] Mid-central vowel a in above

Vowels (allowed)

lojban IPA Names Examples Notes
a [ɑ] Open back unrounded vowel a in father (GA)
e [e] Close-mid front unrounded vowel ay in play (ScE, not GA) Be careful not to confuse with the diphthong ei!
o [ɔ] Open-mid back rounded vowel o in not (AuE, not GA)

Diphthongs

A diphthong is a vowel sound that consists of two elements: a short vowel sound and a glide. A labial (IPA [w]) or palatal (IPA [j]) glide either precedes (an on-glide) or follows (an off-glide) the main vowel. Diphthongs always constitute a single syllable.

lojban IPA Examples
ai [aj] high, Taipei, prize (GA)
ei [ɛj] weigh, Taipei
oi [oj] boy
au [aw] cow
ia [ja] yard
ie [jɛ] yell
ii [ji] ye
io [jo] yogurt
iu [ju] beauty
ua [wa]

wander

ue [wɛ] well
ui [wi] weak
uo [wo] woe
uu [wu] woo
iy [jə] million
uy [wə] was (unstressed)

Sibilants

lojban IPA Names Examples
c [ʃ] Voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant sh in shape
j [ʒ] Voiced palato-alveolar sibilant s in measure, j in déjà vu
s [s] Voiceless alveolar sibilant s in soon
z [z] Voiced alveolar sibilant z in zinc

Fricatives

lojban IPA Names Examples
f [f] Voiceless labiodental fricative f in fall
v [v] Voiced labiodental fricative v in voice
x [x] Voiceless velar fricative ch in loch (ScE)
' [h] Voiceless glottal fricative h in hose

Affricates

lojban IPA Names Examples
dj [dʒ] Voiced palato-alveolar affricate j in joke
tc [tʃ] Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate ch in chat
dz [ʣ] Voiced alveolar affricate ds in pads
ts [ʦ] Voiceless alveolar affricate ts in cats

Rhotics

lojban IPA Examples
r [r], [ɹ], [ɾ], [ʀ], [r̩], [ɹ̩], [ɾ̩], [ʀ̩] rock

Nasals

lojban IPA Examples
n [n], [n̩], [ŋ̍], [ŋ̩] nose
m [m], [m̩] move

Approximants

lojban IPA Examples
l [l], [l̩] l in lake

Stops

lojban IPA Examples
b [b] bottle
d [d]

dance

g [g] goose
k [k] keen
p [p] powder
t [t] time

Phonology for GA speakers

lojban IPA Examples
' [h] h in ham
. [ʔ] the catch in your throat that sometimes occurs prior to the beginning of a word (and sometimes a syllable) which starts with a vowel.

In some kinds of American English, it is used between vowels instead of “t” : “bottle” [boʔl̩].

The English interjection “uh-oh!” almost always has it between the syllables.

a [ɑ] a in father
b [b] b in bottle
c [ʃ] sh in shape
d [d] d in dance
e [ɛ] e in dress
f [f] f in fall
g [g] g in goose
i [i] ea in beam
j [ʒ] s in measure, j in déjà vu
k [k] k in keen
l [l] l in lake
m [m] m in move
n [n] n in nose
o [o] au as in the French « haute » or o in the Spanish “como”. No exact GA equivalent
p [p] p in powder
r [ɹ], [r̩] r in right, r in bird
s [s] s in soon
t [t] t in time
u [u] ou as in the French « boule » or u in the German „Stuhl“. No exact GA equivalent
v [v] v in voice
x [x] ch in the German „Ach-Laut“
y [ə] totally relaxed sound made with the tongue in the middle of the mouth
z [z] z in zoo

Diphthongs

lojban IPA Examples
ai [aj] i in bride
ei [ɛj] ay in stay
oi [ɔj] oy in boy
au [aw] ow in now
ia [jɑ] ya in yard
ie [jɛ] ye in yes
ii [ji]
io [jo]
iu [ju]
ua [wa]
ue [wɛ]
ui [wi]
uo [wo]
uu [wu]
iy [jə]
uy [wə]

External Links