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''For a full list of issues, see '''[[zo'ei la'e "lu ju'i lobypli li'u"]]'''.''<br/>
''Previous issue: '''[[me lu ju'i lobypli li'u 15 moi]]'''.''<br/>
''Next issue: '''[[me lu ju'i lobypli li'u 17 moi]]'''.''
<pre style="text-align: center">
Number 16 - May-June 1992
Copyright 1992, The Logical Language Group, Inc.
2904 Beau Lane, Fairfax VA 22031 USA (703)385-0273
Permission granted to copy, without charge to recipient, when for purpose of promotion of Loglan/Lojban.
JUNE 26-28 AND AUGUST 14-17, 1992
ju'i lobypli (JL) is the quarterly journal of The Logical Language Group, Inc., known in these pages as la lojbangirz. la lojbangirz. is a non-profit organization formed for the purpose of completing and spreading the logical human language "Lojban - A Realization of Loglan" (commonly called "Lojban"), and informing the community about logical languages in general.
la lojbangirz. is a non-profit organization under Section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code. Your donations (not contributions to your voluntary balance) are tax-deductible on U.S. and most state income taxes. Donors are notified at the end of each year of their total deductible donations.
For purposes of terminology, "Lojban" refers to a specific version of a logical human language, the generic language and associated research project having been called "Loglan" since its invention by Dr. James Cooke Brown in 1954. Statements referring to "Loglan/Lojban" refer to both the generic language and to Lojban as a specific instance of that language. The Lojban version of Loglan was created as an alternative because Dr. Brown and his organization claims copyright on everything in his version, including each individual word of the vocabulary. The Lojban vocabulary and grammar and all language definition materials, by contrast, are public domain. Anyone may freely use Lojban for any purpose without permission or royalty. la lojbangirz. believes that such free usage is a necessary condition for an engineered language like Loglan/Lojban to become a true human language, and to succeed in the various goals that have been proposed for its use.
Page count this issue: 48 + 40 enclosures = 88 ($8.80 North America, $10.56 elsewhere). Press run for this issue of ju'i lobypli: 265. We now have about 726 people receiving our publications, and 240 more awaiting textbook publication.
''' Your Mailing Label '''
Your mailing label reports your current mailing status, and your current voluntary balance including this issue. Please notify us of changes in your activity/interest level. Balances reflect contributions received thru 30 May 1992. Mailing codes (and approximate balance needs) are:
Activity/Interest Level:                        Highest Package       
Received (Price Each)                          Other flags:         
B - Observer    0 - Introductory Materials ($5)  JL JL Subscription 
C - Active Supporter                            1 - Word Lists and   
Language Description ($15)                      (followed by         
expiration issue #)                                                   
D - Lojban Student                              2 - Language Design   
Information ($10)                              * indicates           
subscription prepaid                                                 
E - Lojban Practitioner                        3 - Draft Teaching   
Materials ($30)  LK LK Subscription ($5/yr)                           
                                                R  Review Copy (no   
                                                UP Automatic Updates 
Please keep us informed of changes in your mailing address, and US subscribers are asked to provide ZIP+4 codes whenever you know them.
''' Contents of This Issue '''
Important: Due to financial constraints, ju'i lobypli is converting to a full subscription basis, starting with the next issue (JL17). Please read the section on subscriptions for details.
It's been a while since last issue, as we attempted to get our finances back on an even keel. Our financial health plan is taking effect, and we expect future issues of JL to resume quarterly appearance (if you are a subscriber, of course). (I also want to apologize to people who have had to wait an excessively long time for materials ordered during the last 6 months. Hopefully the order backlog will have been corrected when you get this issue.)
As will usually be the case, this issue contains much material derived from the Lojban List computer mailing list on the Internet. Nearly all such material has been edited, revised, and corrected from the original.
We continue to be flooded with Lojban text from several writers, and some of this material will be found in this issue.
Several pieces in this issue relate to Lojban and computer applications, and our first research proposal is reprinted.
The main body of this issue will be short, because we are including two long enclosures: a major paper by John Cowan on Lojban tense structures, and a major revision/improvement of the Diagrammed Summary of Lojban Grammar Forms, which is becoming the mainstay of our introductory materials. Some of the material originally prepared for this issue, including about 10 pages of discussion of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, will be delayed until JL17 (which, having this extra preparation done, is much more likely to come out on time!)
                          Table of Contents                       
Brief Glossary of Lojban Terms                                ---3
  Subscriptions and Finances                                  ---3
  Athelstan Injured                                          ---4
  Language Education                                          ---5
  Electronic Distribution                                    ---5
  Logfest 92                                                  ---7
  Language Development Status                                ---8
  Status of Products                                          --12
  Schedule                                                    --19
  Using the Language                                          --19
  Research Using Lojban                                      --20
  International News/Publicity                                --21
  News From the Institute                                    --21
                      Number 16 - May-June 1992
le lojbo se ciska                        --22, 25, 31, 35, 37, 41
          Copyright 1992, The Logical Language Group, Inc.
Text of the Court of Appeals Decision                        --23
          2904 Beau Lane, Fairfax VA 22031 USA (703)385-0273
lei lojbo                                                    --26
  Permission granted to copy, without charge to recipient, when for
la lojbangirz.'s First Research Proposal                      --27
                purpose of promotion of Loglan/Lojban.
DLT - Esperanto-based Machine Translation                    --34
A Lojbanic Cultural Allegory                                  --36
Morphology Algorithm                                          --39
Translations of le lojbo se ciska                            --42
Next Issue                                                    --46
Sample Pages from Forthcoming Dictionary                      --46
''' Computer Net Information '''
Via Usenet/UUCP/Internet, you can send messages and text files (including things for JL publication) to la lojbangirz./Bob at: (This is a new address and supersedes the prior "snark" address.)
You can also join the Lojban List mailing list (currently around 80 subscribers). Send a single line message (automatically processed) containing only:
"subscribe lojban yourfirstname yourlastname" to: listserv@cuvmb.
If you have problems needing human intervention, send to:
Send traffic for the mailing list to:
Please keep us informed if your network mailing address changes.
Compuserve subscribers can also participate. Precede any of the above addresses with INTERNET: and use your normal Compuserve mail facility. If you want to participate on Lojban List, you should be prepared to read your mail at least every couple of days; otherwise your mailbox fills up and you are dropped from the mailing-list. FIDOnet subscribers can also participate, although the connection is not especially robust. Write to us for details if you don't know how to access the Internet network.
Whether you wish to participate in the news-group or not, it is useful for us to know your Compuserve or Usenet/Internet address.
We've been requested to more explicitly identify people who are referred to by initials in JL, and will regularly do so in this spot, immediately before the news section. Note that 'Athelstan' is that person's real name, used in his public life, and is not a pseudonym. 'pc' - Dr. John Parks-Clifford, Professor of Logic and Philosophy at the University of Missouri - St. Louis and Vice-President of la lojbangirz.; he is usually addressed as 'pc' by the community.
'Bob', 'lojbab' - Bob LeChevalier - President of la lojbangirz., and editor of ju'i lobypli and le lojbo karni.
'Nora' - Nora LeChevalier - Secretary/Treasurer of la lojbangirz., Bob's wife, author of LogFlash.
'JCB', 'Dr. Brown' - Dr. James Cooke Brown, inventor of the language, and founder of the Loglan project.
'The Institute', 'TLI' - The Loglan Institute, Inc., JCB's organization for spreading his version of Loglan, which we call 'Institute Loglan'.
'Loglan' - This refers to the generic language or language project, of which 'Lojban' is the most successful version, and 'Institute Loglan' another. 'Loglan/Lojban' is used in discussions about Lojban where we wish to make it particularly clear that the statement applies to the generic language as well.
'PLS' - The Planned Languages Server, a no-charge computer-network-accessed distribution center for materials on Lojban (and other artificial languages).
== Brief Glossary of Lojban ==
Terms Following are definitions of frequently used Lojban terms. More complete explanations of the following are in the Overview of Lojban.
cmavo - Lojban structure words
gismu - Lojban root words; currently 1337;
rafsi - affix combining forms for the gismu;
lujvo - compound words built from rafsi;
le'avla - words borrowed from other languages;
brivla - Lojban predicate words, consisting of gismu, lujvo. and le'avla.
tanru - Lojban metaphors, the most productive and creative expression form of the language;
sumti - the arguments of a logical predicate;
selbri - Lojban predicates which indicate a relation among one or more sumti. A selbri is most often a brivla or tanru; formerly called "kunbri" in error;
bridi - Lojban predications, the basic grammatical structure of the language; a bridi expresses a complete relationship: the selbri expresses the relation and the sumti express the various things being related;
selma'o - grammatical categories of Lojban words; the basis of the unambiguous formal grammar of the language. Traditionally and erroneously called "lexeme" in the Loglan community. These categories typically have a name derived from one word in that grammatical category; the name is all capitals, except that an apostrophe is replaced by a small letter 'h'.
== News ==
=== Subscriptions and Finances ===
This may be your last issue of ju'i lobypli.
We are converting JL to a subscription basis. This is the last issue sent to those not explicitly requesting (and in most cases paying for) a subscription.
At this point some 65 people have returned forms requesting a subscription. Perhaps half of these have sufficient balances to cover their subscription price.
Our new special fund for 'scholarship subscriptions' will not allow us to support more than a few people on a non-paying basis, and these free subscriptions will be reserved for those who are actively working in the language, but cannot pay (mostly international supporters).
So here's where things stand:
* For US and Canadian subscribers, the subscription price will be US$28 for 4 issues (hopefully 1 year - but our commitment will be for a number of issues rather than a date, just in case). For those in other countries, the subscription price will be US$35 for 4 issues.
* If you have not returned a subscription form, and have a negative balance worse than $-10 after deducting for JL16 (this issue), your mailing label will have a "JL 16" on it indicating that your 'subscription' expires with the current issue. We must receive a signed subscription request form and enough money to cover the subscription price AND at least 1/2 of your negative balance. If you cannot afford this amount, you may request scholarship assistance on the subscription form, but you will be lowest priority for such subscriptions unless you are a very active volunteer. Contributing some of the amount required will raise your priority considerably.
* If you have not returned a subscription form, and have between $-10 and $10 in your balance after deducting for JL16 (this issue), your mailing label will have a "JL 16" on it indicating that your 'subscription' expires with the current issue. We must receive a signed subscription request form and enough money to cover the subscription price. If you cannot afford this amount, you may request scholarship assistance on the subscription form. Contributing some of the amount required will raise your priority considerably.
* If you have not returned a subscription form, and have more than $10 in your balance after deducting for JL16 (this issue), your mailing label will have a number between "JL 17" and "JL 20" on it indicating that your subscription expires with the indicated issue. Your balance will be deducted at a rate of $10 per issue (substantially above the subscription price for US and Canada recipients, less so for overseas recipients), for up to 4 issues, until your balance drops below $10, or until we receive a form and/or other instructions from you. You will be given the lower-priced 4-issue subscription rate when we receive your signed subscription request form (and preferably enough money to raise your balance above the subscription minimum). If you cannot afford the subscription amount, you may request scholarship assistance on the subscription form. You will receive highest priority after the most active volunteers to gain such assistance to fill out your balance to a 4-issue subscription.
* If you have returned a subscription form and have more than $10 in your balance after deducting for JL16 (this issue), your mailing label will have a number between "JL 17" and "JL 20" on it; your subscription expires with the indicated issue. You have either been given a full four-issue subscription (if there is enough in your balance to cover the price), or a partial-year subscription prorated to your balance amount ($7/issue for US/Canada). The subscription price has been deducted from your balance, and an "*" on the mailing label indicates that your subscription has been paid. You need do nothing to continue receiving JL; we will notify you by direct mail prior to your last subscription issue for renewal.
* If you have returned a subscription form and have less than $10 in your balance after deducting for JL16 (this issue), and you sent at least $40 in balance contributions between 1 Dec. 1991 and 15 April 1992, your mailing label will have "JL 20" on it. You have been given a full four-issue subscription. The subscription price has been deducted from your balance, and an "*" on the mailing label indicates that your subscription has been paid. You need do nothing to continue receiving JL; we will notify you prior to your last subscription issue for renewal.
* If you have returned a subscription form and have less than $10 in your balance after deducting for JL16 (this issue), and you have sent less than $40 in balance contributions since 1 December 1991, your mailing label will have a number between "JL 17" and "JL 19" on it indicating that your subscription expires with the indicated issue. You been given a part-year subscription. We have deducted the cost of this issue from your contribution (if any), and determined your prorated subscription period based on 1/2 of the remaining contribution (if any), with a minimum of 1 issue. The amount of the subscription has been deducted from your balance, and an "*" on the mailing label indicates that your subscription has been paid. You need do nothing to continue receiving JL; we will notify you prior to your last subscription issue for renewal. However, we ask that you contribute to bring your balance positive if possible.
* If you have returned a subscription form and asked for scholarship support for your subscription: we have not yet decided who will get such support, but given the above policy, you will at least receive JL17.
* If you are an overseas recipient of JL, then you are slated to receive at least through "JL 17" since you have received no chance to send in a subscription request form until now. Your balance will be charged $10 for JL17 if we have not received a form prior to that issue.
* When you stop receiving JL after the subscription expiration issue, you will automatically be switched to a subscription to the newsletter le lojbo karni (LK - subscription price of around $5 per year). We expect to cull the LK mailing list after the next fund-raising mailer, dropping those people with balances less than $-30.
We haven't yet received enough subscription forms to justify applying for a 2nd class postage (though we are close). The highest subscription price has been selected because we'll have to pay 1st class/air mail postage rates for at least one issue, as well as at least $275 to obtain the 2nd class permit (about $4 for each subscriber) that will allow us to save postage costs thereafter.
Final financial results from last year - Our 1991 income totalled $14,462.59, with expenses of $14,746.31, for a net loss on the year of about $300. Of that amount $10,725.73 was donations (around $6000 of this was from Lojbab and Nora). In total, only $3700 was contributed toward balances from over 850 people on our mailing list. Only through our end-of-year fund-raiser did we even do this well. We received $2500 during the last 20 days of December, much of it as a result of the fund-raising drive, reducing us from a deficit of over $2000 for the year that might have crippled us.
At the end of 1991, we owed about $5800 in legal fees on the trademark battle, which we're repaying at $500 per month. This is taking every penny that Lojbab, Nora and Jeff Prothero, who are financing the legal fees, can contribute. We must count on the rest of you to keep the organization going financially.
Status this year - So far in 1992, we're losing money. Up to now, against some $2500 in income, we've spent around $2800; JL16 and LK16 will cost another $1200, and we have over $1500 precommitted towards future JL subscriptions. Thus, we expect to need another fund-raising drive within a couple of months. I hope to tie such a fund-raiser to the announcement of the first Lojban book. But please don't wait until then. Contribute now! We don't know yet how we will finance book publication, which will cost several thousand dollars.
Our Numbers - Support for Lojban continues to grow at an outstanding rate; we lose few people (mostly people who move and forget to tell us their new address), while averaging 1 new person every 2-3 days for the last year.
Following are our numbers by level of interest and subscription, as of this publication (numbers in parentheses include multiple persons per address):
Level E - Practitioner (people who have actually produced Lojban text, are actively working with the language, and receiving materials from us) - 13 (17)
<br />Level D - Lojban Student - 95 (113)
<br />Level C - Active Observer - 139 (149)
<br />Level B - Inactive Observer - 627 (663)
<br />JL16 subscribers - 241 (272)
<br />JL17 subscribers - 114 (130)
<br />JL subscription request returned - 66 (72)
<br />Prepaid beyond JL17 - 55 (61)
<br />LK subscribers
<br />Total active mailing list 897 (965)
=== Athelstan Injured ===
Our efforts on Lojban here in the Washington DC area were dealt a severe blow at the end of February. Athelstan, one of la lojbangirz.'s Directors, received a head injury in an auto accident, causing severe brain damage. He was in a coma for over 2 weeks, but has made good progress since. Early in April, he was transferred to a rehabilitation hospital, where he is slowly regaining memory and living skills; he is expected to remain in the hospital until at least mid-July. Regaining his full abilities is uncertain, and doing so will take many more months, if not years.
Athelstan was one of the most skilled of Lojbanists, and a major participant in our weekly conversation sessions here in the DC area. We have had to change from conversation sessions to teaching, reading, and translations sessions; the 3 remaining conversation-skilled people (Nora, Lojbab, and Sylvia Rutiser) are not enough 'critical mass' to keep conversations lively and interesting.
We've also lost Athelstan's contribution to the endless work that is being done around here. Athelstan had written up his oft-taught mini-lesson in text form, and was in the middle of revising it for publication when the accident occurred. I may be able to finish it, but not quickly - too much else to do. Athelstan was also one of the principal reviewers of ju'i lobypli and other la lojbangirz. publications that I and others write; we can only hope that the quality of our products is sustained without his excellent efforts at catching typos and more serious technical errors.
The good news is that it appears that the damage has not destroyed Athelstan's capacity for language, nor his interest in Lojban. In mid-April, he responded to my "coi. .atlstan." with a hearty "coi." in return. At the end of our otherwise English-language visit, I asked him if he remembered how to say goodbye; with only minimal hesitation, he came back with a confident "co'o."
Given my close friendship with Athelstan, I have had to undertake commitments in helping his family and other friends support his recovery; this has taken a fair amount of time away from Lojban, though I now seem to be back in control of my schedule. Indeed, the incentive of knowing how fragile our effort is while so few of us know the details of the language seems to have remotivated me to get the community of Lojbanists who are expert in the language up to a self-sustaining level. Even amidst tragedy, there can be growth and progress.
=== Language Education ===
DC Class - Even before Athelstan's accident, we needed to build up the activity of the local Lojban community. Now, local teaching activities are even more vital. As such, starting in June, we'll be trying to organize a new Lojban class here in the Washington DC area. The class will probably meet in Fairfax VA (although a Rockville MD location is also being considered), on a weekly basis starting near the end of June and last throughout the summer. A principal goal will be to raise the students' skill level so that they can confidently participate in in-language activities in the August LogFest, and be able to continue in Lojban conversation sessions or translation activities after the class ends.
Needless to say, if you will be in the DC area this summer, and are interested in participating in such a class, please contact me at the masthead address or telephone, or via electronic mail per page 2.
Other education efforts - Most of our education efforts in the last several months have been through electronic mail on the computer networks. I've been able to delegate much of this teaching effort out to other Lojbanists who are active on Lojban List, and the numbers and competency of those attempting to write on Lojban List has continued to grow with each passing month.
The network has also served as a testing ground for new teaching materials. Athelstan's draft text version of his mini-lesson (see below) was tried out by about 2 dozen people who returned comments and answers to exercises. These will be lead to a significantly revised and improved version for publication.
Similarly, a draft of the Diagrammed Examples paper enclosed with this issue has been extensively distributed on the networks (as well as to many new mail order Lojbanists) during the last 6 months. French-Australian linguist Jacques Guy finally culminated this review with some enormously detailed comments, leading to the major revision and expansion included with this issue.
Even before this final version, the Diagrammed Examples, with explanatory text, has proved in recent months to be the most significant learning aid to new Lojbanists actually attempting to learn to use the language. Several Lojbanists used only this paper and word lists (that were generally obtained by electronic distribution per the next section), to self-teach themselves to the level of being able to translate Lojban text written by more experienced Lojbanists. Then, with a few such efforts to give them experience, we have seen these Lojbanists start to write in Lojban, making relatively few and minor errors given the lack of a full teaching text. (Those who have study the draft textbook and/or used LogFlash have done still better, but the effectiveness of this relatively brief description has astounded several of us to the point of motivating this new version.)
=== Electronic Distribution ===
What is available and how - The electronic distribution policy announced last issue has been implemented, more-or-less. We have been unable to place JL and LK back-issues and a few other longer materials on the Planned Languages Server - our primary electronic distribution point. We have also been unable to implement the file verification program that we intended because of incompatibilities between computer systems that causes such techniques to fail.
In spite of this, there is now a lot of material available electronically, including most of the now public domain language definition materials like word lists and formal grammars. I've been told that some of this material has been transferred to Compuserve, and I'm hoping that more will be moved to that network, as well as to Genie and other public computer networks. (Let us know if you do so, and what stuff you are posting where, so we can report accurately to the community as to what is available).
Following is a list of all materials (and their filenames) available on the Planned Languages Server as of this publication date, and instructions for obtaining them from the Server.
This is an updated version of the file posted to the PLS entitled "readme" which includes an annotated and categorized index to all files on the list.
Following the "readme" file is an abbreviated set of instructions for obtaining files from the server. Send the one line message 'help' to:
to get the full help listing. While you can put multiple requests in a file, my experience has been that if there is any error on any command, the entire set is disregarded. I would therefore suggest getting 1 file at a time until you are sure what you are doing.
"gismu.lst" is the official, public domain baseline that many Lojbanists already possess in printed form. It has 40-character definitions of the Lojban gismu, and has been relatively unchanged for a few years now. Only minor corrections have been put into the posted file, and the 20 new words adopted last year were never added.
"logdata.raw" is a preliminary version of the new gismu list baseline. I intend the new baseline to take effect shortly after the publication of JL16, hopefully within a month. I would recommend using the current "logdata.raw" file, and ignoring the "gismu.lst" file, UNLESS it is vital to you to be using a public domain version. We won't object to any copying of the still copyrighted draft as long as the copyright notice and the notice that it is a draft stays intact with the file. To all intents and purposes, the old 40-character file is obsolete. I would recommend that any new text be written using the "logdata.raw" place structures. (All text in this issue probably presumes this newer version.)
Questions on any file? Contact Bob LeChevalier at the masthead address or via:
See the file "epolicy.txt" for a more complete explanation of la lojbangirz. electronic distribution policy. We ask that users of these files consider donating money for the support of The Logical Language Group, Inc. We are a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization and such donations are tax-deductible in the US, to the extent they exceed the price of things we send you. While it costs us little for you to get a copy of the files on this archive, the network is not free. la lojbangirz. spent some $2000 during 1991 on network access, supporting Lojban List, this archive, and responding to people like you. We do not make a profit on our printed materials, so it is your donations that will allow us to continue to serve the network community of Lojbanists and people curious about Lojban.
The files listed following are the official postings of The Logical Language Group, Inc. on this server. All other postings should be considered unsanctioned, and possibly incorrect.
Language design materials are explicitly listed here and in the documents themselves as being in the public domain. All other documents are copyrighted under the same heading listed above for this document.
Note on file names. All file names ending with ".unf" may contain lines up to about 120 characters long. Original documents published by la lojbangirz. are formatted using longer than 80 character lines, and this wider line-length was determined to give a more readable text when that formatting was removed. File names ending with ".txt" are generally under 80 characters in width. Other file name extensions have no implication.
Many files are compressed using a rather simplistic program that tabifies every 8 characters INCLUDING A SINGLE SPACE IN A 0 MOD 8 POSITION. We have since learned that some tab expanders will take a TAB in a 0 mod 8 position and expand it to 9 spaces instead of 1. This could cause you problems, which hopefully this notice will help you correct if it affects you. We consider this a failed experiment: when we next send data to PLS for uploading we will send files without the tab compression, but this may be a few months.
The PLS has very limited disk space. la lojbangirz. has convinced Mark and Jerry to post much of the material we sent them, but they do not have room for all of it. In particular, back issues of JL and LK, and a LOT of Lojban text could not be posted. I want to see some or all of this material available, if only on a limited time basis. Therefore, in about 3 months, I will be asking Mark and Jerry to tell me the rates of access for Lojban directory files. Seldom accessed files may be deleted to allow us to make room for new stuff, as listed at the end of this document. So please don't delay too long if you want to get a copy of a file listed here.
{| class="wikitable"
! File Name
! Bytes
! Date
! Description
| style="text-align:center;" colspan="4" | Control documents
| readme
| 7668
| 01-09-92
| A version of this index.
| epolicy.txt
| 2912
| 10-09-91
| The la lojbangirz. Electronic Distribution Policy
| orderfrm.unf
| 9497
| 10-14-91
| Current la lojbangirz. Product List & Order Form; Include Paper Postal Address on any order, please.
| style="text-align:center;" colspan="4" | Language Design Materials and Drafts
| grammar.28
| 64552
| 10-11-91
| Baselined Lojban Grammar - YACC version; Public Domain. Without explanatory text included in printed versions.
| bnf.28
| 7872
| 10-11-91
| EBNF form of the Baselined Lojban Grammar. Not verified. Public domain.
| pronounc.unf
| 9718
| 10-14-91
| Pronunciation guide. Public domain.
| gismu.lst
| 88717
| 01-09-92
| Baselined gismu list. Public domain. Expected to be superseded soon by a modified version of "logdata.raw", which will the be renamed "gismu.lst"
| logdata.raw
| 115603
| 01-09-92
| Lojban gismu (root word) draft update >80 characters wide
| roget.lst
| 40612
| 10-14-91
| gismu sorted by Roget category. Draft.
| logdata3.cma
| 88312
| 10-14-91
| Lojban cmavo (structure word) list. Public domain. cmavo order >80 characters wide
| logdata3.lex
| 88312
| 10-14-91
| Lojban cmavo (structure word) list. Public domain. selma'o (grammar category) order >80 characters wide
| lehavla.alg
| 2326
| 10-14-91
| Draft proposal for borrowing words.
| style="text-align:center;" colspan="4" | Introductory Materials in Suggested Order
| loglan.txt
| 8598
| 10-14-91
| Introduction and history for those familiar with other Loglan versions
| brochure.eng
| 62820
| 10-14-91
| Basic Lojban Brochure - formatted for electronic distribution
| postbroc.txt
| 28312
| 10-14-91
| An edited version of brochure.eng abbreviated so as to be more suitable for electronic transmission.
| minilsne.txt
| 30917
| 10-16-91
| Draft introductory Draft Lojban mini-lesson. Return answers to la lojbangirz. for correction.
| overview.unf
| 63143
| 10-14-91
| Overview of the language and intro. to specialized terminology
| diagexam.unf
| 10851
| 10-09-91
| Diagrammed Examples of Lojban Text (the original version of the one in JL16 - the new version will replace this file shortly, and is a much longer file)
| style="text-align:center;" colspan="4" | Teaching Materials and Detailed Discussion
| useoldl1.txt
| 15233
| 10-14-91
| How to use 1975 Loglan 1 to study Lojban (partially correct for 1989 version)
| newrafsi.unf
| 77773
| 10-14-91
| List of Lojban rafsi (combining forms) and how to make compounds (lujvo).
| negation.unf
| 127903
| 10-14-91
| Negation in Lojban. Many examples.
| scrabble.unf
| 6098
| 10-14-91
| Suggested game rules based on Lojban letter frequencies
| style="text-align:center;" colspan="4" | Why Lojban?
| whylojb.txt
| 198651
| 10-14-91
| General discussion on 'Why Lojban?' extracted from ju'i lobypli, Includes JCB on Sapir Whorf. Many contributors.
| mactrans.txt
| 12681
| 10-14-91
| Lojban and machine translation by Patrick Juola
| moody.txt
| 18972
| 10-14-91
| Lojban and other planned languages by Todd Moody
| lojb_esp.txt
| 180734
| 10-14-91
| Lojban and Esperanto - JL discussions including comments from Donald Harlow and Lojban's 'Answer' to the '16 Rules'
| lojling.txt
| 18942
| 10-14-91
| Lojban's relevance to linguistics and linguistics research
| reply.txt
| 38747
| 10-14-91
| 1991 Reply to Arnold Zwicky's 1969 "Language" Review of Loglan 1
| netdisc.txt
| 178912
| 10-14-91
| Extracted Network Discussions of Lojban and Sapir-Whorf - mostly 8-9/90
| style="text-align:center;" colspan="4" | Lojban Text
| lordpray.unf
| 7781
| 10-14-91
| Lojban Paternoster, updated to current language. A prosaic version.
| style="text-align:center;" colspan="4" | Other materials
| l1longrv.txt
| 70543
| 6-08-91
| unpublished draft review - Loglan 1
---------------------------------- --------------
The following unofficial files are known to be in the lojban directory of the Planned Languages Server:
{| class="wikitable"
| brochure.french
| 49403
| 05-11-90
| A French translation of a somewhat earlier version of the Lojban brochure.
| Description
| 2334
| 01-09-92
| The official PLS description file of all files in the Lojban directory. Not as detailed or as accurate as this file.
| 815
| 06-24-91
| An obsolete version of this file that should soon be deleted
| Index
| 1280
| 01-03-92
| The file list you get in response to the command "index lojban"
| lojbroch.e-o.tex
| 69755
| 09-12-91
| The draft Esperanto translation of the Lojban brochure in brochure.eng Comments and suggestions welcome.
| metflidjimao-vedsia
| 23871
| 12-19-90
| welding-shop
| 27415
| 12-19-90
| Jim Carter's 1984 Loglan short story and English translation - not Lojban compatible nor consistent with the current TLI language, it is still one of the longest Loglan texts written originally in Loglan rather than in translation.
=== Forthcoming Material we hope to post this year ===
* 6 Draft Textbook Lessons - updated to 1992 language
* New Draft Textbook Lesson 1
* Esperanto Translation of Lojban Brochure - Official Release (the unofficial "lojbroch.e-o.tex" above is a draft version of this release)
* Glossary of Lojban/linguistic terminology
* Lojban and Sapir-Whorf Bibliography
* Lojban and Prolog demonstration example from JL16
* Lojban gismu etymologies
* Rebaselined gismu list
* Revisions to the Lojban mini-lesson
* the JL16 version of the Diagrammed Summary of Lojban
* Synopsis of Lojban Orthography, Phonology, Morphology - updated to 1992
* tense paper - introduction to Lojban tense structures
* attitudinal paper - updated to 1992
* logical connectives paper - introduction to logical and nonlogical connectives
* MEX paper - Lojban expression of mathematical text
* lerfu paper - expressing alphabets and special symbols in Lojban
* (papers are planned to cover other aspects of the Lojban grammar and will also be posted as available)
* All published Lojban text; Not updated to current language. Mostly translated & with commentary. Probably with some kind of difficulty and quality grading to help you choose appropriate materials.
=== Abbreviated instructions for the PLS server ===
To make the archive server do something you should send an electronic mail message to:
Use a null subject line. The body of the message should consist of one command per line. The case of the text does not matter. Note, however, that the server runs on a UNIX system, and thus, for filenames, the case DOES matter, so be sure the files you request are properly capitalized.
You can find out what files are available with the command "index lojban".
path <mail-path>
"Path" is used to override the mail path that the archive server chooses from the header of your mail message. You should use this whenever you know that the return address of your message will not be useful to the archive server. The archive server only knows about domain style address.
e.g. path
send <archive> <file..>
"Send" mails to you the files in the specified archive. All of the files that you request will be sent to you archived together possibly encoded and split up into messages that are small enough to be mailed. You may have as many "sends" in the body of your mail message as you wish.
e.g. send lojban logdata.raw
By default, files that are mailable are simply stuck together with the text "cut here" between files and; non-mailable files are archived via Unix "tar". Non-mailable files must be converted to something mailable. By default this is done with "uuencode". Some large or long-lined Lojban files may be considered non-mailable, and you will need to run the companion program "uudecode" which will decode a message that was encrypted using "uuencode". This is a standard Unix command; Unix users should see your system administrator if you don't know how to do this. On MS-DOS machines, there are a variety of utility versions of the decoding tool; we have no information about other computer system versions.  
=== Logfest 92 ===
Because of Athelstan's injury and other schedule problems, we have delayed LogFest 92, la lojbangirz.'s annual meeting and gathering of Lojbanists until August. The planned date for this gathering here in Fairfax VA, is August 14-17, 1992. If you're interested in coming, and especially if you will be travelling from out-of-town, please let us know. As usual, we can accommodate several out-of-town visitors as sleeping-bag guests here at Bob and Nora's house. You can get here via subway from all major transportation services into Washington DC, and you're unlikely to need a rental car. Thus, it's a cheap weekend of Lojban fun - we ask only that attendees donate around $25-$40 or whatever to cover food costs for the weekend.
Originally, LogFest was planned for the last weekend in June (June 26-28, 1992). Because some people already made plans to come in from out-of-town, we will dedicate that weekend to Lojban activities as well, and others are invited to come, too, making in effect a second LogFest this summer. This first gathering in June will be informal; since there will be no formal meeting, there should be plenty of time for a variety of Lojban activities, especially activities for new people who want to get started in learning the language. Let us know if you are planning to come, so we can make plans.
=== Language Development Status ===
The language has been quite stable in the last several months. With the breakup of the USSR, we have added cultural gismu for "Ukrainian" and "Slavic". There have been a few cmavo additions, and one or two deletions in connection with work by John Cowan on papers describing the Lojban tense system, mathematical language, and representation of foreign alphabets.
Far more significant has been those papers themselves, which have greatly refined the specificity of the language definition in three areas that have not been much used by people trying to use Lojban. John is continuing to work on papers, which, added to (updated versions of) the negation and attitudinal papers that were done before he started, will eventually amount to a complete and detailed description of the language.
People have been justifiably frustrated by the continuing delay in textbook and dictionary publication. However, this state should not stop most people from being able to learn and use Lojban. Indeed, with the possible exception of Esperanto (and only then because so much has been written about it in 100 years), it can safely be said that Lojban is by far the most thoroughly defined artificial language that has ever existed. And we continue to refine that definition - not so much because people need such details to learn the language, but because linguists and computer researchers seeking to use Lojban for applications need as much detail as possible to plan research activities.
The final development activities of significance are those that are tied to preparation of the first Lojban book, which is a proto-dictionary and reference book. Preparing this book has required a complete and detailed review of the gismu list place structures, trying to make them as clear and detailed as possible, given limited space. There also were some place structure changes needed as a result of the 'sumti-raising' change discussed last issue, and also as a result of other design decisions made over the last few years. We also wanted to add in multiple English synonyms where applicable, so that the English side of the resulting dictionary will no longer be limited to the sometimes-inaccurate unique English keywords that the gismu list currently is based on. In a few cases, actual usage has pointed up a need for change, either because the place structure was too vaguely defined for use, or because the sumti values that were required for some place structure places were too difficult to specify for 'real' language use. As a result, there are a lot of little changes to the working draft versions of the gismu list. The final draft is expected to go out for review within a couple of weeks after this issue is mailed (over 1100 of the 1400 Lojban entries were completed and verified at this writing). After a few weeks for that review, the first book will be assembled and published.
=== Weekend Meeting ===
We finally knew for sure that the design of the language was solidified after an all-weekend meeting that took place January 18-20, 1992. John Cowan came to town, and several of us met, settling nearly all open design questions. Following is a more thorough report on that meeting, what happened, and what design decisions took place. Attendees included Bob LeChevalier (lojbab), John Cowan, Nora LeChevalier, Athelstan, and Sylvia Rutiser, with pc joining in by phone a couple of times.
The original agenda included:
* A 2nd review of papers on the Lojban tense system and MEX (mathematical expressions) system, with the intent of having them ready, if possible, for publication with JL16.
* Nora and John have been working on a formal statement of the Lojban morphology algorithm, and some issues needed resolution and decision.
* Deciding on all open cmavo questions, to allow a baseline of that list.
* Reviewing all open comments on the place structures and definitions of gismu
* Review of the progress in switching JL over to a subscription basis and the current fundraising drive
* Preliminary decisions on book publishing
* Determining a policy on efforts by Dave Cortesi, Bob Chassell, and others to put together Lojban reference books.
* Including John in a Lojban conversation session (he has never before been able to participate in one, since no one else in the NYC area seems to be actively studying).
John arrived late Friday night, and we started the weekend right by talking till 4 AM. Athelstan arrived about 2 AM to join the party. Most of Saturday was spent socializing and discussing business matters, and various minor issues, and reviewing the tense paper. Saturday night, we again quit late, around 5 AM this time, with everyone rising in time to be fully awake for the Lojban conversation session. That ended up starting late, but the 5 of us participated in fairly lively discussion for about 2 hours. John had no real trouble following what was said, and throwing his own comments in. We then talked in English for about an hour until Sylvia and Athelstan had to leave.
After dinner, we started on place structures, and kept going until 5 AM again. We resumed around 11 AM, and kept cranking till 5 AM Tues. morning. Athelstan was there for all of Monday's discussions, Nora lasted until 10:30 PM, since she had to work on Tuesday. There was a long conversation with pc in the afternoon to resolve issues that he needed a voice/vote in. Monday evening, we took a break from the x1's and x2's of place structures to work on the x's and y's of MEX.
On Tuesday, John and I woke around 11 AM, and kept talking till I dropped him at the bus station around 1 PM. Whew! Everything accomplished.
Now here is the summary of effects:
==== Grammar ====
The grammar is of course baselined and frozen until we make updates and republish it in the Lojban books. Because we want the books to reflect the grammar after the books are done, we do our writing based on that next revision of the grammar. There are now 15 minor changes planned for that revision, all but 4 being extensions to the language. When we write and publish materials in JL, they should be in accordance with the current baseline. Next- baseline grammar changes will only be used in the unlikely circumstance that something needs to be phrased using a construct that is now illegal, but which would be allowed under the new grammar. Because we want people to stick with the current baseline, we are not going to distribute or talk much more about the next one until it is ready for adoption (at the time of publication of the first book), but people who have an early need for the information can request it. I will summarize the changes in store so people know what is going on:
# correction of a precedence error, so that EK+KE and GIhEK+KE bind more tightly than other connective structures;
# adding JEK+BO to parallel BO connective structures for other logical connectives;
# permitting free modifiers in several new places;
# adding selma'o ZEI to support a morphology algorithm change (see below);
# permitting "GEK sentence GI observative";
# in the current baseline grammar, it is impossible to use a PA+MAI free-modifier after a number even though it is apparently grammatically legal: the number will absorb the added PA values because there is no implicit "BOI" at the end of these numbers. The problem was fixed by reworking the rules specifying how free modifiers attach to numbers so that BOI can be added to separate them.
# after long analysis, the relative-modifier logical connective selma'o ZIhE was determined not to be especially useful as a logical connective, and the group has been stripped down to the single word "zi'e", which now simply indicates the attachment of multiple relative modifiers to a single sumti. The multiple logical connective grammar rules that were present for ZIhE were stripped down to a single rule supporting simple connection;
# allowing I+BO-initial sentences at the beginning of text;
# allowing NAI at the beginning of text;
# allowing any kind of JOI non-logical connectives to be used in forethought, in parallel with forethought causal connectives: JOI GI construct GI construct;
# POhO, which has been required at the end of incomplete sentences, will be eliminated; POhO was added at one point due to problems found in some versions of YACC (including the one we were using) that caused a parser to falsely declare an ambiguity in such incomplete sentences. POhO has been shown to no longer be necessary;
# NIhE, one of the converters used to integrate MEX with the rest of the grammar, now permits an entire complex selbri construct to be converted;
# NAhE is disallowed in forethought 'termsets'. The rule permitting it had been erroneously generated from a similar structure. Contrary negation of a termset is not defined in the negation paper.
# Multiple I and/or I+BO are permitted at the beginning of text (a benefit primarily for those who stutter);
# Allow SE conversions of abstract and negated selbri without KE/KEhE parentheses.
If that list doesn't make a lot of sense, don't worry about it. These truly are abstruse 'little' changes in the grammar that are unlikely to affect anyone's conversation and writing very much, if at all.
==== Morphology ====
John and Nora have resolved all open issues regarding the morphology algorithm, and it is included in JL16 for final review before publication in the reference book. Problems included strings of vowels and lujvo involving le'avla. Since the morphology is baselined, technically any change is a baseline change, but all changes being considered are in areas not well-defined in the existing informal 'Synopsis' that describes the morphology. Highlights (again, these are post-book baseline features.):
* Adding selma'o ZEI, with only cmavo "zei", will eliminate various other schemes of making lujvo using le'avla, all of which involved either tricky stress/- pronunciation problems or had potential breakdowns of a nature similar to the 'Tosmabru test' used in regular lujvo. The result would have been rules so unintuitively complicated as to make them impractical to use on-the-fly, when most such compounds will be made. ZEI is processed in advance of lexer rules (as is BU for lerfu and ZO, LOhU, ZOI, SI, SA, and SU) as part of the metalinguistic grammar. It causes one word immediately before it and one word immediately after it to be considered joined into a single construct equivalent to a BRIVLA. With the exception of some of those metalinguistic cmavo just listed, any Lojban word can be so joined to any other, allowing lujvo to be based on cmavo that have no rafsi, as well as le'avla. Many-part le'avla lujvo will have a ZEI between each pair of terms. Regular gismu and lujvo may also be used as terms in a ZEI lujvo.
* cmavo space is now recognized to include certain structures with 0 or 1 consonant, followed by more than two vowels, with apostrophe used between every pair (except when diphthongs occur). Thus "zo'o'o'o" could be a legal cmavo (with an obvious meaning of a more intense humor?) These will not be considered for defined use, but are added to the experimental cmavo space. The grammar will treat all experimental and undefined cmavo as if they were members of UI.
* When one word ends in a vowel, and the following begins with one, a pause, and not a glide, must be used to pronounce them. This confirms the original design decision. Actual usage has been that some UI members have not been separated from each other and other vowels by pauses, and this was determined to be too difficult for the resolver to handle, so it remains forbidden. An example is ".ua.ui" which has been pronounced "/wah,wee/", but must be pronounced as "/wah.wee/". An example showing the problems that can result is ".ui.iu", which if pronounced without a pause is indistinguishable from ".ui,u".
* Names will be permitted to have "la", "lai", and "doi" in them WHEN PRECEDED BY A CONSONANT. This means that the 'd' or 'l' must be the at-least-2nd in a consonant cluster such that the preceding letter and the d/l form a permissible cluster, or are initial at the beginning of a word. This means that a name "zdoil." or "jdoil." is legal, and every consonant except another "l" is permitted before "la" and "lai". Thus while "*nort.kerolainas." remains illegal, it can easily be changed to "nort.kerlainas.". This will then allow a certain erroneous comic strip to be corrected, by naming the cat "mlat.", "*lat." remaining illegal. It also corrects the embarrassment that the other English name of the language - "loglan." - has been an illegal name in "lojban."
* Names are formally restricted from having impermissible medial consonant clusters in them. The most significant effect of this is to require the name "*djeimz." to be changed, since "mz" is not a permissible medial. "djeimyz." is acceptable.
==== cmavo ====
The following cmavo changes are made. Note that one the cmavo, "zei", has grammar contingent upon the next baseline. It will be in the next draft of the cmavo list anyway, even though the current grammar will not handle it.
{| class="wikitable"
| zei
| lujvo glue
| joins preceding and following word into a lujvo
| ne'o
| VUhU
| factorial
| reassigned from "zei" to make room for above
| bu'u
| FAhA
| coincident with
| space/time tense equivalent of CA
| be'a
| north of
| from "berti"
| ne'u
| FAhA
| south of
| from "snanu"
| du'a
| FAhA
| east of
| from "stuna"
| vu'a
| FAhA
| west of
| parallel with "du'a"
(these are added for compatibility with languages/cultures that use a fixed reference frame for directions instead of a speaker-based one. A secondary if trivial advantage is that a Lojban wind-vane is more interesting, instead of having the letters B-S-S-S for the four cardinal points.)
| voi
| descriptive
| clause non-veridical restrictive clause used to form complicated le- like descriptions using "ke'a"
This is in a way similar to "goi"/GOI, but used with clauses (bridi) on the right. It defines a sumti on the left as being the thing the speaker has in mind which fills "ke'a" in the clause. Nick Nicholas asked for this in connection with an alternate approach to sumti-raising that he prefers to "tu'a". Example:
| ko'a
| voi
| lenu ke'a cisma
| cu
| pluka
| mi
| cu
| zutse
| The it1
| whose
| smiling
| pleases
| me
| sits.
| colspan="8" | The one whose smile pleases me is sitting down.
{| class="wikitable
| to'a
| BY
| lower case shift
| reassigne d from current "voi"; from "tordu"
| ma'e
| of material
| used to add a material to a bridi more specific than the existing "seta'i"; from "marji"
| de'a
| ZAhO
| pausitive event contour
| for a temporary halt and ensuing pause in a process; from "denpa"
| di'a
| ZAhO
| resumptive even t contour
| for resumption of a paused process
| mi
| de'a
| citka
| ca
| lenu la
| noras.
| tavla
| I
| pausitively
| eat
| while
| Nora
| talks.
| colspan="7" | I stop eating while Nora talks.
{| class="wikitable"
| vu'i
| LUhI
| the sequence
| converts other sumti types to sequences, even if the order is vague
| va'u
| benefited by
| indication of a beneficiary when formulated as "seva'u" = "for the benefit of"; from "xamgu" (replaces a useful function of the word "du'a", deleted last year as an English-biased member of BAI)
| bi'u
| BAhE
| de-emphasize next
| the reverse of "ba'e" which emphasizes the next word - added in emulation of a similar function word in the Mongolian language Dagur
| ce'a
| font shift
| change of selma'o; indicates that the following character specifies a new font (e.g. italic, block print, or manuscript). Supersedes old "ce'a" and "pe'e" which were too limited; the latter is now unassigned.
(In addition, the grammar changes described above also freed up po'o, zi'a, zi'i, zi'o, and zi'u.)
remaining unassigned (27):
bi'a bi'e bu'o (bo'a bo'e bo'i bo'o bo'u) ce'e ce'u ci'a do'i ja'u ju'e mi'i na'a ne'e pe'e po'o re'u te'i va'e vu'o zi'a zi'i zi'o zi'u
==== gismu ====
The following two gismu are proposed for addition to the baselined list, and will be adopted pending no objection:
{| class="wikitable"
| vukro
| vuk vu'o
| Ukrainian
| x1 pertains to the Ukrainian language/- culture/nation in aspect x2
| slovo
| lov
| Slavic
| x1 pertains to Slavic languages/culture/- ethnos in aspect x2
| (lovle'u
| Cyrillic
| x1 is a letter of Cyrillic alphabet symbolizing x2)
These have been reviewed by Ivan Derzhanski, as our only active native-Slavic Lojbanist. The breakup of the Soviet Union, has made Ukraine a large country with a Russian speaker base, one with a Slavic language of its own and a nationalistic interest in being clearly distinct from Russia and the ex-Soviet Union. (The definition of "softo" is being broadened to cover the old Russian empire and the new Commonwealth, but remains tied to the keyword 'Soviet' because there really is no other distinct word.) Our standards for cultural gismu clearly put Ukraine in the group that should have a gismu. (The other republics, except Russia itself, will be covered with le'avla.)
With two Slavic peoples represented, the family name also requires a gismu (as "semto" exists to cover Hebrew and Arabic commonalties). As shown, this gismu will also be used to generate a lujvo for "Cyrillic", a better choice than "rusko" or "softo" for making a lujvo for that concept, anyway.
==== Keyword changes ====
The following constitute baseline changes, even though there is no significant change of meaning. They will be considered adopted unless there is objection.
All metric prefixes currently have keywords of the form:
megdo    10E6
It has been pointed out that this does not conform to most exponential notations. The keywords will be globally changed to use "1" instead of "10" giving:
megdo    1E6
The following are being changed to make them consistent with other culture words by referring to the culture rather than to the defining element of the culture.
{| class="wikitable"
| budjo
| Buddhist
| x1 pertains to the Buddhist culture/- religion/nation in aspect x2
| dadjo
| Taoist
| x1 pertains to the Taoist culture/religion/nation in aspect x2
| jegvo
| Jehovist
| x1 pertains to culture/religion of the Judeo-Christian-Islamic deity in aspect x2
| xriso
| Christian
| x1 pertains to the Christian culture/- religion/nation in aspect x2
The change in keyword of "mukti" to "motive", part of the last baseline change, did not get into the Planned Languages Server file for some reason, along with appropriate definition wording changes. Some copies of LogFlash were distributed with this change omitted.
==== rafsi ====
"du" will be added to the list as a result of being assigned the rafsi "dub" and "du'o". "selci" is being given "sle" from "selfu", which in turn will be given "sef" from "sefta". (Since the January meeting, we have compiled a list of all lujvo used thus far in Lojban text. This will be used to generate a more accurate tuning of the rafsi assignments to reflect expected usage. A few additional rafsi changes are likely to result, and will appear in the completed book.
==== Place structures ====
We cannot list all of the place structure changes and definition changes being made for the new baselined list. Based on decisions at the weekend meeting, about 20% of the words will have some change from the draft "logdata.raw" list posted to the PLS and distributed to advance recipients of the new LogFlash (We were BUSY!). Most of these are minor and clarifying. (The complete review that Bob is doing while typing in these changes has resulted in many more minor changes, mostly clarifications in wording).
Some general notes:
* Bob Chassell proposed a large set of synonyms be listed; these are being added to the definition field to make computer searches of the list easier. These synonyms will also show up in the dictionary as additional English entries.
* A clarification of sets and masses and sequences and their roles as place holders in bridi caused many changes in wording. All places where these have been identified as likely placeholders have been examined and will be identified if space permits.
* Several 'properties' gismu which are generally considered subjective, have gained a 'by standard' place. The standard may only the personal one of the observer, whatever that may be. Colors are NOT included in this change.
* More care is being taken with 'under conditions' places. In many cases, an 'under conditions' place may be appropriate to some event/state within a single place of a bridi, rather than applying to the main bridi itself.
* The use of "du'u" abstractions is clearly distinguished in place structures dealing with truths. Some places dealing with knowledge and truth have been cleft paralleling the "djuno" place structure change in JL15.
* All known cleft place structures have been reviewed, with more than half eliminated by putting an event clause in x1. A few, such as "simlu", are remaining cleft, but are worded so as to suggest "ka" property abstractions instead of events in the cleft abstraction place.
The following are particularly significant changes in meaning. Since there is no keyword change, these are not considered relevant to the baseline; place structures have never been frozen. The wording is abbreviated and approximate, and there may be further changes before the list is finally frozen. For now, however, this will clarify the meanings of many words, and should give a good idea as to the nature of the most major changes being made.
{| class="wikitable"
| balvi
| x1 is in the future of/- later than/after x2 in time (ONLY; cf. lidne)
| bilni
| x1 is military/- regimented/strongly organized/prepared by system x2 for purpose x3
| caxno
| (paralleling condi below)
| cfari
| x1 (nu) commences/- begins/initiates/starts (intransitive) [no change, but cf. sisti)
| cimde
| x1 is a dimension of space/object x2 according to rules/model x3
| clupa
| x1 is a loop/circuit in/of material x2 defined by (set of points) x3
| cmavo
| x1 is a structure word having grammar exemplified by word x2 with meaning function x3 in language x4
| condi
| x1 is deep in extent in x2 (ka) at locus x3 away from observation point x4 by standard x5
| cpare
| x1 climbs/clambers/- crawls/creeps on surface x2 in direction x3 using x4 (tools, limbs)
| danfu
| x1 is the answer/- response to question x2
| dargu
| x1 is a road with route x2
| fancu
| x1 is a function/single- value mapping from domain x2 to range x3 defined by rules x4
| fasnu
| x1 is an event that happens/occurs
| flalu
| x1 is a law specifying x2 (nu) for community x3 (mass) under conditions x4 by law-giver x5
| funca
| x1 (nu) is determined by the luck/fortune of/for x2
| gasnu
| x1 is agent in event x2; x1 'does' x2
| gradu
| x1 (magnitude) is a unit/degree of/on scale/- reference standard x2 (idea/- si'o) measuring x3 (ka)
| gunma
| x1 is a mass/team/is together, of components x2 considered jointly
| jbini
| x1 is between/among set of boundaries x2 in x3 (ka)
| jdika
| x1 is decreased/reduced in x2 (ka) by amount x3 (no change but cf. zenba)
| kancu
| x1 counts the number in set x2 to be x3 (ni/number) in units x4
| karli
| x1 is a collar surrounding x2 of material x3
| krefu
| x1 is a recurrence/- repetition of x2 (nu) for the x3th (ni/number) time; x1 happens again
| kusru
| x1 (person) is cruel/- mean to x2
| lacpu
| x1 pulls/tugs/drags x2 by handle at locus x3
| lafti
| x1 lifts/applies lift to x2 at locus x3
| lidne
| x1 leads/precedes x2 in sequence x3
| naxle
| (paralleling dargu above)
| pajni
| x1 judges/is a judge determining/deciding matter x2 (ka/ni/jei abstraction) (estimate/evaluate)
| panra
| x1 is parallel to x2 in property/pattern x3 by standard/geometry x4
| pikta
| x1 is a ticket entitling x2 to privilege/entitlement x3 (nu) under conditions x4
| platu
| x1 plans/designs/plots plan/plot/arrangement x2 for state/process x3
| porsi
| x1 (sequence) is sequenced/ordered by comparison/rules x2 on set (unordered) x3
| prami
| (paralleling xebni below)
| prina
| x1 (agent) prints x2 on x3 using tool x4
| purci
| (paralleling balvi above)
| ritli
| x1 is a rite/ceremony/- ritual/is formal(legal) for purpose x2 under custom x3, under rules/form x4
| selci
| x1 is a cell/atom/- molecule/unit of x2; x1 is an indivisible basic subunit of x2 (cf. English 'atom')
| simlu
| x1 appears to have property x2 to x3 under conditions x4
| sirji
| x1 is straight/direct/- line segment/interval between x2 and x3
| sisti
| x1 (agent) ceases/- stops/halts doing/being x2 (cf. cfari WHICH IS DIFFERENT)
| skiji
| x1 is a ski/skid/skate/- runner for surface x2 (for) supporting skier/skater/sled/- cargo x3
| suksa
| x1 (nu) is sudden/abrupt at stage/achievement x2 in process x3; x1 (ka) suddenly changes at point x2 over interval x3
| talsa
| x1 (person) challenges x2 in x3 (ka)
| trene
| x1 is a train (segmented-vehicle) of cars/- units (mass/sequence) in system/railroad/of owners x3
| trina
| x1 attracts/lures x2 (person/action) with x3 (ka)
| venfu
| x1 (person(s)) takes revenge on/retaliates against x2 (person(s)) for wrong x3 (nu) with vengeance x4 (nu)
| vorme
| x1 is a door/gate between x2 and x3 of/in/- through structure x4
| xamsi
| x1 is an ocean/sea/- gulf/atmosphere of planet x2 of fluid x3
| xanri
| x1 (si'o) exists in the imagination of/is imagined by/is imaginary/unreal to x2
| xebni
| x1 hates x2 (object/- abstract)
| xendo
| (paralleling kusru above)
| xlura
| x1 (agent) influences x2 into action/event/state x3 by influence/threat/lure x4 (cf. trina)
| xrani
| x1 (nu) injures/harms/- damages victim x2 in property x3 resulting in injury x4 (za'i/ka)
| zarci
| x1 is a market/store/- exchange/marketplace selling x2 operated by x3/with participants x3 (mass agent)
| zenba
| x1 is increased/- augmented in x2 (ka/ni) by amount x3 (parallels with jdika)
| zukte
| x1 is an 'entity' employing means x2 for/towards end/purpose/goal x3
John Cowan writes the following as further explanation of the set/mass/sequence/individuals changes:
One of the aims of the place structure review was to examine all the place structures that were labeled "(plural/set)" to see whether an actual set was wanted, or merely one or more individuals. In addition, sometimes a mass seemed to be the right thing. The new place structures which Lojbab is typing up will contain a good deal of clarification.
Essentially, a true set is required if the relationship does not hold of each member but only of the totality. For example, "kampu", "cnano", and "fadni" are all relationships between a set and one of its members (or a property thereof). If I am typical of ("cnano") the set of persons, that doesn't mean that the relation "typical-of" holds between me and every individual person -- indeed, the idea of one person being typical of another makes no sense.
On the other hand, we decided that "casnu" should have a mass, rather than either a set or plural individuals, in its x1 place. People may "casnu", or participate in a discussion, even though not all of them say anything.
In many cases, "(plural/set)" came up where "between" or "among" was involved. Most of these we tried to reword to avoid the problem, which often resulted from excess generality. Thus a wall now separates exactly two things, and a door connects exactly two. (A wall may separate multiple pairs of things - my house from yours, my property from yours, Country 1 from Country 2 - all at once, but the relationship is still pairwise.)
In addition, the phrase "ordered set" was changed throughout to "sequence", and the place structure of "porsi" is now something like "x1 is a sequence of the members of set x2 ordered by rules x3". Sequences do not have the same level of support in Lojban as individuals, masses, and sets; however, we have long had the non-logical connective "ce'o" which constructs them item by item. In addition, we added "vu'i", a converter of selma'o LUhI, transforming a set into a sequence, as well as individuals into a sequence-in-extension.
It now seems that "fa'u", the non-logical connective for "respectively", may be taken to generate a sequence-in-extension, thus:
| mi
| fa'u
| do
| se
| cmene
| zo
| djan.
| fa'u
| zo
| lojbab.
| (I
| respectively-with
| you)
| are-
| benamed
| ("John"
| respectively-with
| "Lojbab").
Using ".e" logical connection will not do, as that would claim that each of us is named both "John" and "Lojbab".
=== Status of Products ===
We have a lot of products in the works, and a few of them are done or nearly done. More significantly perhaps, several new products have been identified, and are in progress and in some cases near completion. The variety of Lojban products continues to multiply as new people get involved in its development.
One is of course the Diagrammed Summary of Lojban Grammar, included as an insert in this issue. This will form the major language explanatory text about the language for our introductory package. The Overview will be recast to talk mostly about the ideas of the language and not the grammar, and a glossary will be added. Eventually, this package will be assembled into one of our several book publications. Now for the other products:
Mini-Lesson - Athelstan set the material of his "Lojban Mini-Lesson", an hour-long presentation, down in text last summer and fall before his accident. We distributed draft copies electronically (the draft is available on the PLS - see above), and some two dozen people from 6 different countries have tried it and sent comments. Alas the revision effort was only partially done when the accident occurred, so the mini-lesson, planned for this issue and at one time an excuse for its delay, isn't yet ready.
People have in general found the mini-lesson to be a very good introduction to the language, as they found Athelstan's oral presentation similarly useful. Alas, on paper it takes a good deal more than an hour to work through. People have generally said that there are too many exercises and too few examples. A few of the examples and explanations are perhaps too oriented to English-native speakers, but we haven't figured a good way to correct that.
Given the accident, it is likely that I (Bob) will have to finish the revision, and it will thus not be ready until JL17 or even JL18. The revised mini-lesson will also form part of the introductory package.
LogFlash - We have released the new version of LogFlash described in the last several issues. Both LogFlash 1 (gismu) and LogFlash 3 (cmavo) are being successfully used by several people.
For those who want to learn rafsi, the older combined LogFlash 1/2 will continue to be available (LogFlash 2 teaches rafsi) until a new version is created - a new version of LogFlash 2 will be more difficult to develop than the other programs because the type of testing used in lessons is more diverse. The lujvo-making program will also be incorporated into the next revision of LogFlash 2. The priority of this revision depends primarily on people being interested in obtaining it - if you are ready to start using this program, or expect that you will be within 6 months, let us know and Nora will put more effort into this upgrade. The files for the old version are not being updated, hence several newly-added rafsi assignments and the couple of changes that have been made are not reflected in this old version. This has not proven to be a significant limitation.
There are two 'problems' with the current release, neither of which prevents effective use. The first is that we've had no time to rewrite the user documentation. There are now an enormously increased number of user-selectable features in LogFlash, and documentation is needed to intelligently choose among them. You can experiment or ask - most of these functions are self-explanatory as to how they work, and playing around is not damaging to your learning effectiveness (though it can be time consuming given the number of options). However, explaining when and why each option is intended to be used takes a bit of work. Luckily, Nora has made the program effectively self-channelled - the default option at each menu choice progresses you through fairly optimal usage. I'd like to promise the documentation soon, but I'll have to admit that it keeps getting shoved off for other priorities. When more people start buying the program, we will of course put high priority on completing the support documentation, and it will be available free-of-charge to those of you who have done without until then.
The other 'problem' is that because of the above-mentioned revision of the gismu list, especially affecting place structures, the version of the list we are giving out at any particular time is subject to changes. These changes don't generally affect the learning process since place structures are provided for information purposes only, but since the lists being distributed are unofficial, people receiving them need to be fore-warned. Again, we will make updated files available to those who purchase copies now, probably at the time the first book is released.
The instability of the word files affects LogFlash 3 a bit more significantly because we are more freely changing words and keywords, as well as making a small number of additions and deletions to the cmavo list. The changes being made are typically minor, however, enough that we can finally feel comfortable in recommending that people use LogFlash 3 without too much fear of having to do a lot of relearning due to changes.
MacLojFlash - Both versions of LogFlash for the Apple MacIntosh are being updated for the new data files. Each version already had some of the features now incorporated into the original MS-DOS version, and will probably add new ones to keep the different versions roughly comparable in capabilities. The Hypercard Mac version by Dave Cortesi is being upgraded to Hypercard II; Richard Kennaway's original MAC version doesn't use Hypercard, is somewhat faster, but does not have voice synthesis of the words, and supports both the gismu and cmavo lists in one program. Richard's program is basically ready, awaiting only reasonably final word files. (Our difficulties in supporting the Mac continue, and we aren't going to release incremental in-progress Mac versions of the word-lists as we are doing with the original program.) The Mac programs are liable to be cheaper than the MS-DOS versions, partly because of the lower quality of support that we have been able to provide.
Serious Volunteers Sought for LogFlash Research - The new version of LogFlash (MS-DOS version only) is instrumented for research into how well people learn Lojban words. This finally allows testing of the 'word recognition scores' that were the basis of Loglan/Lojban word-making ever since the project started in the 1950s, as well as formally verifying the effectiveness of the LogFlash technique.
We are looking for volunteers to use LogFlash in learning the Lojban vocabulary. At this point we have no constraint on who can volunteer, as long as you can state more or less honestly that you don't yet know much of the Lojban gismu vocabulary. Later on, we will have to add restrictions to ensure that our statistics are valid, but for now we are looking for patterns in the learning of individuals.
We have no funding for this experiment - we can't pay anyone to participate. You will even have to buy the copy of LogFlash that you use to learn the words, because we need the money to stay in business right now. What we can promise is that someone who volunteers AND STICKS WITH THE EXPERIMENT ENOUGH TO GIVE US USEFUL RESULTS will be credited afterwards for the price of LogFlash and any other Lojban teaching materials you buy to study while participating in the experiment. We'll also give priority (subject to our limited funds) for volunteers who need financial assistance to obtain Lojban materials.
This isn't a lot to offer for a commitment of 3-7 hours a week for 4-8 months (probably 100-150 hours total, about the same as the homework time for a typical college class), but the work isn't hard, and you will be doing it anyway if you are planning on learning the language. We need is people who will use LogFlash more or less daily for at least 1/2 hour a day (preferably an hour - learning may go 3 times as fast or better, at this more intense study rate; you learn quicker, and the experiment is shorter and more likely to show expected results.)
Other teaching products - We have contacted two firms that commercially produce language learning materials and gotten interest in assisting the Lojban project from each of them. One produces software that teaches you words and structures as you read a story or stories in Lojban (not a simplified text - you would learn to read most any Lojban text you come across). The other, International Learning Corporation, produces a series of materials called "The Learnables (tm)", which are books of cartoons and pictures associated with extensive tapes. These materials are used effectively in college classes.
Both products have been recommended to us by more than one Lojbanist. Both organizations have indicated that they would be willing to license us to develop Lojban versions of their products at no cost to us other than the effort of developing the materials. The resulting materials should be extremely effective in teaching Lojban and offer the confidence of having been used effectively with other languages. The down-side of these materials is that they will probably be more expensive than our self-developed materials (for existing languages, the software package costs around $100 plus a small amount per story, while The Learnables costs around $45 for a book and 6 tapes, with 4 beginning and 4 advanced books covering the typical language - we can't promise to be able to sell Lojban materials for any less than the prices these organizations charge for other languages).
These are significant opportunities to get awareness of Lojban out to a much larger audience, but we cannot justify the time to produce the materials unless there is some significant interest in the community in buying and using the resulting products. So we need to hear from you if you think you would buy the materials.
Interlinear Glosser (and Parser) - This new project of Nora's stems from four unrelated problems. Because of the massive volume of Lojban text now being produced, Nora and I can no longer read and check it all - our own command of the language is not thorough enough for us to quickly check words and place structures, much less to comment the results thoroughly.
People writing Lojban text tend to make word choice errors (e.g. lujvo-making errors, misspellings), and find it hard to catch these errors before 'inflicting' them on others. A simple computerized spelling checker cannot fully solve this (even if you can build a dictionary file easily) because nearly all possible cmavo and lujvo word-forms are plausibly valid words.
In addition, people using the Lojban parser to check their work have found the outputs to be hard to use in an odd way. When there is an error, the parser tells you (approximately) where the error occurred, and you know where to look. If it finds no errors, the rather lengthy fully-parenthesized output contains complete grammatical structure information. Unfortunately, a lot of simple errors, including misspellings (noted above) and omitted terminators can lead to grammatically perfect text that means something quite different from what you intended. Reading the parser output to find such errors requires great care, as well as a certain sense of what types of errors to look for. It isn't being done too well, and people have found errors in text that seemed perfectly valid, even to the parser, when read carefully. (Though this might seem to be a threat to Lojban's viability as a understandable and logical language, the types of errors that are occurring seem to be of the types that fluent speakers wouldn't often make.)
Finally, one of the easiest first steps towards the computer applications for which Lojban is especially suitable is a Lojban-to-English translator. Nora has long been interested in producing a simple form of such a translator, both for study of the problems of machine translation, and as an effective teaching tool. She first did a rudimentary translator, handling a subset of the grammar of single Loglan sentences, on a tiny TRS-80 home computer back in 1981. Updating this program to use with Lojban has been difficult, because the varieties of sentences that are typical for Lojban are much more numerous than for earlier Loglan versions.
A few months ago, we discovered a free-ware program called "Shoebox" (Summer Institute of Linguistics) that produces interlinear glosses from one language to another, using a simple word look-up technique and a specially designed word database. Mark Shoulson and others have set up this program to produce quite pretty glosses for Lojban text, but the translation is rather difficult to read, even when you know Lojban grammar - the words that are substituted are the keywords of our word-lists, which are not intended necessarily to be good translations; there is no provision for lujvo compounds, even though they are quite regular; several cmavo have no valid English gloss because they serve purely grammatical roles; and finally, Lojban's predicate grammar means that you need to analyze the grammatical situation to know whether to interpret the English equivalent of a Lojban word as a noun, a verb, and adjective, or an adverb - Shoebox is not sufficiently tailored to Loglan/Lojban's unique regularities to take advantage of them to produce a readable output.
Inspired by this, Nora started designing a grammar-smart interlinear glosser. Carl Burke has aided with some good design ideas, and the project is well underway. Indeed, the program already produces better glosses than the comparable Shoebox versions, even without many 'grammar smarts', because it recognizes Lojban word types, disassembles lujvo, recognizes numbers as a unit, and other simple Lojban-specific functions. It processes outputs from John Cowan's Lojban parser, separating a long text into separate sentences and other logical chunks for easier reading, and optionally retaining or deleting the structure bracketing and inserted elidable marker words that the parser provides in its output. We also have developed a 'dictionary' suited for this program.
If there is demand, we can make the program available fairly shortly in its in-development form bundled with the parser (which it requires). We'll set a tentative price of $50 for the combination, partly because the program is incomplete; the final program may be more expensive. John Cowan's parser by itself is available for $25 (and may be available for some UNIX machines as well as MS-DOS). People who are writing a LOT of Lojban text, and sending it to us or posting it onto Lojban List, can probably convince us to provide a test version of either or both for free (especially if you cannot afford to pay for it) - we'd rather have you be checking your text before we get it rather than be doing it ourselves. The user documentation and support on these programs will be quite limited until the glosser is completed.
We are making these programs available primarily because some people are already finding them useful, not because we believe they are optimal products yet - if you are working often with the language, the program limitations will not much hinder their usefulness. Also, frankly, we need people to contribute more for our support, and having new products to sell gives you something for your money besides the good feeling of contributing to keeping this project alive.
The Cowan Papers, or "The Lojban Textbook Effort Grows Up" - 3 1/2 years ago (October 1988) I started to write a technical description and reference for Lojban. 40 pages and the first descriptive cmavo list were completed. Reviewers at that point basically told me that the text was not working - most people did not know the language well enough to use a reference that presumed basic knowledge of the grammar. The format was very poor as a teaching text. The result was the recommendation that I write a Lojban textbook.
From January through June 1989, I wrote 6+ draft chapters of such a textbook while teaching the first Lojban class. About 150 people have gotten those lessons now, and a couple of dozen of these have studied the language well enough to write fairly effectively in the language. These draft lessons remain available and are the most thorough teaching materials we have for those trying to learn the language.
Alas, the draft lessons, though they've 'aged well', remain incomplete. I stopped writing when we realized that the basic structure of the course was not working in the way we intended and it was getting harder and harder to write lessons that built constructively on what had gone before. The completed textbook would be over 1000 pages, and simply wasn't good enough to justify that much effort.
I started a new draft in 1990, but it got only to page 50. Throughout 1990 and 1991, as others learned the language, the advances in teaching technique outstripped my writing ability. Indeed, under the able leadership of Nick Nicholas, the last year has shown a truly outstanding increase in the sophistication of our knowledge of Lojban expression, its style, and its semantics. But that evolution, and the dozens of little tiny changes in the corners of the language were stresses that hurt my confidence that I was teaching the language appropriately to the ways it is coming to be used. I've also spent too much time dealing with our unending financial problems and simply coordinating the rapid expansion of our organization.
The reference materials of the language continued to evolve as well, and, although the language itself is quite stable, our published descriptions of the language have edged towards obsolescence. The gismu list place structures were too short and vague, but the words themselves were quite stable, as were the rafsi affixes. The cmavo list was nearly as stable, but incessant little changes in the grammar coupled with major advances of our knowledge of how to communicate in Lojban have made a simple list of cmavo inadequate. The YACC-based formal grammar has similarly been quite stable; there were little changes and we had to update the baseline a year later, and a new baseline will take place when the first book comes out (though the number of grammar change proposals in the second baseline year have been less than half of those in the first year).
Since every example in the textbook must be accurate and consistent with the reference lists, the more examples I've put into the text, the shakier the result has become. Simply checking every example in the existing 6 chapters requires hours of work - the new textbook has several times as many examples for each key grammar point.
In addition, the YACC grammar is not too well understood by those who aren't used to that type of grammar definition. There are a lot of trees, with no sense of the forest. The shorter EBNF form of the grammar is better for some people, but it is still formalized and difficult for non-computer people. An especial lack is a series of examples showing all the various structures of the grammar, and discussing why they were present.
This lack of examples was a big hang-up in textbook writing, as well. I spent endless time trying to concoct meaningful examples of sentences that exemplified the points I was trying to make, which were limited in vocabulary, but still interesting. This is NOT my strong skill. Still, the 50 pages of the new draft textbook has dozens of examples and even more exercises.
When John Cowan first became involved in Lojban, 2 years ago, his first promised goal was the rather ambitious one of writing an example sentence for every gismu. He then decided instead to write one sentence for every cmavo, covering every variety of grammatical usage.
A nice ideal, but far too ambitious, as John found out. Some cmavo are permitted in a variety of usages but aren't pragmatically useful in most of them - at least not in a way that we English speakers can easily recognize. For example, it seems rather odd to contemplate the mathematical number "pi" treated like all other numbers and used as a digit, or to enumerate objects or events: "pi events of Mary going to the store" is irrational in more than one sense of the word.
John's continuing work with the grammar has made him even more expert in its details than I am. He has performed the modifications to the YACC grammar for all the little changes of the last two years. In developing that expertise, he learned how thoroughly the language is defined, while how little of that design is yet set down on paper. He set to remedy this problem in the context of his previous goal, choosing to write a "selma'o catalog" that would list all the grammatical components of the language, giving explanations and examples of the use of each of them. Maybe he wouldn't find one example for every word in every grammatical context, but at least there would be an example of each such grammatical form, and the result would show how the rules of the grammar interacted in actual usage (as opposed to the arcane formulae of the YACC grammar).
John spent several months on the selma'o catalog, and created a very nice document that a few people have used effectively to learn about the language structures. The document has remained a draft, though, for several reasons. Basically, though, John realized that his goal remained far beyond what he was capable of writing. I'm going to exaggerate the negatives to make the reasons clear - as I said, the document proved quite useful and informative for the limited audience of reviewers who already knew a bit about the language. Everyone who read it, including me, learned a lot from John's explanations.
The draft selma'o catalog is a couple of hundred paragraphs, with a couple of hundred cross-references; but the latter is not nearly enough. It turns out that so many of the structures are redundant to each other that it is difficult to write about individual word categories without referring to what is said elsewhere, or without repeating the same thing many times over. John also had to make use of so many technical jargon terms that a explanatory glossary was going to be needed that was fully as large as the catalog text, in order for the catalog to be understood by a beginner. Finally, because John wrote the catalog from start to end, it reads fairly well as a textual explanation of the selma'o.
However, as a catalog reference work not intended to be read from start to finish, the document failed. Individual entries are hard to understand - even with all the cross-references, too much of the text presumes that the reader has read and understood what comes 'before it' in the catalog. The result is like a dictionary wherein you must know and understand almost every word in the 'A' section before trying to understand the 'B' words, while 'C' requires knowledge of both 'A' and 'B', etc.
Finally, although John created over a hundred example sentences for the selma'o catalog, this is not nearly enough to exemplify the entire Lojban grammar.
The selma'o catalog will appear in print, probably in the first book to be published (see below). However, it needs to be integrated with other materials in that book, which will take a bit of work. It unfortunately cannot serve the purpose John originally set out for it - to exemplify the variety of cmavo and their usages in the grammar.
To accomplish the latter, John has undertaken and made excellent progress on a new approach. He has divided the grammar of Lojban into some 15 topics. There will be a paper on each topic, covering the cmavo used in the portion of the grammar that addresses that topic. A half dozen of these papers are done or nearly complete.
The topics are not an even division of the grammar - some topics can be covered in very few pages, while others need a lot of explanation and examples. On the average, the topics are being covered to at least the level of detail as the "On Lojban Negation" paper, which was published a couple of years ago with JL and is now distributed with "Package 3" for active language students. (John's writing in these new papers seems to me to be much more readable then my own in the negation paper.) Each paper has dozens of examples; in some of them, over a hundred examples may be found.
The most important of the papers completed thus far is the tense paper included with this issue. One of the most thoroughly analyzed and designed aspects of Lojban, as distinguished from earlier versions of Loglan, the tense system benefits from pc's expertise in tense logic and its expression in the languages of the world.
I've said that the Lojban tense system is overdesigned - it allows the entire variety of tense-related expressions used by any of the world's languages, without particularly favoring any one approach. But each natural language has evolved a highly specialized and often idiomatic approach to expressing tense. The English speaker tackling Russian or Greek or Irish, all Indo-European languages, must learn elaborate tense systems involving perfective tenses that work entirely unlike those of English. Making the matter even worse, most English speakers are ill-educated as to the complexity of the tense structures of their own language, and the subtleties of nuance implicit in various forms of expression. As a result, a major failing people have in learning foreign languages is that they are unable to grasp the new ways of relating time and space embodied in the foreign language, and speak in a very stilted dialect that is difficult for natives to understand. (Most artificial languages have little or no thought put into their tense system, and probably never achieve the subtleties of meaning conveyed by natural language tenses.)
The tense paper included in this issue will likely stretch your mind to envision new relationships in time and space as expressed in language, relationships that are not easily conveyed in English, if at all.
For example, at the moment I am writing this, I say that "I am writing JL16". But since JL16 is not yet published, it doesn't yet exist while I write it (except as a figment of my imagination). In Lojban, we can make this clear by stating that I am writing the inchoative JL16.
Another example, long my favorite, was coined by pc. Suppose X has a dog which he hits in punishment whenever it chews X's clothes. Indeed, he hits it so long that it sustains lasting injury, though a trip to the vet remedies much of this damage. Now suppose over a period of time, X continues this cruel behavior, the dog's condition deteriorates, and it dies. In English, we might say that "X kept on: kept on hitting the dog too long, too long." But without the long-winded explanation, you would almost certainly consider that sentence both ungrammatical and nonsense, when it is neither. (And there is no way to clearly punctuate the sentence, either, as I just found out.) Lojban expresses this situation easily.
Now think of one of those cartoons where the main character drives a motorboat across the lake, then continues up on shore and across the land. This situation is expressed in Lojban using a tense quite similar to that of the last example: the character kept on driving the motorboat too far 'on' the lake.
There are all manner of other tense structures permitted in Lojban, some of which have no parallel in natural language. Lojban's tenses are symmetrical with respect to time - you can talk about future events in as elaborate detail as you can talk about past ones, whereas some natural languages (including English) have only a very degenerate grammar for talking about things to come.
Will people find Lojban's tense grammar enabling? Or will its many unusual forms never find use, and fall by the wayside. We'll only come to know after people have a chance to learn from a thorough explanation of the tense system, such as John has now provided us.
Here is a list of the papers currently planned, and their status:
* morphology, phonology, and orthography (written and published, needs stylistic rewrite to match later papers);
* negation (written and published, needs minor update and reworking to be stylistically consistent with later papers);
* attitudinals/metalinguistics (written and published, needs major rewrite adding many examples);
* tense (written and published with this issue);
* MEX: mathematical expressions (written and internally reviewed - to be published with JL17);
* logical connectives (written and in internal review);
* text structure (written and in internal review);
* lerfu (written and in internal review);
Not yet written (though in some cases planned in considerable detail) are:
* abstraction;
* logical quantification;
* sumti structures - anaphora, descriptions, names, quotes, numbers;
* places and place structures;
* selbri structures;
* tanru making;
* anaphora;
* elidable terminators;
John will write most of these papers. I (Lojbab) will probably do a couple of them, possibly including the major rewrite of the attitudinal paper, a lesser rewrite of the negation paper, and writing some or all of the papers on tanru, elidables, and abstraction. These papers will probably take another year to be completed, reviewed, and integrated for publishing, but the resulting book will be a detailed explanation of all aspects of the Lojban grammar (called a 'reference grammar' by linguists).
These papers will be an invaluable resource in creating examples and exercises to enrich the long-delayed Lojban textbook. Teaching of the intermediate and advanced aspects of the language that were not covered in the 6 draft lessons already written will be especially helped.
As I went to describe John's papers, and the role that they fit in the documentation of the Lojban design, I realized that these collected papers will be nothing other than the Lojban technical description that I started back in 1988, before the textbook was conceived.
We have come full circle. In a year, when the papers are complete and published, Lojban will be well-documented, and the language and its community will be much the richer for it.
Bob and Nora Studying Russian - Nora and I have started an intensive study of Russian. We are trying to adopt one or more young children from Russia, and will have to travel to that country, deal with children who have likely started to understand or even to speak Russian, and also to teach those children about their heritage as they grow up. (Yes, we also plan to teach our kids Lojban.)
What does this have to do with Lojban?
Our learning efforts started in April, and have already had a significant effect on the future textbook. Our situation in learning Russian is not too unlike the typical Lojbanist who wants to learn Lojban - we want to very quickly acquire as much competency in the language as we can, but have minimal opportunity to take formal classes or interact with native speakers.
We've spent a good chunk of money on textbooks, tapes, and other learning aids; we've adapted LogFlash to the study of Russian vocabulary (surprisingly easy due to Nora's excellent program design foresight, even though Russian uses a keyboard and alphabet rather different from what normally appears on your computer screen).
Only a month into the effort, I'm learning what methods work for rapid self-teaching, and which do not.
When Nora and I learned Loglan/- Lojban, we acquired it slowly, over several years, without prepared materials to work from, and our level of skill until the last couple of years did not approach a useful level. Our experience was unlike what the new Lojbanist faces in trying to learn the language, and even more strongly different from the way we hope Lojbanists will learn the language in the future after the books and other materials are complete.
However, our experience in studying Russian from prepared materials in a short time will more closely approximate the typical Lojbanist's situation.
What have we learned? We need many more examples and exercises - each of the books we are using gives dozens of very simple exercises for each point taught, several exercises requiring use of each vocabulary word to be added to the learner's 'active' vocabulary, and an incremental approach that adds new grammar features quickly (at least at our study pace) but only one at a time. We have also found that tapes are useful and indeed important to giving students confidence that they can actually speak the language, as they copy what is being said. Tape exercises give practice in listening to the language, as well as correction of the errors and other problems that creep into the self-teaching student's pronunciation.
I am also getting specifically helpful samples of style: how much explanation is appropriate and useful, and what type of wording is clearest. Indeed, some specific Russian pronunciation explanations will prove quite useful in explaining similar points about Lojban.
I've spent a lot of thought on the textbook writing problem, and sent out a questionnaire to potential Lojban students on the computer networks. The problems I've had in writing the textbook have included a lack of time, too many things to do, instability in the details of the language, and low morale. But the real problem was that I was trying to write a textbook with no real understanding of what a language textbook needs to contain.
I've spent a lot of time over the last 5 years examining language textbooks, their structure, and teaching techniques. I've read over a dozen books on standard and unorthodox language teaching methodologies and on textbook writing for both commonly studied languages and for little-known languages for which native speaker materials are hard to acquire.
(You would be surprised how little agreement there is on teaching methodologies among language teaching professionals. Simply speaking, there is no methodology that has proven to work effectively for the wide variety of student backgrounds and goals. The best materials are those for learning English, but English-speaking natives like me cannot look at these materials and truly understand the methods being used, and how they might relate to designing materials for other languages - the best materials are quite unlike the ones native speakers study in English grammar class.)
This reading means that I actually understand the techniques being used by the Russian textbook writers as they use them on me (the best Russian textbooks on the market were written in Russia by professionals there, and then translated and adapted for English-speaking audiences). I can see which techniques work well with a self-teaching student, and which would need two or more people, or even a class, to be effective.
It is no big surprise that the techniques that work best on me are quite similar to the LogFlash flash card technique. It IS significant, both to me, and potentially to people who design materials for other languages, how valuable an understanding of WHY I am doing an exercise helps me do that exercise better - I concentrate on what is important, and don't worry about the rest (I can tell this benefit because I can see the problems that Nora is having, not having had this background in language teaching theory.)
It turns out that this new information will not affect the textbook writing I've done thus far. We decided a long time ago to totally rewrite the materials in the draft 6 lessons in the new textbook, which will have a different organization, as well as a different style. The draft lessons, updated to the current language with minimal stylistic changes, will still be put out as a book later this year, because we can get it done quickly and because people have proven able to learn from the book.
The rewritten textbook has been stalled near the end of Chapter 1 for over a year - partly from lack of time, more recently from reduced priority. Chapter 1 is an overview of the entire language, a big-picture summary that attempts to get across the fundamental differences between Lojban and other languages in hopes that when we turn to a detailed, incremental buildup of language skills in succeeding chapters, people will have a framework to build upon. (It is rather difficult to properly teach about Lojban sentence features without knowing that Lojban sentences themselves are conceptually unlike English sentences.) It will take little work to adapt Lesson 1 for this new approach, but I now, finally, have some idea how to write Lesson 2 - which has been a significant hindrance on my writing.
Book Plans - Last issue, I expected that we would have one or two books completed by the end of the year, those books being composed of updated versions of already published materials.
Surprising few people, the books haven't yet happened. The distractions of the financial situation hurt both morale and concrete progress. More important, the documents that we intended to incorporate into book form have lots of elusive little inconsistencies which are taking a long time to resolve and document so that we don't introduce new errors as we correct the old. The January weekend meeting discussed above led to a lot of changes in the gismu list place structures, and all other documents have to be reconciled with those changes. A lot of progress has been made, though, and I can surely state that, except for the time I'm taking to produce this JL issue, la lojbangirz. is decidedly in a book-producing mode.
The number of books planned has increased as we produce the two originally identified. Here's the current plan:
Textbook - The existing draft textbook lessons will be updated to the current language and minor changes put in to reflect specific difficulties that people had with an explanation. This revision will take time, but isn't too difficult. Some added tutorial materials, dealing with topics not covered in the 6 lessons that are important to new Lojbanists will be appended, and the first chapter of the new draft textbook will serve as an overview at the beginning.
Thereafter, work will commence on writing the 'real' textbook, using some of the ideas I've learned from teaching the language since the first draft textbook was started in 1989, as well as from our learning Russian, as described above. This writing may take a year or two, so that the revised draft textbook is what there will be until then. The full textbook may run to 2 volumes - I haven't yet seen a textbook that gives conversational fluency in a language in even two books.
Lojban, while simpler than most languages, still has a large vocabulary to learn. There is a minimum amount of vocabulary that must be mastered to converse fluently in any language. We have had little success in convincing people to get that head start on the vocabulary needed to make textbook learning flow smoothly. The draft lessons averaged 100 new words per lesson, and people in the first class did not do enough self-study of this vocabulary to have the vocabulary keep up with their grammar learning. The answer is smaller, shorter lessons, and some additional work on vocabulary teaching and drilling techniques. But language textbooks seem to set a target of around 1000-1200 words for a typical textbook, and this is only enough for rudimentary communication in most languages, including Lojban. Thus we will need 2 books to get people to active use vocabularies of 2000+ words, which is almost certainly the minimum needed for any real comfort in communicating.
Of course people using LogFlash can get to that 2000 word level much more quickly, and without a book, since the gismu and cmavo in LogFlash 3 together amount to around 2000 words, and most of these have some use in conversation and writing.
Reference Book/Dictionary - Originally the dictionary was going to come after the textbook. This has changed. As indicated last issue, we decided to assemble the various draft reference materials into a single book replacing our motley collection of printed handouts and reference lists with a single cheaper volume that is also up-to-date.
Because we need up-to-date references in order to revise the draft textbook, we decided last year that this book was to come first. It has turned out that producing it was not a simple assembly of old documents because bringing those documents into consistency with the current language has taken a lot of time. However, the added time has provided insights that will make the new document better than originally expected. The revised gismu list, for example, now typically has 2 or more English glosses for each Lojban word, and the English order list will be much more useful for those looking up words. We've had side projects going on regarding Lojbanization of names, and are even starting to assemble some of the lujvo used in Lojban text so far into lists (there have been over 2000 such lujvo actually used in Lojban text, which can be added to some 5000 proposed words that are on paper and computer disk from earlier Loglan work). I expect that the slow production process will allow me enough time to put a non-trivial sampling of these into the book. The resulting lists will be less thoroughly checked and standard than the well-analyzed gismu and cmavo lists, but the reference book is now looking more like the dictionary that people really want to see.
It won't be the dictionary I WANT to produce, but it will have more to it than most first dictionaries of artificial languages, and will serve as a good start.
I have been calling this book the 'proto-dictionary'.
The proto-dictionary will also have the formal grammar in both YACC and BNF forms, a glossary of Lojban and technical/linguistic jargon that often appears in discussion of Lojban, the morphology rules, and other useful reference material. I plan to include a form of the selma'o catalog started by John Cowan (described above).
A more complete dictionary will be built after this one is done, but it again will take a couple of years - I've always known this was a big project for one person, and without funding for more than myself to work on it, it will take a lot of time.
Nora has found a purse-sized gismu list that I prepared for her as an experiment to be very useful. therefore, we are considering putting out a tiny pocket version of the protodictionary with word lists only. If you think such a book would be useful enough for you to buy in addition to the full protodictionary, let us know - the market for this book will determine whether it is produced in this generation of Lojban materials, rather than waiting until there are more Lojbanists to buy it.
Grammar Description - John Cowan's papers, described above, along with the ones I have written and will write in the future, will form the third basic Lojban book.
Introduction to Lojban - The cost to us of our introductory package is quite high, and only some 10-20% of the people who ask for information send us payment. By assembling the introductory package into a small book, we can get better postal rates for mailing it, as well as reducing our printing costs. The savings is only a few hundred dollars a year, but every little bit helps, and a lower price might encourage more to pay.
Lojban Phrase Book - We started doing a phrase book for LogFest last year, and a few dozen pages of materials have been assembled. The concept is similar to the standard 'Berlitz' phrase-books for travellers, recognizing that the phrases a Lojbanist needs are not quite the same as those that a traveller to a foreign country would want.
Lojban Reader - We are still talking about this book, though it will likely be delayed because the other books are more important and the market for a reader is still small. The amount of Lojban text that has been written or translated is now enormous. However, checking the translations are slow and inefficient; even small changes in the language require a rechecking. We are also hoping that more Lojbanists will start writing new things in the language rather than translating. Most things people wish to translate are covered by copyright, and tracking down of permissions to reproduce such translations commercially is something we haven't figured out how to do efficiently (along with the fact that we might have to pay royalties).
=== Schedule ===
We may not be too good lately at meeting our schedules, being too dependent on both time and money that are not under our control, but having a schedule helps us keep priorities straight, and helps you know what he are doing to bring the language to you.
Here are the current plans:
<pre style="text-align: center">
(June 92)
LogFest 92A
<br />JL16
<br />LK16
<br />Diagrammed Examples of Lojban Sentences
<br />Tense Paper
Electronic postings to PLS:
<br />Diagrammed Examples of Lojban Sentences
<br />Tense Paper
<br />Mex Paper
<br />lerfu Paper draft
<br />Text Structure Paper draft
<br />Logical Connectives Paper draft
<br />Revised cmavo list
<pre style="text-align: center">
(August 92)
LogFest 92B - Annual Meeting
<br />JL17
<br />LK17
<br />Lojban Mini-Lesson
<br />Mex Paper
<br />What is Lojban - la lojban. mo Brochure (Esperanto version)
Electronic postings to PLS.:
<br />lerfu Paper
<br />Text Structure Paper
<br />What is Lojban - la lojban. mo Brochure (Esperanto version) - updated
<br />A comparison of Lojban and 1989 Institute Loglan (Cowan)
<br />Glossary of Lojban/linguistic terminology
<pre style="text-align: center">
(September 92)
<br />Lojban Reference Materials/- Proto-Dictionary
<br />Lojban Pocket Dictionary
<br />Hypercard LogFlash/Mac - (Revised and New versions)
<pre style="text-align: center">
(November 92)
<br />JL18
<br />LK18
<br />Lojban Learning Materials (Book)
Electronic postings to PLS.:
<br />Revised Draft Lessons 1-6
<br />Negation paper (updated)
<br />Attitudinal Paper (updated)
<br />Synopsis of Lojban Orthography, Phonology, and Morphology (updated)
<pre style="text-align: center">
(Dec 92)
<br />Lojban Parser (PC and some UNIX versions)
<br />Lojban Parser/Glosser
<br />Logflash 2 - rafsi (Revision 7)
<pre style="text-align: center">
Unscheduled But Planned
<br />Lojban Textbook
<br />Lojban Dictionary
<br />Lojban Reader
<br />Lojban Phrase Book
Printed and Electronic:
<br />Lojban gismu Etymologies
<br />Lojban Adventure Game
=== Using the Language ===
The most heartening development of the last several months has been the spread of regular and active Lojban work to several people outside of the DC area. These people, primarily in contact with each other through the computer networks, are doing a variety of translations and other writings, games, and discussions. The activities being undertaken often rely on advanced Lojban skills. That people are able to do these activities without direction or instruction from those of us who did the language design proves that the language has now been defined well enough that it is no longer totally dependent on Nora, pc, John Cowan and myself for survival.
Even more significantly, the people participating in these activities come from a variety of language backgrounds. Ivan Derzhanski, in Scotland, is native Bulgarian. Nick Nicholas, in Australia, is native Greek/English. Colin Fine, in the UK, of course uses British English, while Mark Shoulson uses American English (though he does most of his translating to Lojban from Hebrew). A new Lojbanist, Veijo Vilva is Finnish.
Lojban Conversation Group - Before Athelstan's accident in February, the Lojban conversation group here in DC passed its first anniversary of regular weekly conversation sessions in Lojban. Without Athelstan, we have shifted to non-conversation activities such as translations to and from Lojban of simple texts, while teaching new Lojbanist David Young enough of the language that he can comfortably participate in conversation. As described above, we expect to merge the conversation group into a new Lojban class here in the DC area that will swell our numbers of conversant speakers.
On the Net - Lojban List has remained steady at around 60-80 members, though the last few weeks have shown a new group of people joining in. While most of the subscribers to this list are 'lurkers' in net terminology (they read what's posted but seldom contribute), the number who contribute to discussions has grown to a couple of dozen.
The intensity of discussion varies. Earlier this year, the list was averaging a dozen messages a day, some of considerable length. Lately, things have been quiet, with only one or two messages a day.
The technical level of discussions has increased. Indeed, we've had a little problem in that new subscribers who haven't received our materials tend to be a bit lost in the details of the fairly advanced discussions, and very little is posted for beginning Lojbanists. I keep urging beginners to post questions, but few participate.
Phone Game - The old party game called variously "the phone game" or "whisper down the line" has found a new incarnation in Lojban. Originally started by Jack Bennetto, this game is just completing its 3rd 'round'. Lojbanists are each given a message, originally in English. They translate it into Lojban and pass it to the next person, who translates it back to English, then the next back to Lojban, etc. until the message has gone full circle. The requirement is to translate about two lines once a week, so the time commitment is rather small.
Participants in the latest 5 message round include Ivan Derzhanski, Sylvia Rutiser, Mark Shoulson, Colin Fine, and Nora LeChevalier, with Nick Nicholas coordinating things and assembling the results.
At the end of the game, Nick collects comments from everyone on the obvious and not-so-obvious errors that creep into the translations, and they are posted to Lojban List. Two sample messages from the 2nd round, with post-game commentary, appear in le lojbo se ciska below. People participating in the game learn much from trying to find ways to rephrase what they receive. Nick is hoping to increase the number of participants in the next round.
Translations and other Writings - The volume of Lojban text, mostly translations, continues to grow. So does the diversity of translators and sources. Nick Nicholas is still by far the leading translator into Lojban, with about 10 new efforts of length comparable to that in JL15 since that issue was published. Some of these translations are from Greek, both ancient and modern, some are from Esperanto, and even a couple from English. Nick has also completed translating the text of the original 'Adventure' computer game, known as 'Colossal Cave' (badbarda kevna), and we hope to have a Lojban version of this game available by the end of the year.
Ivan Derzhanski has translated two stories from Bulgarian into Lojban. One of these will probably appear in the next issue, unless we get the final review done in time for this issue's deadline. Ivan has been complimented for his 'natural' Lojban use that is very easy to read.
Mark Shoulson has translated sections of Genesis from the original Hebrew, as well as some traditional Hebrew songs. Colin Fine has translated the fairy tale "The Princess and the Pea", and several songs, including one of his own. John Cowan has translated a short tale from Hakka, a rural Chinese dialect. Veijo Vilva and And Rosta have each translated haiku poetry, and Lojbab translated a Gilbert and Sullivan song. Jamie Bechtel revised his translation of an Ursula Leguin science fiction story, which we will print if we can get copyright release. And of course the DC group has done a variety of translations, mostly of simple texts from the 19th century schoolbooks called "McGuffy's Readers".
Michael Helsem recently sent a new poem written in Lojban, after several months of inactivity while relocating to Seattle. Thus far he's the only one emphasizing original writing in Lojban.
Discussions - Lojban List has had discussions on innumerable topics, and space is forcing us to leave most of these out of this issue. These discussions have been very helpful in resolving some of the issues that come up as we clean up the loose ends in the language documentation. Some of the discussions are excerpted in this issue, and more will appear in later issues, but we can hardly start to include the volume of material appearing on Lojban List.
Linguist List - John Cowan and Lojbab have also been active in "Linguist List", a mailing list for professional linguists who are conducting research. Our activity has earned us, and Lojban, name recognition in this critical community, and we have garnered considerable respect for Lojban's potential value in linguistics research (see research news below).
Conlang - A third mailing list exists for people interested in constructed languages in general as opposed to Lojban or some other particular language. Many of the participants are people inventing their own languages, often for fun or for use in fiction. Lojbanists contribute frequently on this forum, and we have gained several new supporters as a result.
=== Research Using Lojban ===
As we have gained respect in the linguistics community, a few linguists have offered ideas for how Lojban would be useful in their work. I'll highlight three key contacts.
Alexis Manaster-Ramer - Alexis is a noted linguist at Wayne State University in Michigan. He is active in a variety of linguistics arenas, and leads in international relations with the Russian linguistics community, computational linguistics, and historical linguistics (he has a forthcoming paper that will be the first in-depth technical review by American linguists of the 'Nostratic' theory of language evolution, which has been much-discussed in the popular press.
Alexis has suggested that Lojban may be well-suited for use in semantic analysis of differing natural languages. Specifically, if you have, for example, a word in Polish, and a word in English, they might be translated into two separate words in Lojban, but then using some of Lojban's features to serve as a metalanguage for talking about the relationships between the meanings. He says that linguists often make nonsensical claims/errors because in dealing with glosses of words from other languages, they often forget that the gloss is not necessarily identical in meaning.
(He cites as an example a guy who did his thesis demonstrating that English "if" was not a logical connection by examining how translations of "if" s sentences into Tagalog were not logical connectives because the word used in Tagalog definitely doesn't ever act like such a connective. Alexis notes that this argument is silly - the Tagalog word was not necessarily identical in meaning to the English word, even if it WAS used in translation. Ideally you want to never assume that two words in different language map to exactly the same semantic space.
Another example, from Polish (which is Alexis' native language). 'Orange' in its Polish incarnation is not as primary a color as it is in English. Even though the archetype orange may be similar or identical in the two languages, the word for the concept covers a narrower band in Polish, so some things English calls 'orange' Alexis sees as a flavor of yellow and more rarely as red. Lojban has the capability, independent of the vaguely defined Lojban narju, to add words glinarju and polskrnarju for the two source language "oranges". Having different words, a Lojban-using analyst wouldn't assume them to be identical in meaning, and would perhaps also have the metalanguage capability through adding BAI places and the like, to clearly distinguish the meanings and the transformations needed to relate the two. Each word would have an archetype and a range in both hue and saturation - the limits between orange and other colors being different in Polish than in English.
Alexis thus sees in Lojban the basis for a general or universal semantic theory after the concept that none other than Whorf had (Whorf apparently thought that gestalt psychology could serve as the basis of an independent universal semantic theory). Lojban's cultural independence (whether neutral or not, it is relatively independent of other cultures through the need to reformulate and reanalyze virtually every concept for both syntactic and semantic place structure values when you translate into Lojban), and its extensibility allow for a lot of power in semantic analysis.
While the goal is some kind of universal semantic analysis capability, just the ability to use Lojban to tackle small problems, like the color words, or Nootka sentence words or 57 Inuit words for snow, would be a boon to linguists doing their work. The longer term goal need not even be dealt with at first.
It is interesting that an opportunity like this comes up in semantics, the area where we have done the least work in Lojban, and yet the lack of work done is not a handicap for the research Alexis has in mind.
For the technically minded, linguist David Elworthy attempted to reformulate my description in more formal terms. In some ways his version seems more clear than my presentation. David writes:
We are considering lexical translation between two languages lg1 and lg2. Such a translation will only rarely be an isomorphism, in the sense that the words (or whatever) in the language will have identical meanings; most of the time we have a homomorphism, i.e. in going from lg1 to lg2 we discard some of the meaning and add in some extra bits of meaning. The problem is that linguists and others who work with translations forget that they are using a homomorphism and treat it as an isomorphism: hence the "if" in English and Tagalog example. The picture of what happens at the moment is thus:
lg1 -----------------> lg2
(using h for the homomorphism).
The proposal is to use a three stage process: lg1 to the nearest object (word, phrase) in Lojban, some object in Lojban to lg2, and something to link the two Lojban objects, i.e.:
lg1 ----> Lojban ----> Lojban ---- > lg2
      h1          h2          h3
such that composing the three homomorphisms h1, h2 and h3 gives you h.
The suggestion is that Lojban is a good tool for this because we can produce objects for the middle stages which have a very precise meaning (so we get h1 and h3 right), and furthermore that these meanings can be reduced to members of a small collection of primitive objects joined with well-defined connective. Hence we should be able to get h2. So we have reduced h to simpler terms, and so we can get a more precise understanding of the original translation.
When I started to write this I was trying to work out why I felt skeptical about it, and I think I now find that I am less skeptical than I thought! The major difficulty is in h1 and h3. To know whether you have got these right, i.e. found or constructed the right Lojban objects, you have to make reference to something outside the languages involved, and this might just mean that you have replaced the need to do this once (in h) with a need to do it twice (h1 and h3). But perhaps this is really the aim: to reduce one hard problem to two easier ones.
Ivan notes further that Lojban may be most helpful where it is important to forget about cultural concepts or about the Indo-Europeanish concept of parts of speech. He also mentions family relationship words and tenses as fruitful areas of investigation.
Anyone interested in actively keeping abreast of this research project should let us know. If you have access to the computer nets, this is helpful, since that is likely where most discussion will take place as we attempt to focus this into a more formal research proposal. We will of course keep people generally aware of how this develops in JL.
Ivan Derzhanski - Ivan is pursuing his own research interests at the University of Edinburgh. He plans to use Lojban significantly in his research. Among other activities, Ivan has written and submitted a paper addressing the variety of modification strategies that languages use in tanru (modifier/- modificand pairings). He includes some Lojban examples.
Alan Libert - Alan is a linguist at McGill University in Canada. In April he gave a presentation at the International Linguistics Association meeting in Washington DC, which I attended. Alan's paper was on the use of artificial languages, especially those (like Lojban) which do not attempt to copy the structures of some other language or group of languages (a priori languages) to research in language universals. He hypothesizes that those who invent languages will unconsciously incorporate true universals in their language design even when they are trying to depart from their native language constraints.
His initial efforts, dealing with the well-known analyses of word order in languages, were inconclusive. However, we noted in discussion of the paper that such 'obvious' features of language design are too well-known and hence likely to be an intentional choice on the part of the language inventor. For example, the recently publicized "Klingon" language used in the Star Trek movies was explicitly invented to have Object before Subject order, a rare feature found only in a few Amazon-region languages.
=== International News/Publicity ===
There is not much news in these areas that isn't already covered elsewhere. With active Lojbanists now scattered around the world (indeed, while our mailing list is heavily concentrated in the US, the people actually learning and using the language seem exceptionally spread out), news about Lojban is often 'international'.
In the publicity arena, we have had some useful international developments. The major international Esperanto monthly Monato had a short article mentioning Lojban and giving our mail and computer addresses. A couple of dozen have responded, almost all from outside the US, and we hope to encourage this development into a further spurt of international Lojban use.
The second development is Nora and my eventual trip to Russia as part of our adopting a child. The nature of that process is such that we will not be able to do much lead planning of the trip, but I certainly intend to take advantage of our visit to promote Lojban in that country, noted for its diverse ethnic and linguistic heritage. (I'm hoping to have a Russian translation of the Lojban brochure and perhaps other materials before leaving).
There is a good possibility that la lojbangirz. will lose its capability to accept credit card orders/contributions, which we started primarily for the benefit of non-US supporters. We are now paying US$15/month minimum and no annual fee; this will rise in October to US$50 per year and US$25/month minimum. We will be paying more in fees most months than we gain in income from credit cards. Unless we find a new, cheaper avenue for processing credit cards, this service will have to be dropped. We will still be able to process non-US denominated cheques using Thomas Cook, for a US$3.50 fee. If you are planning a credit card contribution, though, I recommend that you do so before summer ends.
=== News From the Institute ===
The Loglan Institute (TLI) continues to survive, though this remains fairly invisible on the forums that we see. Since our last issue, two more issues of Lognet have appeared. Each contains a short piece of Loglan text, and discussions of various technical issues. Lognet seems to look like some of our early JL issues, only much smaller.
Most entertaining is how users of the TLI version are discovering many of the improvements we made in creating Lojban 5 years ago, or have added since. Indeed, almost every change reported in TLI Loglan was already part of Lojban. Given the wide overlap between TLI supporters and readers of this publication and our computer net discussions, there may be a reason for this.
JCB has been especially invisible the last several months. Having moved TLI to San Diego when he relocated there last summer, JCB has apparently spent the time since last November preparing and sailing his yacht from Florida around to his new home.
TLI Legal Appeal Rejected - As reported last issue, TLI appealed the US Patent and Trademark Office ruling in our favor that 'Loglan' was not a valid trademark for TLI's "dictionaries and grammars" because it is a generic name for a language and not an indication that the source of those products is TLI. This ruling, the result of a long dispute between us and TLI, would allow us to use 'Loglan' freely in our promotion of our materials, especially in attempting to reach the people who have heard of Loglan through the 1960 Scientific American article, Heinlein's reference in The Moon is a Harsh Mistress and other such instances that predate or are otherwise unrelated to TLI and its products. The legal battle was started in 1988 after TLI threatened legal action over our use of the term 'Loglan' in JL in ways they did not approve.
Oral arguments on the appeal were held on 7 November 1991, before three judges of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Bill Herbert of Staas and Halsey argued for la lojbangirz., while Wesley Parsons argued for TLI. JCB was present in the courtroom, as were Athelstan and myself.
Oral arguments lasted only about a half hour; then a long wait for the decision, which was finally issued on 28 April. The decision was clearly and strongly in our favor, and makes further likelihood that our position will be refuted quite remote. Mr. Parsons has filed a request for rehearing, as is often done, but the appeals court rarely grants such requests.
The Circuit Court of Appeals is normally the court of last resort for trademark and other intellectual property cases. The only higher court is the U. S. Supreme Court, and they take perhaps one such case every several years; the grounds for such a Supreme Court appeal have to typically require some particular controversy, a significant constitutional issue, or disagreement between lower courts (which cannot happen in trademark cases, since there is now only one appeals court that handles trademark issues). These grounds are going to be particularly difficult to find in the Loglan decision. A Supreme Court case is also quite expensive to file for such a low chance of success, and with this appeal decision, the courts have started requiring TLI to pay some of our costs in refuting their appeals.
In discussing the appeal in Lognet, JCB made statements suggesting that he was confident of victory and that it was just a matter of time until this occurred. As a result of these statements, our attorney has urged that we publish the Appeals decision in full so that there is no question that TLI's case has little on which to stand. We are doing so below, omitting only legal case citations that wouldn't mean much except to lawyers (we'll supply a copy of the decision, and of the original trademark cancellation decision to those wanting these details, at reproduction cost).
One more settlement attempt rejected - While we continue to defend our right to use the term "Loglan" in promoting the language, we have continued, whenever avenues present themselves, to pursue more productive resolutions of our disputes with TLI. Discovering on short notice that JCB was coming to Washington to attend the hearing, we initiated contact through our attorneys to set up a mediated discussion of differences leading to a resolution of those differences. When TLI seemed to show interest, we hurriedly drafted a lengthy proposal to serve as an agenda for such a meeting, indicating several options that could be pursued. However, TLI quickly rejected the proposal/agenda without comment, and indicated that they found no basis for mutual discussions. Thus, even though JCB and I were in the same courtroom in November, at his choice no meeting occurred.
== le lojbo se ciska ==
<pre style="text-align: center">
Excerpt from the 2nd Round of the Phone Game
Here is the first of two sample sentences from the phone game played on the computer nets. This one communicated very well. Commentary courtesy of Nick Nicholas.
The original phrase was:
Hot?! Man, it was so hot, if you cracked an egg on the sidewalk, it'd fry in ten seconds flat! Honest!
Mark Shoulson translated this as:
xu pu glare paunai .i leni glare zo'u lenu karpo'i da'i lo sovda vi lo dzuklaji cu rinka lenu ra bazi binxo lo se jukpa ba'o lo snidu be li pano sa'e .i ba'ucu'i
<br />(Was it hot? (This is not a question). For the amount of heat, (something) open-breaking (suppose) into an egg (pieces) at a walk-street causes that it (the egg pieces) become a cooked-thing after 10 seconds (exactly!). (Accuracy!))
Mark justified not explicitly flagging exaggeration by saying: A little strange, in that the speaker claims not to be exaggerating, but then that's the most common form of exaggeration. It hardly seems likely to expect Lojban speakers to be honest with their attitudinals and lose the power their hyperbole. Then again, we can assume that the sentence really is true, so that's okay.
The main blunder is with the place structure of porpi: it has x1 breaking into pieces x2, not agent x1 breaking x2 into pieces x3 (this is popygau or some variant of popri'a). I like prenexes too, but I would put leni glare into an explicit BAI place (ki'u...).

What I was in fact looking for is the translation of "so hot that..." suggested by Lojbab in a past JL: ".i glare seja'e lenu co'eli'o". Are we sure that, if the breaking of the egg is hypothetical, that its effect (it's being cooked) is also hypothetical; ie. the Lojban doesn't necessarily imply "If you were to break the egg, it will ca'a cook"? I suppose so.

                  JUNE 26-28 AND AUGUST 14-17, 1992
One may debate whether Mark's translation was good Lojban (personally, I think it was). In any case, it was excellent English :), as Colin's translation shows:

WAS IT HOT! The heat - if you cracked an egg on the pavement it would be cooked in ten seconds, no more, really!
                      DETAILS IN NEWS SECTION

    ju'i lobypli  (JL)  is  the  quarterly  journal  of  The  Logical
(I don't have any comment to make: this is the first almostfully successful message relay in this game).
Language Group,  Inc., known  in these  pages as  la lojbangirz.    la
lojbangirz. is a non-profit  organization formed  for the  purpose of
completing and  spreading the  logical  human  language  "Lojban  -  A
Realization of  Loglan" (commonly  called "Lojban"), and informing the
community about logical languages in general.
    la  lojbangirz.  is  a  non-profit  organization  under  Section
501(c)(3) of  the U.S.  Internal Revenue  Code.  Your donations  (not
contributions to  your voluntary  balance) are  tax-deductible on U.S.
and most  state income  taxes.  Donors are notified at the end of each
year of their total deductible donations.
    For purposes  of  terminology,  "Lojban"  refers  to  a  specific
version  of  a  logical  human  language,  the  generic  language  and
associated research  project having  been called  "Loglan"  since  its
invention by  Dr. James  Cooke Brown in 1954.  Statements referring to
"Loglan/Lojban" refer  to both the generic language and to Lojban as a
specific instance  of that language.  The Lojban version of Loglan was
created as  an alternative  because Dr.  Brown  and  his  organization
claims  copyright  on  everything  in  his  version,  including  each
individual word  of the vocabulary.  The Lojban vocabulary and grammar
and all language definition materials, by contrast, are public domain.
Anyone may  freely use  Lojban for  any purpose  without permission or
royalty.  la lojbangirz. believes that such free usage is a necessary
condition for  an engineered  language like  Loglan/Lojban to become a
true human  language, and  to succeed  in the  various goals that have
been proposed for its use.
    Page count  this issue:  48 +  40 enclosures  = 88  ($8.80  North
America, $10.56 elsewhere).  Press run for this issue of ju'i lobypli:
265.  We now have about 726 people receiving our publications, and 240
more awaiting textbook publication.

                          Your Mailing Label
Sylvia came up with:

Your mailing  label reports  your current  mailing  status,  and  your
.u'e glare .ije da'i lo sovda cu selporpi di'o le dagysfe seri'a seljukpa snidu ja'e li su'e pa no
current voluntary  balance including  this issue. Please notify us of
<br />((Wonder!) Heat. And (suppose) an egg is broken at the locus of the road-surface causing (that: {lenu} omitted) (something) is- cooked lasting- -(some)-seconds result the number at most 10.)
changes in  your activity/interest  level.   Balances reflect  contri-
butions received  thru 30  May 1992.   Mailing  codes (and approximate
balance needs) are:

Activity/Interest Level:                       Highest Package
This has me a bit worried. The place of da'i in the sentence can be argued about, but the seljukpa snidu ja'e sequence doesn't make much sense to me. Well it does, but it circuitous. What's happening is: "it's a being-cooked lasting-n-seconds thing" which makes sense, sorta, but you're waiting to find out what n is, and instead of n being the second place (seljukpa snidu li su'epano), it shows up as a ja'e place: "resulting in the number 10". Now this could mean "it's an n-second cook ending up being 10 seconds" (cf.: it's a ten-second wait) which is fine, but it in fact ends up as "it's an n-second cook resulting in the number ten." In Lojban, of course, it's easier to deduce from the second phrase that the first was meant. I would still, however, regard this use of ja'e as anomalous, and dangerously vague.
Received (Price Each)                          Other flags:
B - Observer    0 - Introductory Materials ($5)  JL JL Subscription
C - Active Supporter                            1 - Word Lists and
Language Description ($15)                     (followed by
expiration issue #)
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subscription prepaid
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Materials ($30)  LK LK Subscription ($5/yr)
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  Please keep us informed of changes in your mailing address, and US
None the less, the meaning is still retrievable, and there hasn't been any significant distortion, as in other sentences.
subscribers are asked to provide ZIP+4 codes whenever you know them.

[Another phone game extract will be found below.]
                        Contents of This Issue

    Important:    Due  to  financial  constraints,  ju'i  lobypli  is
== Text of the Court of Appeals Decision ==
converting to  a full subscription basis, starting with the next issue
(JL17).  Please read the section on subscriptions for details.
    It's been  a while  since last  issue, as we attempted to get our
finances back  on an  even keel.  Our financial health plan is taking
effect, and  we  expect  future  issues  of JL  to  resume  quarterly
appearance (if  you are  a subscriber,  of course).  (I  also want to
apologize to  people who have had to wait an excessively long time for
materials ordered  during the  last 6  months.  Hopefully  the  order
backlog will have been corrected when you get this issue.)
    As will  usually be  the case,  this issue contains much material
derived from  the Lojban  List computer  mailing list on the Internet.
Nearly all  such material has been edited, revised, and corrected from
the original.
    We continue  to be flooded with Lojban text from several writers,
and some of this material will be found in this issue.
    Several pieces  in this  issue  relate  to  Lojban  and  computer
applications, and our first research proposal is reprinted.
    The main  body of  this issue  will  be  short,  because  we  are
including two  long enclosures:  a major paper by John Cowan on Lojban
tense structures,  and a  major revision/improvement of the Diagrammed
Summary of Lojban Grammar Forms, which is becoming the mainstay of our
introductory materials.  Some of the material originally prepared for
this issue,  including about 10 pages of discussion of the Sapir-Whorf
Hypothesis, will  be delayed  until JL17  (which,  having  this  extra
preparation done, is much more likely to come out on time!)

As stated above, this is the text of the decision by the US Circuit Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in TLI's appeal of our successful petition for cancellation of TLI's registered trademark for 'Loglan'. The text is printed verbatim, except for asterisks in brackets substituting for multitudinous legal citations that mean little to the average reader.

                          Table of Contents
<pre style="text-align: center">
Cancellation No. 18,026

Brief Glossary of Lojban Terms                                ---3
DECIDED: April 28, 1992
  Subscriptions and Finances                                  ---3
  Athelstan Injured                                          ---4
  Language Education                                          ---5
  Electronic Distribution                                    ---5
  Logfest 92                                                  ---7
  Language Development Status                                ---8
  Status of Products                                          --12
  Schedule                                                    --19
  Using the Language                                          --19
  Research Using Lojban                                      --20
  International News/Publicity                                --21
  News From the Institute                                    --21
le lojbo se ciska                        --22, 25, 31, 35, 37, 41
Text of the Court of Appeals Decision                        --23
lei lojbo                                                    --26
la lojbangirz.'s First Research Proposal                      --27
DLT - Esperanto-based Machine Translation                    --34
A Lojbanic Cultural Allegory                                  --36
Morphology Algorithm                                          --39
Translations of le lojbo se ciska                            --42
Next Issue                                                    --46
Sample Pages from Forthcoming Dictionary                      --46

                      Computer Net Information
Before PLAGER, Circuit Judge, SKELTON, Senior Circuit Judge, and LOURIE, Circuit Judge.

LOURIE, Circuit Judge.

The Loglan Institute, Inc. (Institute), appeals the final decision of the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (Board) in Cancellation No. 18,026 (February 4, 1991). The Board granted The Logical Language Group, Inc.'s (Language Group) motion for summary judgement, holding that the Institute's mark, LOGLAN, is generic and ordered the registration cancelled. We affirm.
    Via Usenet/UUCP/Internet, you can  send messages  and text files
(including things  for  JL  publication) to  la  lojbangirz./Bob  at:      (This is a new address and supersedes the prior
"snark" address.)
    You can  also join the Lojban List mailing list (currently around
80 subscribers). Send a single line message (automatically processed)
containing only:
"subscribe lojban yourfirstname yourlastname"  to:    listserv@cuvmb.
If you have problems needing human intervention, send to:  lojban-
Send traffic for the mailing list to:
    Please keep us informed if your network mailing address changes.
    Compuserve subscribers  can also participate.  Precede any of the
above addresses  with INTERNET:  and  use your normal Compuserve mail
facility.  If you  want to  participate on Lojban List, you should be
prepared to  read your  mail at  least every couple of days; otherwise
your mailbox  fills up  and you  are dropped  from  the  mailing-list.
FIDOnet subscribers  can also  participate, although the connection is
not especially  robust.  Write to us for details if you don't know how
to access the Internet network.
    Whether you  wish to  participate in the news-group or not, it is
useful for us to know your Compuserve or Usenet/Internet address.

  We've  been  requested  to  more    rafsi -  affix  combining  forms
explicitly identify people who are  for the gismu;
referred to by initials in JL, and    lujvo  -  compound  words  built
will regularly do so in this spot,  from rafsi;
immediately before  the news  sec-    le'avla -  words  borrowed  from
tion.  Note that  'Athelstan'  is  other languages;
that person's  real name,  used in    brivla - Lojban predicate words,
his public  life,  and  is  not  a  consisting of  gismu,  lujvo.  and
pseudonym.                          le'avla.
                                      tanru -  Lojban  metaphors,  the
  'pc' -  Dr. John Parks-Clifford,  most  productive  and  creative
Professor of  Logic and Philosophy  expression form of the language;
at the  University of  Missouri  -    sumti  -  the  arguments  of  a
St. Louis and Vice-President of la  logical predicate;
lojbangirz.;  he    is    usually    selbri - Lojban predicates which
addressed as  'pc' by  the  commu-  indicate a  relation among  one or
nity.                              more sumti.    A  selbri  is  most
  'Bob',    'lojbab'    -    Bob  often a  brivla or tanru; formerly
LeChevalier  -  President  of  la  called "kunbri" in error;
lojbangirz., and  editor  of  ju'i    bridi - Lojban predications, the
lobypli and le lojbo karni.        basic grammatical structure of the
  'Nora'  -  Nora  LeChevalier  -  language;  a  bridi  expresses  a
Secretary/Treasurer of  la lojban-  complete relationship:  the selbri
girz.,  Bob's  wife,  author  of  expresses  the  relation  and  the
LogFlash.                          sumti express  the various  things
  'JCB', 'Dr.  Brown' -  Dr. James  being related;
Cooke  Brown,  inventor  of  the    selma'o - grammatical categories
language,  and  founder  of  the  of Lojban  words; the basis of the
Loglan project.                    unambiguous formal  grammar of the
  'The  Institute',  'TLI'  -  The  language.      Traditionally  and
Loglan  Institute,  Inc.,  JCB's  erroneously called "lexeme" in the
organization  for  spreading  his  Loglan    community.        These
version of  Loglan, which  we call  categories typically  have a  name
'Institute Loglan'.                derived  from  one  word  in  that
  'Loglan' -  This refers  to  the  grammatical category;  the name is
generic  language  or  language  all  capitals,  except  that  an
project, of  which 'Lojban' is the  apostrophe is  replaced by a small
most  successful  version,  and  letter 'h'.
'Institute    Loglan'    another. 
'Loglan/Lojban'  is    used    in                News
discussions about  Lojban where we
wish to make it particularly clear      Subscriptions and Finances
that the  statement applies to the
generic language as well.            This may be your last issue of
  'PLS' -  The  Planned  Languages            ju'i lobypli.
Server,  a  no-charge  computer-    We are  converting JL  to a sub-
network-accessed      distribution  scription basis.  This is the last
center  for  materials  on  Lojban  issue sent to those not explicitly
(and other artificial languages).  requesting  (and  in  most  cases
                                    paying for) a subscription.
  Brief Glossary of Lojban Terms      At this  point  some  65  people
                                    have returned  forms requesting  a
  Following  are  definitions  of  subscription.    Perhaps  half  of
frequently  used  Lojban  terms.  these have  sufficient balances to
More complete  explanations of the  cover their subscription price.
following are  in the  Overview of    Our  new  special  fund  for
Lojban.                            'scholarship  subscriptions'  will
  cmavo - Lojban structure words    not allow  us to support more than
  gismu  -  Lojban  root  words;  a  few  people  on  a  non-paying
currently 1337;                    basis,    and      these    free

In 1955, Dr. James Brown invented a "logical language" which was designed to test the theory that natural languages limit human thought. It has been described by Dr. Brown as "symbolic logic made speakable" which "derives its word-stock impartially from the eight most widely spoken natural languages and so is culturally and politically neutral as well as suitable for cross-cultural linguistic experimentation." Dr. Brown coined the word "Loglan" (derived from logical language) to designate the new language. He first used the term Loglan in a publication in 1956; several years later, in 1962, he formed the Institute to promote the development and use of Loglan. On August 17,1987, the Institute applied for registration of Loglan as a mark for "Dictionaries and Grammars." The registration issued on April 12, 1988.
subscriptions will be reserved for  deducting for  JL16 (this  issue),
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the  language,  but  cannot  pay  number between "JL 17" and "JL 20"
(mostly international supporters).  on it  indicating that  your  sub-
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signed subscription  request  form  that your  subscription  has  been
and  enough  money  to  cover  the  paid.  You  need  do  nothing  to
subscription price.  If you cannot  continue  receiving  JL;  we  will
afford  this  amount,   you  may  notify you by direct mail prior to
request scholarship  assistance on  your last  subscription issue  for
the  subscription  form.    Con-  renewal.
tributing  some  of  the  amount
required will  raise your priority

-  If you  have  not  returned  a
Apparently unhappy with the Institute's progress in developing the language, a member of the Institute left and in November 1988 founded the Language Group. In February 1989, the Language Group published a newsletter regarding the progress of its logical language. In the newsletter, several references were made to Loglan, prompting the Institute to threaten the Language Group with a trademark infringement suit.
subscription form,  and have  more
than $10  in your  balance  after

On May 23, 1989, the Language Group petitioned the Board to cancel the Institute's registration of the mark Loglan, alleging that Loglan is merely a contraction of, or generic name for a logical language. The Language group also contended that the application for registration had been fraudulently made, or, if a trademark ever existed for Loglan, the mark had been abandoned. After both parties moved for summary judgment, the Board granted the Language Group's motion and ordered cancellation on the ground that Loglan is "a generic designation identifying a language rather than a trademark to indicate the source of goods." Additionally, the Board found that the application had not been fraudulently made and that the abandonment issue was moot. The Board refused to consider the affirmative defenses raised by the Institute, stating that some were not within the Board's jurisdiction and others were not good defenses against a charge of genericness. The Institute argues here that the Board erred in holding that Loglan was a generic term and in refusing to consider the affirmative defenses.
-    If  you  have  returned  a  "JL 17" since you have received no
subscription form  and  have  less  chance to  send in  a subscription
than $10  in  your  balance  after  request  form  until  now.    Your
deducting for  JL16 (this  issue), balance will  be charged  $10  for
and  you  sent  at  least  $40  in  JL17 if  we have  not  received  a
balance  contributions  between  1  form prior to that issue.
Dec. 1991  and 15 April 1992, your
mailing label will have "JL 20" on  -  When  you  stop  receiving  JL
it.  You have  been given  a full  after the subscription expiration
four-issue  subscription.      The  issue, you  will automatically  be
subscription price  has  been  de-  switched to  a subscription to the
ducted from  your balance,  and an  newsletter le  lojbo karni  (LK  -
"*" on the mailing label indicates  subscription price  of around  $5
that your  subscription  has  been  per year).  We expect to cull the
paid.  You  need  do  nothing  to  LK mailing  list  after  the  next
continue  receiving  JL;  we  will  fund-raising  mailer,   dropping
notify  you  prior  to  your  last  those people  with  balances  less
subscription issue for renewal.    than $-30.
                                      We haven't  yet received  enough
-    If  you  have  returned  a subscription  forms  to  justify
subscription form  and  have  less  applying for a 2nd  class postage
than $10  in  your  balance  after  (though  we  are  close).     The
deducting for JL16 (this  issue),  highest  subscription  price  has
and you have sent less than $40 in  been selected  because we'll  have
balance  contributions  since  1  to pay  1st class/air mail postage
December 1991, your mailing label  rates for  at least  one issue, as
will have a number between "JL 17"  well as  at least  $275 to  obtain
and "JL  19" on it indicating that  the 2nd class permit (about $4 for
your subscription expires with the each subscriber)  that will  allow
indicated issue.  You been given a  us to  save postage  costs  there-
part-year subscription.   We  have  after.
deducted the cost of  this  issue 
from your  contribution (if  any),    Final  financial  results  from
and   determined  your  prorated  last  year  -  Our  1991  income
subscription period  based on 1/2  totalled $14,462.59, with expenses
of the remaining contribution (if  of $14,746.31,  for a net loss on
any), with  a minimum  of 1 issue. the year  of about  $300.  Of that
The amount of the subscription has  amount  $10,725.73  was  donations
been deducted  from your  balance,  (around $6000  of  this  was  from
and an  "*" on  the mailing  label  Lojbab and  Nora).  In total, only
indicates that  your  subscription  $3700 was contributed toward bal-
has  been  paid.   You  need  do  ances from  over 850 people on our
nothing to continue receiving JL;  mailing list.  Only  through  our
we will  notify you  prior to your  end-of-year  fund-raiser  did  we
last  subscription    issue  for  even do  this well.  We  received
renewal.  However, we ask that you  $2500 during  the last  20 days of
contribute to  bring your  balance  December, much  of it  as a result
positive if possible.               of  the  fund-raising  drive,  re-
                                    ducing us  from a  deficit of over
-    If  you  have  returned  a  $2000 for the year that might have
subscription form  and  asked  for  crippled us.
scholarship  support  for  your    At the end  of  1991,  we  owed
subscription:  we  have  not  yet  about $5800  in legal  fees on the
decided who will get such support,  trademark  battle,  which  we're
but given  the above  policy,  you  repaying at  $500 per month.  This
will at least receive JL17.        is taking every penny that Lojbab,
                                    Nora and Jeff Prothero,  who  are
-    If  you  are  an  overseas  financing the legal fees, can con-
recipient  of  JL,  then  you  are  tribute.   We must  count  on  the
slated to receive at least through

rest of  you  to  keep  the  orga-    Status this  year -  So  far  in
nization going financially.        1992, we're  losing money.  Up to
                                    now, against some $2500 in income,
                                    we've spent around $2800; JL16 and
                                    LK16 will  cost another $1200, and
                                    we have  over  $1500  precommitted
                                    towards future  JL  subscriptions.
                                    Thus, we  expect to  need  another
                                    fund-raising drive within a couple
                                    of months.  I  hope to tie such a
                                    fund-raiser to the announcement of
                                    the first Lojban book.  But please
                                    don't wait until then.  Contribute
                                    now!  We don't  know yet  how  we
                                    will  finance  book  publication,
                                    which will  cost several  thousand
                                      Our Numbers - Support for Lojban
                                    continues  to    grow    at    an
                                    outstanding  rate;  we  lose  few
                                    people (mostly people who move and
                                    forget  to  tell  us  their  new
                                    address), while  averaging  1  new
                                    person every 2-3 days for the last
                                      Following  are  our  numbers  by
                                    level  of  interest  and  sub-
                                    scription, as  of this publication
                                    (numbers  in  parentheses  include
                                    multiple persons per address):
                                      Level E  - Practitioner  (people
                                    who have  actually produced Lojban
                                    text, are  actively  working  with
                                    the  language,    and  receiving
                                    materials from us) - 13 (17)
                                      Level D  - Lojban  Student -  95
                                      Level C  - Active Observer - 139
                                      Level B  - Inactive  Observer  -
                                    627 (663)
                                      JL16 subscribers - 241 (272)
                                      JL17 subscribers - 114 (130)
                                      JL subscription request returned
                                    - 66 (72)
                                      Prepaid beyond JL17 - 55 (61)
                                      LK subscribers
                                      Total active  mailing  list  897
                                            Athelstan Injured
                                      Our efforts  on Lojban  here  in
                                    the Washington  DC area were dealt
                                    a  severe  blow  at  the  end  of
                                    February.  Athelstan, one  of  la
                                    lojbangirz.'s Directors,  received
                                    a head injury in an auto accident,
                                    causing severe  brain damage.  He

==== A. Summary Judgment ====
was in  a coma  for over  2 weeks,    Given my  close friendship  with
but has  made good progress since.  Athelstan, I have had to undertake
Early in April, he was transferred  commitments in  helping his family
to  a  rehabilitation  hospital,  and  other  friends  support  his
where  he  is  slowly  regaining  recovery; this  has taken  a  fair
memory and  living skills;  he  is  amount of  time away  from Lojban,
expected to remain in the hospital  though I  now seem  to be  back in
until    at    least    mid-July.  control of  my schedule.  Indeed,
Regaining his  full  abilities  is  the  incentive  of  knowing  how
uncertain, and  doing so will take  fragile our effort is while so few
many more months, if not years.    of us  know  the  details  of  the
  Athelstan was  one of  the  most  language seems to have remotivated
skilled of Lojbanists, and a major  me  to  get  the  community  of
participant    in    our    weekly  Lojbanists who  are expert  in the
conversation sessions  here in the  language up  to a  self-sustaining
DC area.  We  have had  to change  level.  Even amidst tragedy, there
from  conversation  sessions  to  can be growth and progress.
teaching,  reading,  and  transla-                 
tions sessions;  the  3  remaining          Language Education
conversation-skilled people (Nora,                 
Lojbab, and  Sylvia  Rutiser)  are    DC  Class    -  Even    before
not enough 'critical mass' to keep  Athelstan's accident, we needed to
conversations      lively      and  build up the activity of the local
interesting.                        Lojban  community.    Now,  local
  We've  also  lost  Athelstan's  teaching activities  are even more
contribution to  the endless  work  vital.  As such, starting in June,
that is  being done  around  here.  we'll be  trying to organize a new
Athelstan had  written up his oft-  Lojban  class    here  in    the
taught mini-lesson  in text  form,  Washington DC  area.    The  class
and was  in the middle of revising  will probably  meet in  Fairfax VA
it  for  publication  when  the  (although a  Rockville MD location
accident occurred.  I may be able  is also  being considered),  on  a
to finish  it, but  not quickly  -  weekly basis starting near the end
too much  else to  do.  Athelstan  of June  and last  throughout  the
was  also  one  of  the  principal  summer.  A principal goal will be
reviewers  of  ju'i  lobypli  and  to raise the students' skill level
other la  lojbangirz. publications  so  that  they  can  confidently
that I  and others  write; we  can  participate    in    in-language
only hope  that the quality of our  activities in  the August LogFest,
products is  sustained without his  and be  able to continue in Lojban
excellent  efforts  at  catching  conversation      sessions      or
typos and  more serious  technical  translation activities  after  the
errors.                            class ends.
  The good news is that it appears    Needless to  say, if you will be
that the  damage has not destroyed  in the  DC area  this summer,  and
Athelstan's capacity for language,  are interested in participating in
nor his  interest in  Lojban.  In  such a class, please contact me at
mid-April,  he  responded  to  my  the masthead address or telephone,
"coi.  .atlstan."  with  a  hearty  or via electronic mail per page 2.
"coi." in  return.  At the end of 
our  otherwise  English-language    Other education  efforts -  Most
visit, I  asked him  if he  remem-  of our  education efforts  in  the
bered how  to  say  goodbye;  with  last  several  months  have  been
only minimal  hesitation, he  came  through  electronic  mail  on  the
back with a confident "co'o."      computer networks. I've been able
                                    to delegate  much of this teaching
                                    effort out to other Lojbanists who
                                    are active on Lojban List, and the
                                    numbers and  competency  of  those
                                    attempting to write on Lojban List

The requirements for granting summary judgment in a trademark cancellation proceeding are the same as in any other case, viz., that there be no genuine issue of material fact and the movant be entitled to judgment as a matter of law. [*]. We review the propriety of summary judgment de novo. [*]
has continued  to grow  with  each      Electronic Distribution
passing month.                                     
  The network has also served as a  What is  available and  how -  The
testing ground  for new  teaching  electronic  distribution  policy
materials.  Athelstan's draft text  announced  last  issue  has  been
version of  his  mini-lesson  (see  implemented,  more-or-less.    We
below) was  tried out  by about  2  have been  unable to  place JL and
dozen people who returned comments  LK back-issues  and  a few  other
and answers  to exercises.  These  longer materials  on  the  Planned
will be  lead to  a  significantly  Languages  Server  -  our  primary
revised and  improved version  for  electronic distribution point.  We
publication.                        have also been unable to implement
  Similarly,  a  draft  of  the  the file verification program that
Diagrammed Examples paper enclosed  we    intended    because    of
with  this    issue  has    been  incompatibilities between computer
extensively  distributed  on  the systems    that    causes    such
networks (as well as  to many new  techniques to fail.
mail order  Lojbanists) during the    In spite of this, there is now a
last 6  months. French-Australian  lot    of    material    available
linguist  Jacques  Guy  finally  electronically, including  most of
culminated this  review with  some  the  now  public  domain  language
enormously  detailed    comments,  definition  materials  like  word
leading to  the major revision and  lists and  formal grammars.  I've
expansion  included  with  this  been  told  that some  of this
issue.                              material has  been transferred  to
  Even before  this final version,  Compuserve, and I'm  hoping  that
the Diagrammed  Examples,  with  more  will  be moved  to  that
explanatory text,  has  proved  in  network, as  well as  to Genie and
recent  months  to  be  the  most  other  public  computer  networks.
significant learning  aid  to  new  (Let us  know if  you do  so,  and
Lojbanists actually  attempting to  what stuff  you are posting where,
learn  to  use  the  language.  so we can report accurately to the
Several Lojbanists  used only this  community as to  what  is  avail-
paper and  word lists  (that  were  able).
generally obtained  by  electronic    Following  is  a  list  of  all
distribution  per  the  next  sec-  materials  (and  their  filenames)
tion), to self-teach themselves to  available on the Planned Languages
the  level  of  being  able  to  Server  as  of  this  publication
translate Lojban  text written  by  date,  and    instructions    for
more    experienced    Lojbanists.  obtaining them from the Server.
Then, with  a few  such efforts to  __________________________________
give them experience, we have seen            _____________
these Lojbanists start to write in 
Lojban, making  relatively few and    This is  an updated  version  of
minor errors  given the  lack of a  the  file  posted  to  the  PLS
full teaching  text.   (Those  who  entitled "readme"  which  includes
have  study  the  draft  textbook  an annotated and categorized index
and/or  used  LogFlash  have  done  to all files on the list.
still  better,  but  the   effec-    Following the  "readme" file  is
tiveness of this relatively brief  an abbreviated set of instructions
description has  astounded several  for  obtaining  files  from  the
of us  to the  point of motivating  server.  Send the one line message
this new version.)                  'help' to:

The parties agree that the factual issues underlying genericness are undisputed. Though genericness itself has been categorized as a question of fact [*], the parties have each moved for summary judgment on that question. The Board considered the lengthy affidavits and numerous exhibits each party submitted in support of its motion, and concluded that Loglan was generic. Our review requires us to determine whether, based on the evidence of record, the Board was correct in that conclusion. After examining the record, we do not believe the Board erred in concluding that the Language Group was entitled to judgment as a matter of law.

                                    to  get  the  full  help  listing.
==== B. Genericness ====
                                    While you  can  put  multiple  re-
                                    quests in  a file,  my  experience
                                    has been  that  if  there  is  any

The Lanham Act provides for the cancellation of a mark which is or has become the generic name for goods or services [*]. While a trademark registration has a presumption of validity, in a cancellation proceeding that presumption may be rebutted by evidence from the party seeking cancellation [*]. Before the Board, the Language Group presented numerous pieces of evidence to show that Loglan is used generically to designate a logical language.
error on  any command,  the entire  the  network  is  not  free.    la
set  is  disregarded.    I  would  lojbangirz.  spent  some  $2000
therefore suggest  getting 1  file  during  1991  on  network  access,
at a time until you are sure what  supporting  Lojban  List,  this
you are doing.                      archive, and  responding to people
  "gismu.lst"  is   the official,  like you. We do not make a profit
public domain  baseline that  many  on our printed materials, so it is
Lojbanists  already  possess  in  your donations  that will allow us
printed form.  It has 40-character  to continue  to serve  the network
definitions of  the Lojban  gismu,  community of Lojbanists and people
and has  been relatively unchanged  curious about Lojban.
for a few years  now.  Only minor    The files  listed following  are
corrections have been put into the  the  official  postings  of   The
posted file, and the 20 new words  Logical Language  Group,  Inc.  on
adopted  last  year  were  never  this server.  All  other postings
added.                              should be considered unsanctioned,
  "logdata.raw" is  a  preliminary  and possibly incorrect.
version  of  the  new  gismu  list    Language  design  materials  are
baseline.    I  intend  the  new  explicitly listed  here and in the
baseline to  take  effect  shortly  documents themselves  as being  in
after  the  publication  of  JL16,  the  public  domain.    All  other
hopefully within a month.  I would  documents  are  copyrighted  under
recommend  using    the  current  the same  heading listed above for
"logdata.raw" file,  and  ignoring  this document.
the "gismu.lst" file, UNLESS it is    Note on  file names.  All  file
vital to  you to be using a public  names  ending  with  ".unf"  may
domain version.  We  won't object  contain  lines  up  to  about  120
to  any  copying  of  the  still  characters  long.        Original
copyrighted draft  as long  as the  documents    published    by   la
copyright notice  and  the notice  lojbangirz. are  formatted  using
that it  is a  draft stays  intact  longer than  80  character  lines,
with the file.  To all intents and  and this wider line-length was de-
purposes, the   old  40-character  termined to  give a  more readable
file is  obsolete.  I would  rec-  text  when  that  formatting  was
ommend  that  any  new  text  be  removed.  File names  ending with
written  using  the  "logdata.raw"  ".txt"  are  generally  under  80
place structures.  (All  text  in  characters in  width.  Other file
this issue  probably presumes this  name    extensions    have    no
newer version.)                    implication.
  Questions on  any file?  Contact    Many files  are compressed using
Bob LeChevalier  at  the  masthead  a rather  simplistic program  that
address or via:                    tabifies  every    8  characters
                                    INCLUDING A  SINGLE SPACE  IN A  0                  MOD 8  POSITION.  We  have  since
                                    learned that  some  tab  expanders
  See the file "epolicy.txt" for a  will take  a TAB  in  a  0  mod  8
more complete  explanation  of la  position and expand it to 9 spaces
lojbangirz.            electronic  instead of 1. This could cause you
distribution policy.  We ask that problems, which hopefully this no-
users  of  these  files  consider  tice will  help you  correct if it
donating money  for the support of  affects you.  We  consider this a
The Logical  Language Group,  Inc.  failed experiment:  when  we next
We  are  a  501(c)(3)  non-profit  send data  to PLS for uploading we
organization  and  such  donations  will send  files without  the  tab
are tax-deductible  in the  US, to  compression, but this may be a few
the extent  they exceed  the price  months.
of things  we send  you.  While it    The PLS  has very  limited  disk
costs us  little for  you to get a space.   la lojbangirz.  has  con-
copy of the files on this archive,  vinced Mark and Jerry to post much

The parties do not dispute that if Loglan is used generically to designate a language, the term cannot properly be registered as a trademark for "dictionaries and grammars" any more than English can be registered for a dictionary. That Loglan is not as well known as English is immaterial. Because a language is not "goods" or "services" under the Act [*], a name originated for a new language is inherently not registrable for the language. By the same token, a generic name of a language alone cannot function as a trademark to indicate origin of a dictionary describing that language. Thus, our determination hinges on whether the Board was correct in concluding that the term Loglan is, "a generic designation identifying a language."
of the  material we sent them, but  pronounc.unf  9718    10-14-91
they do not have  room for all of    Pronunciation  guide.    Public
it.  In particular, back issues of    domain.
JL and LK, and  a LOT  of  Lojban  gismu.lst    88717  01-09-92
text could  not be posted.  I want    Baselined  gismu  list. Public
to see  some or  all of this mate-    domain.      Expected  to  be
rial  available,  if  only  on  a   superseded soon  by  a  modified
limited time basis.  Therefore, in    version of  "logdata.raw", which
about 3  months, I  will be asking    will the be renamed "gismu.lst"
Mark and  Jerry  to  tell  me  the logdata.raw  115603  01-09-92
rates  of  access  for   Lojban    Lojban gismu  (root word)  draft
directory files.  Seldom accessed    update  >80 characters wide
files may  be deleted  to allow us  roget.lst    40612  10-14-91
to make  room for new  stuff,  as    gismu sorted  by Roget category.
listed at  the end  of  this  doc-    Draft.
ument.  So please don't delay too  logdata3.cma  88312  10-14-91
long if  you want to get a copy of   Lojban  cmavo  (structure  word)
a file listed here.                  list.    Public  domain.  cmavo
                                      order  >80 characters wide
File Name    Bytes  Date          logdata3.lex  88312  10-14-91
  Description                        Lojban  cmavo  (structure  word)
                                      list.  Public  domain.  selma'o
        Control documents            (grammar  category)  order  >80
                                      characters wide
readme        7668    01-09-92      lehavla.alg  2326    10-14-91
  A version of this index.            Draft  proposal  for  borrowing
epolicy.txt  2912    10-09-91        words.
  The  la  lojbangirz.  Electronic 
  Distribution Policy                  Introductory Materials in
orderfrm.unf  9497    10-14-91              Suggested Order
  Current la  lojbangirz.  Product 
  List & Order Form; Include Paper  loglan.txt    8598    10-14-91
  Postal  Address  on  any  order,    Introduction  and  history  for
  please.                            those familiar with other Loglan
  Language Design Materials and    brochure.eng  62820  10-14-91
              Drafts                  Basic    Lojban    Brochure    -
                                      formatted  for  electronic  dis-
grammar.28    64552  10-11-91        tribution
  Baselined Lojban  Grammar - YACC  postbroc.txt  28312  10-14-91
  version; Public Domain.  Without    An    edited    version    of
  explanatory  text  included  in    brochure.eng abbreviated  so  as
  printed versions.                  to   be    more  suitable  for
bnf.28        7872    10-11-91        electronic transmission.
  EBNF  form  of the  Baselined  minilsne.txt  30917  10-16-91
  Lojban Grammar.  Not  verified.    Draft introductory  Draft Lojban
  Public domain.                      mini-lesson.  Return answers to
                                      la lojbangirz. for correction.
                                    overview.unf  63143  10-14-91
                                      Overview  of  the  language and
                                      intro.   to  specialized  ter-
                                    diagexam.unf  10851  10-09-91
                                      Diagrammed  Examples  of  Lojban
                                      Text (the  original  version  of
                                      the one  in JL16  -  the new
                                      version will  replace this  file
                                      shortly, and  is a much  longer

The Institute argues that the relevant public does not perceive Loglan as generic, but rather sees it as indicating a single source of the language. The public's perception is the primary consideration in a determination of genericness [*].
Teaching Materials and Detailed      unpublished  draft  review  -
            Discussion                Loglan 1
useoldl1.txt  15233  10-14-91      ----------------------------------
  How to  use  1975  Loglan  1  to            --------------
  study Lojban  (partially correct    The following  unofficial  files
  for 1989 version)                  are known  to be  in the lojban
newrafsi.unf  77773  10-14-91        directory  of    the    Planned
  List of  Lojban rafsi (combining    Languages Server:
  forms) and how to make compounds 
  (lujvo).                          brochure.french      49403  05-
negation.unf  127903  10-14-91        11-90
  Negation  in    Lojban.    Many    A  French  translation  of  a
  examples.                          somewhat earlier  version of the
scrabble.unf  6098    10-14-91        Lojban brochure.
  Suggested game  rules  based  on  Description  2334    01-09-92
  Lojban letter frequencies          The  official  PLS  description
                                      file of  all files in the Lojban
          Why Lojban?                directory.  Not as detailed or
                                      as accurate as this file.
whylojb.txt  198651  10-14-91  815    06-24-91
  General  discussion  on  'Why    An obsolete version of this file
  Lojban?'  extracted  from  ju'i    that should soon be deleted
  lobypli, Includes  JCB on  Sapir  Index        1280    01-03-92
  Whorf.  Many contributors.          The  file  list  you  get  in
mactrans.txt  12681  10-14-91        response to  the command  "index
  Lojban and  machine  translation    lojban"
  by Patrick Juola                  lojbroch.e-o.tex      69755  09-
moody.txt    18972  10-14-91        12-91
  Lojban  and    other    planned    The draft  Esperanto translation
  languages by Todd Moody            of  the  Lojban  brochure  in
lojb_esp.txt  180734  10-14-91        brochure.eng      Comments  and
  Lojban  and  Esperanto  -  JL    suggestions welcome.
  discussions  including  comments  metflidjimao-vedsia  23871  12-
  from Donald  Harlow and Lojban's    19-90
  'Answer' to the '16 Rules'        welding-shop  27415  12-19-90
lojling.txt  18942  10-14-91        Jim Carter's  1984 Loglan  short
  Lojban's     relevance      to    story and  English translation -
  linguistics and  linguistics re-    not  Lojban    compatible  nor
  search                              consistent with  the current TLI
reply.txt    38747  10-14-91        language, it is still one of the
  1991 Reply  to  Arnold  Zwicky's    longest  Loglan  texts  written
  1969 "Language" Review of Loglan    originally in Loglan rather than
  1                                  in translation.
netdisc.txt  178912  10-14-91     
  Extracted Network Discussions of  Forthcoming Material we hope to
  Lojban and  Sapir-Whorf - mostly            post this year
                                    -    6 Draft  Textbook  Lessons  -
          Lojban Text                updated to 1992 language
                                    -    New Draft Textbook Lesson 1
lordpray.unf  7781    10-14-91      -    Esperanto  Translation    of
  Lojban Paternoster,  updated  to    Lojban Brochure  - Official  Re-
  current  language.    A  prosaic    lease      (the      unofficial
  version.                            "lojbroch.e-o.tex"  above  is  a
                                      draft version of this release)
        Other materials            -    Glossary of Lojban/linguistic
l1longrv.txt  70543  6-08-91      -    Lojban    and    Sapir-Whorf

The Institute concedes that the relevant public is "the small group of persons who have written about the language or have been involved in the invented language research effort as well as those to whom the Loglan language has been or is being marketed." The Institute's definition of "relevant public" is consistent with this court's reading of the term as encompassing both "actual [and] potential purchasers of ... goods or services." [*]. Evidence of what the relevant public understands the term to mean may come from direct consumer testimony, surveys, dictionary listings, newspapers, and other publication [*]. Although in many situation a survey is desirable to establish the public's perception, given the limited size of the relevant group here, the numerous examples submitted by the parties are sufficient to determine how the relevant group perceives the term Loglan.
-    Lojban      and      Prolog    "Path" is  used to  override the
  demonstration example from JL16  mail path  that the archive server
-    Lojban gismu etymologies      chooses from  the header  of your
-    Rebaselined gismu list        mail message.  You should use this
-    Revisions to the Lojban mini-  whenever you  know that the return
  lesson                            address of  your message  will not
-    the  JL16  version  of  the  be useful  to the  archive server.
  Diagrammed Summary of Lojban      The  archive  server  only  knows
-    Synopsis      of      Lojban  about domain style address.
  Orthography, Phonology, Morphol-
  ogy - updated to 1992              e.g.                        path
-    tense paper - introduction to
  Lojban tense structures         
-    attitudinal paper  -  updated  send <archive> <file..>
  to 1992                         
-    logical connectives  paper  -    "Send" mails to you the files in
  introduction to logical and non-  the specified archive.  All of the
  logical connectives              files that  you  request  will  be
-    MEX paper - Lojban expression  sent  to  you  archived  together
  of mathematical text              possibly encoded and split up into
-    lerfu  paper  -  expressing  messages that  are small enough to
  alphabets and special symbols in  be mailed.  You  may have as many
  Lojban                            "sends" in the body  of your mail
-    (papers are  planned to cover  message as you wish.
  other  aspects  of  the  Lojban
  grammar and  will also be posted    e.g.    send lojban logdata.raw
  as available)
-    All  published  Lojban  text;    By  default,  files  that  are
  Not updated to current language. mailable are simply stuck together
  Mostly  translated    &    with  with the  text "cut  here" between
  commentary.  Probably with some  files and;  non-mailable files are
  kind of difficulty and  quality  archived  via  Unix  "tar".  Non-
  grading  to  help  you  choose  mailable files  must be  converted
  appropriate materials.            to something mailable.  By default
                                    this  is   done  with "uuencode".
Abbreviated instructions for the  Some large  or  long-lined  Lojban
            PLS server              files  may  be  considered  non-
                                    mailable, and you will need to run
  To make  the archive  server  do  the companion  program  "uudecode"
something  you  should  send  an  which will  decode a  message that
electronic mail message to:        was  encrypted  using  "uuencode".
                                    This is  a standard  Unix command;    Unix users  should see your system
                                    administrator if  you  don't  know
  Use a  null subject  line.  The  how  to  do  this.     On  MS-DOS
body of the message should consist  machines, there  are a  variety of
of one command per line.  The case  utility versions  of the  decoding
of  the  text  does  not  matter.  tool; we have no information about
Note, however, that  the  server  other computer system versions.
runs on  a UNIX  system, and thus,                 
for  filenames,  the case  DOES              Logfest 92
matter, so  be sure  the files you                 
request are properly capitalized.    Because  of  Athelstan's injury
                                    and other  schedule  problems, we
  You can  find out what files are  have  delayed  LogFest  92,  la
available with  the command "index  lojbangirz.'s annual  meeting  and
lojban".                            gathering  of   Lojbanists  until
                                    August.  The planned date for this
path <mail-path>                    gathering here in Fairfax  VA, is
                                    August 14-17,  1992.   If  you're

The evidence indicates the Dr. Brown himself has used the term Loglan only in a generic sense. For example, in 1984, Brown stated to the Institute's membership:
interested in  coming,  and  espe-  started, will eventually amount to
cially if  you will  be travelling  a    complete    and    detailed
from out-of-town,  please  let  us  description of the language.
know.      As  usual,  we  can    People  have  been  justifiably
accommodate  several  out-of-town  frustrated by the continuing delay
visitors  as  sleeping-bag  guests  in  textbook    and    dictionary
here at Bob and Nora's house.  You  publication.  However, this state
can get  here via  subway from all  should not  stop most  people from
major transportation services into  being  able  to  learn  and  use
Washington DC, and you're unlikely  Lojban.  Indeed, with the possible
to need  a rental car.  Thus, it's  exception of  Esperanto (and  only
a cheap weekend of Lojban fun - we  then  because  so  much  has  been
ask  only  that  attendees  donate  written about it in 100 years), it
around  $25-$40  or  whatever  to  can safely  be said that Lojban is
cover food costs for the weekend.  by far the most thoroughly defined
  Originally, LogFest  was planned  artificial language  that has ever
for the last weekend in June (June  existed.    And  we  continue  to
26-28, 1992).  Because some people  refine that  definition -  not  so
already made plans to come in from  much  because  people  need  such
out-of-town, we will dedicate that  details to learn the language, but
weekend to  Lojban  activities  as  because linguists and computer re-
well, and  others are  invited  to  searchers seeking  to  use  Lojban
come,  too,  making  in  effect  a  for  applications  need  as  much
second LogFest  this summer.  This  detail as  possible  to  plan  re-
first gathering  in June  will  be  search activities.
informal; since  there will  be no    The final development activities
formal meeting,  there  should  be  of significance are those that are
plenty of  time for  a variety  of  tied to  preparation of  the first
Lojban  activities,    especially  Lojban book,  which  is  a  proto-
activities for new people who want  dictionary  and  reference  book.
to get  started  in  learning  the  Preparing this book has required a
language.  Let us know if you are  complete and  detailed  review  of
planning to  come, so  we can make  the gismu  list place  structures,
plans.                              trying to  make them  as clear and
                                    detailed  as    possible,  given
  Language Development Status      limited space.  There  also  were
                                    some  place  structure  changes
  The  language  has  been  quite  needed as  a result of the 'sumti-
stable in the last several months.  raising'  change  discussed  last
With the  breakup of  the USSR, we  issue, and  also as  a result  of
have  added  cultural  gismu  for  other design  decisions made  over
"Ukrainian" and  "Slavic".   There  the  last  few  years.    We  also
have been  a few  cmavo additions, wanted to  add in multiple English
and  one  or  two  deletions  in synonyms where applicable, so that
connection with work by John Cowan  the English  side of the resulting
on papers  describing  the  Lojban  dictionary  will  no  longer  be
tense    system,     mathematical  limited    to   the    sometimes-
language,  and  representation  of  inaccurate unique English keywords
foreign alphabets.                  that the  gismu list  currently is
  Far more  significant  has  been  based on.  In a few cases, actual
those  papers  themselves,  which  usage has  pointed up  a need  for
have    greatly    refined    the change, either  because the  place
specificity  of    the  language  structure was  too vaguely defined
definition  in  three  areas  that  for  use,  or  because  the  sumti
have not  been much used by people  values that were required for some
trying to  use Lojban.    John  is  place structure  places  were  too
continuing  to  work  on  papers,  difficult to  specify  for  'real'
which, added  to (updated versions  language use.  As a result, there
of) the  negation and  attitudinal  are a lot of little changes to the
papers that  were done  before  he  working  draft  versions  of  the

gismu list.  The  final draft  is          Weekend Meeting
I'm insisting on moving in the right direction for Loglan whether this means losing control of the institute I founded or not... Your can always write me if you still want to talk to me about Loglan, or to help me in putting it to use. As a private person I shall always be available to my old Loglandian friends... Loglan may not suffer very much... Health permitting I'll still write those couple of books. Perhaps with my example others will too.
expected  to  go  out  for review 
within a  couple  of  weeks  after    We finally  knew for  sure  that
this issue is mailed (over 1100 of the design  of  the  language  was
the  1400  Lojban  entries  were  solidified  after  an  all-weekend
completed  and  verified  at  this  meeting that  took  place  January
writing).   After a  few weeks for  18-20, 1992.   John  Cowan came to
that review, the first  book will  town,  and  several  of  us  met,
be assembled and published.         settling nearly  all  open  design
                                    questions.   Following is  a  more
                                    thorough report  on that  meeting,
                                    what  happened,  and  what  design
                                    decisions took  place.   Attendees
                                    included Bob LeChevalier (lojbab),
                                    John  Cowan,  Nora  LeChevalier,
                                    Athelstan,  and  Sylvia  Rutiser,
                                    with pc  joining  in  by  phone  a
                                    couple of times.

                                      The original agenda included:
His encouragement for others to write Loglan books or books in Loglan negates the claim now asserted of proprietary rights in Loglan.
                                    - A  2nd review  of papers  on the
                                      Lojban  tense  system  and  MEX
                                      (mathematical      expressions)
                                      system,  with  the  intent  of
                                      having them  ready, if possible,
                                      for publication with JL16.
                                    - Nora  and John have been working
                                      on a  formal  statement  of  the
                                      Lojban morphology algorithm, and
                                      some  issues  needed  resolution
                                      and decision.
                                    -  Deciding  on  all  open  cmavo
                                      questions, to  allow a  baseline
                                      of that list.
                                    - Reviewing  all open  comments on
                                      the  place    structures    and
                                      definitions of gismu
                                    -  Review  of  the  progress  in
                                      switching JL over to a subscrip-
                                      tion basis and the current fund-
                                      raising drive
                                    - Preliminary  decisions  on  book
                                    - Determining  a policy on efforts
                                      by Dave  Cortesi, Bob  Chassell,
                                      and  others   to put  together
                                      Lojban reference books.
                                    -  Including  John  in a  Lojban
                                      conversation  session  (he  has
                                      never  before  been  able  to
                                      participate in one, since no one
                                      else in the NYC area seems to be
                                      actively studying).

                                      John arrived  late Friday night,
Also, the Institute published a book, entitled "Loglan (1): A Logical Language." Included in the 1989 version is the statement
                                    and we  started the weekend right
                                    by talking  till 4  AM. Athelstan
                                    arrived about  2 AM  to  join  the
                                    party.  Most of Saturday was spent
                                    socializing    and    discussing

business  matters,   and   various  would be  allowed  under  the  new
In my English idiolect, as in Loglan and French, words like "loglanist", "loglandic" and "loglandical" are general terms like "cat" and "dog" (i.e., common nouns or adjectives) and therefore uncapitalized, whereas words like "Loglan" and "Loglandia" are singular terms (words with single designata, like "John" or "Greenland") and therefore capitalized. Both Loglan and French are more fastidious about such logical matters than Standard English.
minor issues, and reviewing  the  grammar.  Because we  want people
tense paper.  Saturday  night, we  to  stick    with  the  current
again quit  late, around 5 AM this  baseline,  we  are not  going  to
time, with everyone rising in time  distribute or talk much more about
to be  fully awake  for the Lojban  the next one until it is ready for
conversation session.  That ended  adoption  (at    the  time    of
up starting  late, but the 5 of us  publication of  the  first  book),
participated  in  fairly  lively  but people  who have an early need
discussion  for  about  2  hours. for the  information  can  request
John had no real trouble following  it.   I will summarize the changes
what was  said, and  throwing  his  in store  so people  know what  is
own comments  in.  We then talked  going on:
in English for about an hour until 
Sylvia and Athelstan had to leave.  1) correction  of  a  precedence
  After  dinner,  we  started  on  error, so  that EK+KE and GIhEK+KE
place structures, and kept  going  bind  more  tightly  than  other
until 5  AM  again.    We  resumed  connective structures;
around 11  AM, and  kept  cranking  2) adding  JEK+BO to  parallel  BO
till  5    AM  Tues.    morning.  connective  structures  for  other
Athelstan was  there  for  all  of  logical connectives;
Monday's discussions,  Nora lasted  3) permitting  free  modifiers  in
until 10:30  PM, since  she had to  several new places;
work on Tuesday.  There was a long  4) adding selma'o ZEI to support a
conversation  with   pc  in  the  morphology algorithm  change  (see
afternoon to  resolve issues  that  below);
he needed a voice/vote in.  Monday  5)  permitting  "GEK  sentence  GI
evening, we  took a break from the  observative";
x1's and  x2's of place structures  6) in  the current  baseline gram-
to work on the x's and y's of MEX.  mar, it  is impossible  to  use  a
  On  Tuesday,  John and  I  woke  PA+MAI  free-modifier  after  a
around 11  AM,  and  kept  talking  number  even    though  it    is
till I  dropped  him  at  the  bus  apparently  grammatically  legal:
station  around  1  PM.    Whew!  the number  will absorb  the added
Everything accomplished.            PA  values  because  there  is  no
  Now  here  is  the  summary  of  implicit "BOI" at the end of these
effects:                            numbers.  The problem was fixed by
                                    reworking the rules specifying how
            Grammar                free modifiers  attach to  numbers
                                    so  that  BOI  can  be  added  to
  The  grammar  is  of  course  separate them.
baselined and frozen until we make  7) after  long  analysis,  the
updates and republish it  in  the  relative-modifier logical  connec-
Lojban books. Because we want the  tive selma'o  ZIhE was  determined
books to reflect the grammar after  not to  be especially  useful as a
the books  are  done,  we  do  our  logical connective,  and the group
writing based  on that  next revi-  has  been  stripped  down  to  the
sion of  the grammar.  There  are single word "zi'e", which now sim-
now 15  minor changes  planned for  ply indicates  the  attachment  of
that revision,  all  but  4  being  multiple relative  modifiers to  a
extensions to  the language.  When  single  sumti.      The  multiple
we write  and publish materials in  logical connective  grammar  rules
JL, they  should be  in accordance  that were  present for  ZIhE  were
with the  current baseline. Next-  stripped down  to  a  single  rule
baseline grammar changes will only  supporting simple connection;
be  used    in    the    unlikely  8) allowing I+BO-initial sentences
circumstance that  something needs  at the beginning of text;
to be  phrased using  a  construct  9) allowing  NAI at  the beginning
that is  now  illegal,  but  which  of text;

As he stated, Loglan is a name for a language like French or English. Based on all this evidence, the Board had adequate basis to conclude that both Brown and the Institute adopted the term Loglan as the generic name of a language.
10) allowing  any kind of JOI non-              Morphology
logical connectives  to be used in 
forethought, in  parallel  with    John and  Nora have resolved all
forethought  causal  connectives:  open    issues    regarding    the
JOI GI construct GI construct;      morphology algorithm,  and  it  is
11) POhO,  which has been required  included in  JL16 for final review
at  the    end  of    incomplete  before    publication    in    the
sentences,  will  be  eliminated;  reference book. Problems included
POhO was added at one point due to  strings  of  vowels  and  lujvo
problems found in some versions of  involving  le'avla.    Since  the
YACC (including  the one  we  were  morphology      is      baselined,
using) that  caused  a  parser  to  technically  any  change  is  a
falsely declare  an  ambiguity  in  baseline change,  but all changes
such incomplete  sentences.  POhO  being considered  are in areas not
has been  shown to  no  longer  be  well-defined in  the existing  in-
necessary;                          formal 'Synopsis'  that  describes
12) NIhE, one of  the converters  the  morphology.      Highlights
used to  integrate  MEX  with  the  (again,  these    are  post-book
rest of  the grammar,  now permits  baseline features.):
an entire complex selbri construct 
to be converted;                    - Adding  selma'o ZEI,  with  only
13)  NAhE    is  disallowed  in  cmavo  "zei",    will  eliminate
forethought 'termsets'.  The rule  various other  schemes  of  making
permitting it had been erroneously  lujvo using  le'avla, all of which
generated    from    a    similar  involved  either  tricky  stress/-
structure.  Contrary negation of a  pronunciation  problems  or  had
termset  is  not  defined  in  the  potential breakdowns  of a  nature
negation paper.                    similar  to the  'Tosmabru  test'
14) Multiple  I  and/or  I+BO  are  used in regular lujvo.  The result
permitted at the beginning of text  would  have  been  rules  so  un-
(a benefit primarily for those who  intuitively complicated as to make
stutter);                          them impractical  to  use  on-the-
15)  Allow  SE  conversions  of  fly, when most such compounds will
abstract  and    negated  selbri  be made.    ZEI  is  processed  in
without KE/KEhE parentheses.        advance of  lexer rules  (as is BU
                                    for lerfu  and ZO,  LOhU, ZOI, SI,
  If that  list doesn't make a lot  SA, and  SU) as part of  the met-
of sense,  don't worry  about  it.  alinguistic grammar.    It  causes
These truly  are abstruse 'little'  one word immediately before it and
changes in  the grammar  that  are  one word  immediately after  it to
unlikely  to    affect  anyone's  be considered joined into a single
conversation  and  writing  very  construct equivalent  to a BRIVLA.
much, if at all.                    With  the exception  of  some  of
                                    those  metalinguistic  cmavo  just
                                    listed, any  Lojban word can be so
                                    joined  to  any  other,  allowing
                                    lujvo to  be based  on cmavo  that
                                    have no rafsi, as well as le'avla.
                                    Many-part le'avla  lujvo will have
                                    a ZEI  between each pair of terms.
                                    Regular gismu  and lujvo  may also
                                    be used as terms in a ZEI lujvo.
                                    - cmavo space is now recognized to
                                    include certain  structures with 0
                                    or 1  consonant, followed  by more
                                    than two  vowels, with  apostrophe
                                    used between  every  pair  (except
                                    when  diphthongs  occur).   Thus
                                    "zo'o'o'o" could  be a legal cmavo

The Institute argues that no one else has used the term Loglan in a generic fashion and that by capitalizing Loglan in its newsletter, the Language Group itself treats the term in a non-generic manner. We disagree. Capitalization is the correct form for the name of a language, e.g., English, French, or German [*]; this it is compatible with generic use. Moreover, the Language Group's own logical language, "Lojban", is referred to as a type of Loglan. The Language Group refers to "[Brown's] version of 'Loglan'" and states that "Lojban is indeed a Loglan."
(with an obvious meaning of a more  be changed,  since "mz"  is not  a
intense humor?)  These will not be  permissible medial.  "djeimyz." is
considered for  defined  use,  but  acceptable.
are  added  to  the  experimental 
cmavo space.    The grammar  will                cmavo
treat  all    experimental    and 
undefined cmavo  as if  they  were  The following  cmavo  changes  are
members of UI.                      made.  Note that one the cmavo,
                                    "zei", has grammar contingent upon
- When  one word  ends in a vowel, the next  baseline. It will be in
and the following begins with one,  the next  draft of the cmavo list
a pause, and not a glide, must be  anyway, even  though  the  current
used to pronounce them.  This con-  grammar will not handle it.
firms the  original  design  deci- 
sion.  Actual usage has been that  zei ZEI lujvo glue joins preceding
some  UI  members  have  not  been                    and  following
separated  from  each  other  and                    word  into  a
other vowels  by pauses, and this                     lujvo
was determined to be too difficult 
for the  resolver to handle, so it ne'o    VUhU      factorial  reas
remains forbidden.  An example is                     signed    from
".ua.ui" which has been pronounced                    "zei"  to  make
"/wah,wee/", but  must  be  pro-                    room for above
nounced  as  "/wah.wee/".      An 
example showing  the problems that  bu'u    FAhA      coincident with
can result  is ".ui.iu", which if                    space/time
pronounced  without  a  pause  is                     tense  equiva-
indistinguishable from ".ui,u".                        lent of CA
- Names  will be permitted to have  be'a   FAHA      north of   from
"la", "lai",  and  "doi"  in  them                    "berti"
WHEN  PRECEDED  BY  A  CONSONANT. ne'u    FAhA      south of  from
This means  that the  'd'  or  'l'                    "snanu"
must be the at-least-2nd in a con-  du'a    FAhA      east of   from
sonant  cluster  such  that  the                    "stuna"
preceding letter  and the d/l form  vu'a    FAhA      west of    para
a  permissible  cluster,  or  are                    llel      with
initial  at  the  beginning  of  a                    "du'a"
word.  This  means  that  a  name  (these are added for compatibility
"zdoil." or "jdoil." is legal, and with languages/cultures that use a
every consonant except another "l"  fixed    reference    frame    for
is  permitted  before  "la"  and  directions instead  of a  speaker-
"lai".            Thus      while  based one.  A secondary if trivial
"*nort.kerolainas."        remains  advantage is  that a  Lojban wind-
illegal, it  can easily be changed  vane is more interesting, instead
to "nort.kerlainas.".  This  will  of having  the letters B-S-S-S for
then  allow  a  certain  erroneous  the four cardinal points.)
comic strip  to be  corrected,  by 
naming the  cat  "mlat.",  "*lat."  voi NOI descriptive clause    non-
remaining  illegal.    It    also                    veridical
corrects  the  embarrassment  that                    restrictive
the  other  English  name  of  the                    clause used  to
language -  "loglan."  - has been                    form      com-
an illegal name in "lojban."                          plicated    le-
                                                      like  descrip-
- Names  are  formally  restricted                    tions    using
from having  impermissible  medial                    "ke'a"
consonant clusters  in them.   The  This  is  in  a  way  similar  to
most significant effect of this is  "goi"/GOI, but  used with  clauses
to require  the name "*djeimz." to  (bridi) on  the right.  It defines

In addition to generic use of the term Loglan by the Institute and the Language Group, others have so used the term. Numerous letters have been written to the Language Group inquiring about Loglan, requesting to be maintained on its Loglan mailing lists, and even inquiring about the status of the Loglan language being developed by the Language Group. The fact that the "consuming public" would write to someone other than the Institute regarding the Loglan language indicates that third parties understand Loglan to be a generic term; this understanding did not arise only from actions of the Language Group. Rather, the Language Group and the public merely followed the generic usage of the Institute.
a sumti  on the left as being the va'u    BAI        benefited by   
thing  the speaker  has  in  mind                    indication of a
which fills  "ke'a" in the clause.                     beneficiary
Nick Nicholas  asked for  this  in                    when formulated
connection with  an alternate  ap-                    as  "seva'u"  =
proach to sumti-raising  that  he                    "for        the
prefers to "tu'a".                                    benefit    of";
                                                      from    "xamgu"
Example:                                              (replaces    a
ko'a    voi      lenu ke'a cisma                      useful function
cu pluka mi      cu zutse                            of  the   word
The it1  whose    smiling pleases                      "du'a", deleted
me  sits.                                             last year as an
The one  whose smile pleases me is                    English-biased
sitting down.                                          member of BAI)
to'a    BY        lower      case  bi'u    BAhE      de-emphasize
                  shift reassigne                    next  the
                  d from  current                    reverse      of
                  "voi";    from                    "ba'e"    which
                  "tordu"                             emphasizes  the
                                                      next  word  -
ma'e    BAI        of material                        added        in
                  used to add  a                    emulation of  a
                  material  to  a                    similar
                  bridi      more                    function  word
                  specific  than                     in  the   Mon-
                  the   existing                    golian language
                  "seta'i";  from                    Dagur
                                    ce'a    LAU        font shift chan
de'a    ZAhO      pausitive  even                    ge of  selma'o;
                  t contour for a                    indicates that
                  temporary  halt                    the  following
                  and    ensuing                    character
                  pause  in    a                    specifies a new
                  process;   from                     font      (e.g.
                  "denpa"                            italic,   block
di'a    ZAhO      resumptive even                    print, or manu-
                  t  contour  for                    script). Super-
                  resumption of a                    sedes      old
                  paused process                      "ce'a"      and
Example:                                              "pe'e"    which
mi      de'a    citka    ca  lenu                    were        too
la noras.    tavla                                    limited;    the
I pausitively    eat      while                        latter  is  now
  Nora  talks.                                        unassigned.
I stop eating while Nora talks.   
                                    (In addition,  the grammar changes
vu'i    LUhI      the sequence    described  above  also  freed  up
                  converts  other  po'o, zi'a, zi'i, zi'o, and zi'u.)
                  sumti types  to 
                  sequences, even  remaining unassigned (27):
                  if the order is  bi'a bi'e bu'o (bo'a    bo'e bo'i
                  vague            bo'o bo'u)    ce'e ce'u ci'a do'i
                                    ja'u ju'e mi'i na'a ne'e pe'e po'o
                                    re'u te'i va'e vu'o zi'a zi'i zi'o

==== C. Equitable Defenses ====
                                            Keyword changes
The  following  two  gismu  are                 
proposed  for  addition  to  the    The    following    constitute
baselined  list,  and  will  be  baseline  changes,  even  though
adopted pending no objection:      there is  no significant change of
                                    meaning.   They will be considered
vukro    vuk vu'o  Ukrainian x1    adopted unless there is objection.
                  pertains to  the 
                  Ukrainian          All  metric  prefixes  currently
                  language/-        have keywords of the form:
                  in aspect x2      megdo    10E6
slovo    lov    Slavic x1       
                  pertains      to  It has  been pointed out that this
                  Slavic      lan-  does  not    conform  to    most
                  guages/culture/-  exponential  notations.      The
                  ethnos in aspect  keywords will  be globally changed
                  x2                to use "1" instead of "10" giving:
(lovle'u          Cyrillic    x1
                  is a  letter  of  megdo    1E6
                  Cyrillic    al- 
                  phabet              The following  are being changed
                  symbolizing x2)  to make them consistent with other
                                    culture words  by referring to the
These have  been reviewed  by Ivan  culture  rather  than  to  the
Derzhanski,  as  our  only  active  defining element of the culture.
native-Slavic  Lojbanist.      The 
breakup of  the Soviet  Union, has  budjo    Buddhist  x1 pertains to
made Ukraine  a large country with            the  Buddhist  culture/-
a Russian speaker base, one with a            religion/nation      in
Slavic language  of its  own and a            aspect x2
nationalistic  interest  in  being  dadjo    Taoist    x1 pertains to
clearly distinct  from Russia  and            the Taoist culture/reli-
the  ex-Soviet  Union.      (The            gion/nation in aspect x2
definition  of  "softo"  is  being  jegvo    Jehovist  x1 pertains to
broadened to cover the old Russian            culture/religion of  the
empire and  the new  Commonwealth,            Judeo-Christian-Islamic
but remains  tied to  the  keyword            deity in aspect x2
'Soviet' because  there really  is  xriso    Christian x1 pertains to
no  other  distinct  word.)    Our            the Christian  culture/-
standards  for  cultural  gismu            religion/nation      in
clearly put  Ukraine in  the group            aspect x2
that should  have a  gismu.  (The 
other  republics,  except  Russia    The change in keyword of "mukti"
itself,  will  be  covered  with  to  "motive",  part  of  the  last
le'avla.)                          baseline change,  did not get into
                                    the Planned  Languages Server file
With    two    Slavic    peoples  for  some  reason,  along  with
represented, the  family name also  appropriate  definition  wording
requires  a  gismu  (as  "semto"  changes.  Some copies of LogFlash
exists to  cover Hebrew and Arabic  were distributed  with this change
commonalties).    As  shown,  this  omitted.
gismu  will  also  be  used  to                 
generate a lujvo for "Cyrillic", a                rafsi
better  choice  than  "rusko"  or 
"softo" for  making  a  lujvo  for  "du" will  be added to the list as
that concept, anyway.              a result  of  being  assigned  the
                                    rafsi "dub"  and "du'o".  "selci"
                                    is being given "sle" from "selfu",
                                    which in  turn will be given "sef"

As part of its answer, the Institute alleged various affirmative defenses, including the equitable defenses of unclean hands, estoppel, fraud, acquiescence, and waiver. The Board found that the unclean hands, fraud and estoppel defenses were based on allegation of trade secret theft and infringement and therefore were not within the jurisdiction of the Board. Further, the Board stated that the equitable defense of acquiescence was not valid against the claim that the mark was generic. We affirm.
from "sefta".  (Since the January  - More  care is  being taken  with
meeting, we  have compiled  a list  'under  conditions'  places.    In
of all  lujvo  used  thus  far  in  many cases,  an 'under conditions'
Lojban text.  This will be used to  place may  be appropriate  to some
generate a more accurate tuning of  event/state within  a single place
the rafsi  assignments to  reflect  of a  bridi, rather  than applying
expected usage.  A few additional  to the main bridi itself.
rafsi  changes  are  likely  to
result, and  will  appear  in  the - The  use of "du'u" abstractions
completed book.                    is clearly  distinguished in place
                                    structures  dealing  with  truths.
        Place structures          Some places dealing with knowledge
                                    and truth  have been  cleft paral-
We cannot  list all  of the  place  leling the "djuno" place structure
structure changes  and  definition  change in JL15.
changes being  made  for  the  new
baselined  list.      Based  on  - All known cleft place structures
decisions at  the weekend meeting, have been reviewed, with more than
about 20%  of the  words will have  half  eliminated  by  putting  an
some  change  from  the  draft  event clause  in x1.  A few, such
"logdata.raw" list  posted to  the as "simlu",  are remaining  cleft,
PLS  and distributed  to  advance  but are  worded so  as to  suggest
recipients of the new LogFlash (We  "ka" property abstractions instead
were BUSY!).  Most  of these  are  of events in the cleft abstraction
minor  and   clarifying.      (The  place.
complete review  that Bob is doing
while typing  in these changes has  The  following  are  particularly
resulted  in  many  more  minor  significant  changes  in  meaning.
changes, mostly  clarifications in  Since there  is no keyword change,
wording).                          these are  not considered relevant
  Some general notes:              to the baseline; place structures
                                    have  never  been  frozen.    The
- Bob  Chassell proposed  a  large  wording is abbreviated and approx-
set of synonyms be  listed; these  imate, and  there may  be  further
are being  added to the definition  changes before the list is finally
field to make computer searches of  frozen.   For now,  however, this
the list  easier.  These synonyms  will clarify  the meanings of many
will  also  show  up  in  the words, and should give a good idea
dictionary as  additional  English  as to the nature of the most major
entries.                           changes being made.

-  A  clarification  of sets  and  balvi    x1 is in the future of/-
Application of these defenses must be considered in light of the clear purposes of the Trademark Act that a registered mark may be cancelled at any time on the ground that it is generic [*], and also in light of the Board's discretionary power to apply the defenses.
masses  and  sequences  and  their      later than/after  x2  in  time
roles as  place holders  in  bridi      (ONLY; cf. lidne)
caused many  changes  in  wording.  bilni    x1    is    military/-
All places  where these have been      regimented/strongly
identified as  likely placeholders      organized/prepared  by  system
have been  examined  and  will  be     x2 for purpose x3
identified if space permits.        caxno    (paralleling      condi
- Several 'properties' gismu which  cfari    x1  (nu)    commences/-
are      generally      considered     begins/initiates/starts
subjective,  have  gained  a  'by      (intransitive) [no change, but
standard' place.  The standard may      cf. sisti)
only  the   personal  one  of the cimde    x1  is  a dimension  of
observer, whatever  that  may be.      space/object x2  according  to
Colors are  NOT included  in  this      rules/model x3
change.                            clupa    x1  is   a  loop/circuit
                                        in/of material  x2 defined  by
                                        (set of points) x3

To support the defenses of unclean hands, estoppel, and fraud, the Institute pleaded that the Language Group "wrongfully acquired the trade secrets of the [Institute]..., and has converted and used such trade secrets to [Language Group]'s benefit... [and that the Language Group] wrongfully used the mark 'Loglan' in interstate commerce..., thereby infringing on [the Institute's] trademark." As pleaded, these defenses are essentially claims of trademark infringement and unfair competition premised on the Institute's assertion of trademark rights in Loglan. The Institute also alleges that after it demanded that the Language Group stop using its "mark," the latter acquiesced and ceased using Loglan to designate its logical language.
cmavo    x1 is  a structure  word  naxle    (paralleling      dargu
    having grammar  exemplified by      above)
    word x2  with meaning function  pajni    x1  judges/is  a  judge
    x3 in language x4                  determining/deciding matter x2
condi    x1 is  deep in extent in      (ka/ni/jei        abstraction)
    x2 (ka)  at locus x3 away from      (estimate/evaluate)
    observation  point    x4  by  panra    x1 is  parallel to x2 in
    standard x5                        property/pattern x3  by  stan-
cpare    x1    climbs/clambers/-      dard/geometry x4
    crawls/creeps on surface x2 in  pikta    x1 is a ticket entitling
    direction x3  using x4 (tools,     x2 to privilege/entitlement x3
    limbs)                              (nu) under conditions x4
danfu    x1  is  the   answer/-  platu    x1  plans/designs/plots
    response to question x2            plan/plot/arrangement  x2  for
dargu    x1 is  a road with route      state/process x3
    x2                              porsi    x1    (sequence)    is
fancu    x1 is a function/single-      sequenced/ordered by  compari-
    value mapping  from domain  x2      son/rules    x2    on    set
    to range  x3 defined  by rules      (unordered) x3
    x4                              prami    (paralleling      xebni
fasnu    x1  is  an  event  that     below)
    happens/occurs                  prina    x1 (agent)  prints x2 on
flalu    x1 is  a law  specifying      x3 using tool x4
    x2  (nu)  for  community  x3  purci    (paralleling      balvi
    (mass) under  conditions x4 by      above)
    law-giver x5                    ritli    x1 is  a rite/ceremony/-
funca    x1 (nu) is determined by      ritual/is  formal(legal)  for
    the luck/fortune of/for x2          purpose x2  under  custom  x3,
gasnu    x1 is agent in event x2;      under rules/form x4
    x1 'does' x2                    selci    x1  is  a  cell/atom/-
gradu    x1  (magnitude)  is  a      molecule/unit of  x2; x1 is an
    unit/degree  of/on    scale/-      indivisible basic  subunit  of
    reference standard  x2 (idea/-      x2 (cf. English 'atom')
    si'o) measuring x3 (ka)        simlu    x1  appears  to  have
gunma    x1  is  a  mass/team/is      property  x2  to  x3  under
    together, of   components  x2      conditions x4
    considered jointly              sirji    x1 is  straight/direct/-
jbini    x1 is  between/among set      line segment/interval  between
    of boundaries x2 in x3 (ka)        x2 and x3
jdika    x1 is  decreased/reduced  sisti    x1  (agent)    ceases/-
    in x2  (ka) by  amount x3  (no      stops/halts  doing/being  x2
    change but cf. zenba)              (cf. cfari WHICH IS DIFFERENT)
kancu    x1 counts  the number in  skiji    x1 is a ski/skid/skate/-
    set x2 to be x3 (ni/number) in      runner for  surface  x2  (for)
    units x4                            supporting skier/skater/sled/-
karli    x1    is    a    collar      cargo x3
    surrounding x2 of material x3  suksa    x1 (nu) is sudden/abrupt
krefu    x1  is  a  recurrence/-      at  stage/achievement  x2  in
    repetition of  x2 (nu) for the     process x3;  x1 (ka)  suddenly
    x3th  (ni/number)  time;  x1      changes  at  point  x2  over
    happens again                      interval x3
kusru    x1 (person)  is  cruel/-  talsa    x1  (person)  challenges
    mean to x2                          x2 in x3 (ka)
lacpu    x1  pulls/tugs/drags  x2  trene    x1    is    a    train
    by handle at locus x3              (segmented-vehicle) of  cars/-
lafti    x1 lifts/applies lift to      units    (mass/sequence)    in
    x2 at locus x3                      system/railroad/of owners x3
lidne    x1 leads/precedes  x2 in  trina    x1  attracts/lures  x2
    sequence x3                        (person/action) with x3 (ka)

The Lanham Act specifically provides that "[i]n all inter partes proceedings equitable principles of laches, estoppel, and acquiescence, where applicable may be considered and applied" [*]. While the Board must consider such defenses, we determine that it properly exercised its discretion in not allowing the defenses to prevail here. As the Board stated, these defenses cannot override the controlling fact that Loglan is the generic name for a language and that it cannot therefore be a trademark for dictionaries. The Board did not err in declining to apply the defenses, as the public interest in a cancellation proceeding to rid the register of a generic mark transcends them. The Board may have erred in stating that it lacked jurisdiction over the defenses, but that error was harmless under the circumstances.
venfu    x1  (person(s))  takes    John Cowan  writes the following
    revenge on/retaliates  against  as  further  explanation  of  the
    x2 (person(s))  for  wrong  x3  set/mass/sequence/individuals
    (nu) with vengeance x4 (nu)    changes:
vorme    x1  is    a  door/gate
    between  x2  and  x3  of/in/-    One of  the aims  of  the  place
    through structure x4            structure review  was  to  examine
xamsi    x1  is  an  ocean/sea/-  all the place structures that were
    gulf/atmosphere of  planet  x2  labeled  "(plural/set)"  to  see
    of fluid x3                    whether an  actual set was wanted,
xanri    x1 (si'o)  exists in the  or merely one or more individuals.
    imagination  of/is  imagined  In  addition,   sometimes  a  mass
    by/is imaginary/unreal to x2    seemed to be the right thing.  The
xebni    x1  hates  x2  (object/-  new place  structures which Lojbab
    abstract)                      is typing  up will  contain a good
xendo    (paralleling      kusru  deal of clarification.
    above)                            Essentially,  a  true  set  is
xlura    x1 (agent) influences x2  required if  the relationship does
    into action/event/state  x3 by  not hold  of each  member but only
    influence/threat/lure x4  (cf. of the totality.    For  example,
    trina)                          "kampu", "cnano",  and "fadni" are
xrani    x1 (nu)  injures/harms/-  all relationships  between  a  set
    damages victim  x2 in property  and  one  of  its members  (or  a
    x3  resulting  in injury  x4  property  thereof).     If  I  am
    (za'i/ka)                      typical of  ("cnano") the set  of
zarci    x1 is  a  market/store/-  persons, that doesn't  mean  that
    exchange/marketplace  selling  the relation  "typical-of"  holds
    x2  operated    by    x3/with  between me  and every  individual
    participants x3 (mass agent)    person --  indeed, the idea of one
zenba    x1    is    increased/-  person being  typical  of  another
    augmented  in  x2  (ka/ni)  by  makes no sense.
    amount  x3  (parallels  with    On the  other hand,  we  decided
    jdika)                          that "casnu"  should have  a mass,
zukte    x1  is    an  'entity'  rather than either a set or plural
    employing means x2 for/towards  individuals,  in   its  x1  place.
    end/purpose/goal x3            People may "casnu", or participate
                                    in a discussion, even  though not
                                    all of them say anything.
                                      In  many  cases,  "(plural/set)"
                                    came up where "between" or "among"
                                    was involved.  Most  of these  we
                                    tried  to   reword  to  avoid  the
                                    problem, which often resulted from
                                    excess generality.  Thus  a wall
                                    now separates  exactly two things,
                                    and a  door connects  exactly two.
                                    (A  wall  may separate  multiple
                                    pairs of  things -  my house  from
                                    yours,  my  property  from  yours,
                                    Country 1  from Country 2 - all at
                                    once, but   the  relationship  is
                                    still pairwise.)
                                      In addition, the phrase "ordered
                                    set"  was changed  throughout  to
                                    "sequence",    and    the   place
                                    structure  of  "porsi"  is  now
                                    something like  "x1 is  a sequence
                                    of the  members of  set x2 ordered
                                    by rules  x3".   Sequences do  not
                                    have the  same level of support in

We, of course, do not rule on whether the Institute may have an action against the Language Group on any matters of unfair competition. The record here simply show that the term Loglan has never been a trademark, but rather entered the public domain as a generic name from the time of its inception.
Lojban as individuals, masses, and    Mini-Lesson -  Athelstan set the
sets; however, we have  long  had  material  of   his  "Lojban  Mini-
the non-logical  connective "ce'o"  Lesson",       an        hour-long
which  constructs  them  item  by  presentation, down  in  text  last
item.    In  addition,  we  added  summer  and  fall  before  his
"vu'i",  a  converter  of  selma'o  accident.  We  distributed  draft
LUhI, transforming  a set  into  a  copies electronically  (the  draft
sequence, as  well as  individuals  is available  on the PLS  -  see
into a sequence-in-extension.      above), and  some two dozen people
  It now  seems that  "fa'u",  the  from 6  different  countries  have
non-logical    connective    for  tried it  and sent comments.  Alas
"respectively", may  be  taken  to  the  revision  effort  was  only
generate a  sequence-in-extension,  partially done  when the  accident
thus:                              occurred,  so  the  mini-lesson,
                                    planned for  this issue and at one
mi fa'u  do se cmene zo djan. fa'u  time  an excuse  for  its  delay,
zo lojbab.                          isn't yet ready.
(I  respectively-with  you)  are-    People have in general found the
benamed ("John"  respectively-with  mini-lesson  to  be  a  very  good
"Lojbab").                          introduction to  the language,  as
                                    they  found    Athelstan's  oral
  Using  ".e"  logical  connection  presentation  similarly  useful.
will not  do, as  that would claim  Alas, on paper it  takes  a  good
that each  of us  is  named  both  deal more  than an  hour  to  work
"John" and "Lojbab".               through.  People  have  generally
                                    said  that   there  are  too  many
        Status of Products          exercises and too few examples.  A
                                    few of  the examples  and explana-
  We have a lot of products in the  tions are  perhaps too oriented to
works, and  a few of them are done  English-native  speakers, but we
or nearly  done.    More  signifi-  haven't  figured  a  good  way  to
cantly  perhaps,    several  new  correct that.
products have been identified, and    Given the accident, it is likely
are in  progress and in some cases  that I  (Bob) will  have to finish
near completion.  The  variety of  the revision, and it will thus not
Lojban  products  continues  to  be ready  until JL17 or even JL18.
multiply as new  people  get  in-  The revised  mini-lesson will also
volved in its development.          form  part  of  the  introductory
  One is  of course the Diagrammed  package.
Summary  of    Lojban    Grammar, 
included  as  an  insert  in  this    LogFlash -  We have released the
issue.  This will  form the major  new version  of LogFlash described
language  explanatory  text  about  in the  last several issues.  Both
the language  for our introductory  LogFlash 1  (gismu) and LogFlash 3
package.  The  Overview  will  be  (cmavo)  are  being  successfully
recast to  talk mostly  about  the  used by several people.
ideas of  the language and not the    For  those  who  want  to  learn
grammar, and  a glossary  will  be  rafsi, the older combined LogFlash
added.  Eventually, this  package  1/2 will  continue to be available
will be  assembled into one of our  (LogFlash 2 teaches rafsi) until a
several book  publications.   Now  new version  is created  -  a  new
for the other products:            version of LogFlash 2 will be more
                                    difficult  to  develop  than  the
                                    other programs because the type of
                                    testing used  in lessons  is  more
                                    diverse.  The lujvo-making program
                                    will also be incorporated into the
                                    next revision  of LogFlash 2.  The
                                    priority of  this revision depends
                                    primarily  on  people  being  in-

terested in  obtaining it - if you  only, but  since the  lists  being
are  ready  to  start  using  this  distributed are unofficial, people
program, or  expect that  you will  receiving them  need to  be  fore-
be within  6 months,  let us  know  warned.    Again,  we  will  make
and Nora will put more effort into  updated files  available to  those
this upgrade.  The  files for the  who purchase  copies now, probably
old version are not being updated,  at the  time  the  first  book  is
hence  several  newly-added  rafsi  released.
assignments  and  the  couple  of    The  instability  of  the  word
changes that  have been  made  are  files affects  LogFlash  3  a  bit
not reflected in this old version.  more significantly  because we are
This has  not proven  to be a sig-  more  freely  changing  words  and
nificant limitation.                keywords,  as  well  as  making  a
  There are  two  'problems'  with  small  number  of  additions  and
the current  release,  neither  of  deletions to  the cmavo list.  The
which prevents effective use.  The  changes being  made are  typically
first is that we've had no time to  minor, however, enough that we can
rewrite  the  user  documentation.  finally feel comfortable in recom-
There  are  now  an  enormously  mending that people use LogFlash 3
increased    number    of    user-  without too much fear of having to
selectable features  in  LogFlash,  do a  lot  of  relearning  due  to
and  documentation  is  needed  to  changes.
intelligently choose  among  them. 
You can  experiment or  ask - most    MacLojFlash -  Both versions  of
of these  functions  are  self-ex-  LogFlash for  the Apple  MacIntosh
planatory as to how they work, and  are being updated for the new data
playing around  is not damaging to  files.  Each version  already had
your    learning    effectiveness  some of  the features  now  incor-
(though it  can be  time consuming  porated into  the original  MS-DOS
given  the  number  of  options).  version, and will probably add new
However, explaining  when and  why  ones  to  keep  the  different
each option is intended to be used  versions  roughly  comparable  in
takes a  bit of  work.    Luckily,  capabilities.  The Hypercard  Mac
Nora  has    made  the  program  version by  Dave Cortesi  is being
effectively self-channelled  - the  upgraded to  Hypercard II; Richard
default option at each menu choice  Kennaway's  original  MAC  version
progresses  you  through  fairly  doesn't use Hypercard, is somewhat
optimal  usage.    I'd  like  to  faster, but  does not  have  voice
promise  the  documentation  soon,  synthesis  of  the  words,  and
but I'll  have to  admit  that  it  supports both  the gismu and cmavo
keeps getting shoved off for other  lists in  one program.  Richard's
priorities.    When  more  people  program  is    basically  ready,
start buying  the program, we will  awaiting  only  reasonably  final
of course  put  high  priority  on  word files.  (Our difficulties in
completing      the      support  supporting the  Mac continue,  and
documentation,  and  it  will  be  we  aren't  going  to  release
available free-of-charge  to those  incremental in-progress  Mac  ver-
of you who have done without until  sions of  the word-lists as we are
then.                              doing with  the original program.)
  The  other  'problem'  is  that  The Mac  programs are liable to be
because  of  the  above-mentioned  cheaper than  the MS-DOS versions,
revision  of  the  gismu  list,  partly  because  of  the  lower
especially    affecting    place  quality of  support that  we  have
structures,  the  version  of  the  been able to provide.
list we  are  giving  out  at  any 
particular  time  is  subject  to    Serious  Volunteers  Sought  for
changes.    These  changes  don't  LogFlash  Research  -  The  new
generally  affect  the  learning  version  of    LogFlash  (MS-DOS
process since place structures are  version only)  is instrumented for
provided for  information purposes  research  into  how  well  people

The decision of the Board is therefore
learn Lojban  words.  This finally    Other  teaching  products  -  We
allows  testing  of  the  'word  have  contacted  two  firms  that
recognition scores'  that were the  commercially  produce    language
basis of Loglan/Lojban word-making  learning  materials  and  gotten
ever since  the project started in  interest in  assisting the  Lojban
the 1950s,  as  well  as  formally  project from  each of  them.  One
verifying the effectiveness of the  produces software that teaches you
LogFlash technique.                words and structures as you read a
  We are looking for volunteers to  story or  stories in Lojban (not a
use  LogFlash  in  learning  the  simplified text  - you would learn
Lojban vocabulary.  At this point  to read  most any  Lojban text you
we have  no constraint  on who can  come  across).    The other,  In-
volunteer,  as  long  as  you  can  ternational Learning  Corporation,
state more  or less  honestly that  produces  a  series  of materials
you don't  yet know  much  of  the called  "The  Learnables  (tm)",
Lojban gismu  vocabulary.    Later  which are  books of  cartoons  and
on,  we  will  have  to  add  re-  pictures associated with extensive
strictions  to  ensure  that  our  tapes.  These materials  are used
statistics are  valid, but for now  effectively in college classes.
we are looking for patterns in the    Both    products    have    been
learning of individuals.            recommended to us by more than one
  We  have  no  funding  for  this  Lojbanist.    Both  organizations
experiment -  we can't  pay anyone  have indicated  that they would be
to participate.    You  will  even  willing to  license us  to develop
have to  buy the  copy of LogFlash  Lojban versions  of their products
that you  use to  learn the words,  at no  cost to  us other  than the
because we  need the money to stay  effort    of    developing    the
in business  right now.  What  we  materials.  The resulting materi-
can promise  is that  someone  who  als should  be extremely effective
volunteers  AND  STICKS  WITH  THE  in teaching  Lojban and  offer the
EXPERIMENT  ENOUGH  TO  GIVE  US  confidence  of  having  been  used
USEFUL RESULTS  will  be  credited  effectively with  other languages.
afterwards  for  the  price  of  The down-side  of these  materials
LogFlash  and  any  other  Lojban  is that they will probably be more
teaching  materials  you  buy  to  expensive than  our self-developed
study while  participating in  the  materials (for existing languages,
experiment.    We'll  also  give  the software  package costs around
priority (subject  to our  limited  $100  plus  a  small  amount  per
funds)  for  volunteers  who  need  story, while  The Learnables costs
financial  assistance  to  obtain  around $45 for a book and 6 tapes,
Lojban materials.                  with 4  beginning and  4  advanced
  This isn't  a lot to offer for a  books covering  the  typical  lan-
commitment of 3-7 hours a week for  guage -  we can't  promise  to  be
4-8 months (probably 100-150 hours  able to  sell Lojban materials for
total,  about  the  same  as  the  any less  than  the  prices  these
homework  time  for  a  typical  organizations  charge  for  other
college class), but the work isn't  languages).
hard, and  you will  be  doing  it    These      are      significant
anyway  if  you  are  planning  on  opportunities to  get awareness of
learning the language.  We need is  Lojban  out  to  a  much  larger
people who  will use LogFlash more  audience, but  we  cannot  justify
or less  daily for  at  least  1/2  the time  to produce the materials
hour a  day (preferably  an hour -  unless there  is some  significant
learning may go 3 times as fast or  interest  in  the  community  in
better, at this more intense study  buying  and  using  the  resulting
rate; you  learn quicker,  and the  products.  So we need to hear from
experiment  is  shorter  and  more  you if you think you would buy the
likely to show expected results.)  materials.

  Interlinear Glosser (and Parser)  applications for  which Lojban  is
- This new project of Nora's stems  especially suitable  is a  Lojban-
from four unrelated problems.      to-English translator.  Nora  has
  Because of the massive volume of  long been  interested in producing
Lojban text  now  being  produced,  a  simple    form  of  such  a
Nora and  I can no longer read and  translator, both  for study of the
check it  all - our own command of  problems of  machine  translation,
the  language  is  not  thorough  and as an effective teaching tool.
enough for  us  to  quickly  check  She first did a rudimentary trans-
words and  place structures,  much  lator, handling  a subset  of  the
less  to  comment  the  results  grammar    of    single    Loglan
thoroughly.                        sentences, on  a tiny  TRS-80 home
  People writing  Lojban text tend  computer back  in 1981.  Updating
to make  word choice  errors (e.g.  this program  to use  with  Lojban
lujvo-making              errors,  has been  difficult,  because  the
misspellings), and find it hard to  varieties of  sentences  that  are
catch    these    errors    before  typical for  Lojban are  much more
'inflicting' them  on others.    A  numerous than  for earlier  Loglan
simple    computerized    spelling  versions.
checker cannot  fully  solve  this    A few  months ago, we discovered
(even  if  you  can  build  a  a  free-ware    program    called
dictionary  file  easily)  because  "Shoebox"  (Summer  Institute  of
nearly  all  possible  cmavo  and  Linguistics)    that    produces
lujvo  word-forms  are  plausibly  interlinear  glosses  from  one
valid words.                        language  to  another,  using  a
  In addition,  people  using  the  simple word  look-up technique and
Lojban parser  to check their work  a specially  designed  word  data-
have found  the outputs to be hard  base.  Mark Shoulson  and  others
to use  in an odd way.  When there  have  set  up  this  program  to
is an  error, the parser tells you  produce quite  pretty glosses  for
(approximately)  where  the  error  Lojban text,  but the  translation
occurred, and  you know  where  to  is rather  difficult to read, even
look.  If it finds no errors, the  when you know Lojban grammar - the
rather lengthy fully-parenthesized  words that are substituted are the
output      contains      complete  keywords of  our word-lists, which
grammatical structure information.  are not intended necessarily to be
Unfortunately, a lot of simple er-  good  translations;  there  is  no
rors,    including    misspellings  provision  for  lujvo  compounds,
(noted  above)  and  omitted  ter-  even  though  they  are  quite
minators can lead to grammatically  regular;  several  cmavo  have  no
perfect text  that means something  valid English  gloss because  they
quite  different  from  what  you  serve  purely  grammatical  roles;
intended.    Reading  the  parser  and  finally,  Lojban's  predicate
output  to  find  such  errors  grammar means  that  you  need  to
requires great  care, as well as a  analyze the  grammatical situation
certain sense of what types of er-  to know  whether to  interpret the
rors to  look for.  It isn't being  English  equivalent  of  a  Lojban
done too  well,  and  people  have  word  as  a  noun,  a  verb,  and
found errors  in text  that seemed  adjective, or  an adverb - Shoebox
perfectly  valid,  even  to  the  is not  sufficiently  tailored  to
parser,  when  read  carefully.  Loglan/Lojban's            unique
(Though this  might seem  to be  a  regularities to  take advantage of
threat to  Lojban's viability as a  them to produce a readable output.
understandable    and    logical    Inspired by  this, Nora  started
language, the types of errors that  designing    a      grammar-smart
are occurring  seem to  be of  the  interlinear glosser.  Carl  Burke
types  that    fluent    speakers  has aided  with some  good  design
wouldn't often make.)              ideas, and  the  project  is  well
  Finally,  one  of  the  easiest  underway.    Indeed,  the  program
first steps  towards the  computer  already  produces  better  glosses

than  the    comparable  Shoebox    The Cowan Papers, or "The Lojban
versions, even without many 'gram- Textbook Effort  Grows Up" - 3 1/2
mar smarts', because it recognizes  years ago (October 1988) I started
Lojban  word  types,  disassembles  to write  a technical  description
lujvo,  recognizes  numbers  as  a  and  reference  for  Lojban.    40
unit,  and  other  simple  Lojban- pages and  the  first  descriptive
specific functions.  It processes  cmavo  list    were    completed.
outputs from  John Cowan's  Lojban  Reviewers at  that point basically
parser,  separating  a  long  text  told me  that  the  text  was  not
into separate  sentences and other  working - most people did not know
logical chunks for easier reading,  the language  well enough to use a
and  optionally    retaining  or  reference  that  presumed  basic
deleting the  structure bracketing  knowledge of  the  grammar.    The
and inserted elidable marker words  format was very poor as a teaching
that the  parser provides  in  its  text.    The  result  was  the
output.  We also have developed a  recommendation  that  I  write  a
'dictionary' suited  for this pro-  Lojban textbook.
gram.                                From January  through June 1989,
  If there  is demand, we can make  I wrote  6+ draft chapters of such
the  program  available  fairly  a  textbook  while  teaching  the
shortly in its in-development form  first Lojban  class.    About  150
bundled with  the parser (which it  people have  gotten those  lessons
requires).  We'll set a tentative  now, and  a  couple  of  dozen  of
price of  $50 for the combination,  these have  studied  the  language
partly  because  the  program  is  well  enough  to  write  fairly
incomplete; the  final program may  effectively  in  the  language.
be more  expensive.  John Cowan's  These  draft    lessons    remain
parser by  itself is available for  available and  are the  most  tho-
$25 (and may be available for some  rough teaching  materials we  have
UNIX machines  as well as MS-DOS).  for those trying to learn the lan-
People who  are writing  a LOT  of  guage.
Lojban text,  and sending it to us    Alas, the  draft lessons, though
or posting  it onto  Lojban  List,  they've  'aged    well',  remain
can  probably  convince  us  to  incomplete.    I  stopped  writing
provide a  test version  of either  when we  realized that  the  basic
or both  for free  (especially  if  structure of  the course  was  not
you cannot afford to pay for it) -  working in the way we intended and
we'd rather  have you  be checking  it was  getting harder  and harder
your text  before we get it rather  to  write  lessons  that  built
than be  doing it  ourselves.  The  constructively on  what  had  gone
user documentation  and support on  before.  The  completed  textbook
these  programs  will  be  quite  would be over 1000 pages, and sim-
limited  until  the  glosser  is  ply wasn't  good enough to justify
completed.                          that much effort.
  We  are  making  these  programs    I started  a new  draft in 1990,
available primarily  because  some  but  it  got  only  to  page  50.
people are  already  finding  them  Throughout  1990  and  1991,  as
useful,  not  because  we  believe  others learned  the language,  the
they are optimal products yet - if  advances  in  teaching  technique
you are  working  often  with  the  outstripped  my  writing  ability.
language, the  program limitations  Indeed, under  the able leadership
will  not  much  hinder  their  of Nick  Nicholas, the  last  year
usefulness.    Also,  frankly,  we  has  shown  a  truly  outstanding
need people to contribute more for  increase in  the sophistication of
our  support,  and  having  new  our    knowledge    of    Lojban
products  to  sell  gives  you  expression,  its  style,  and  its
something for  your money  besides  semantics.  But  that  evolution,
the good  feeling of  contributing  and  the  dozens  of  little  tiny
to keeping this project alive.      changes  in  the  corners  of  the
                                    language were  stresses that  hurt

== le lojbo se ciska (cont.) ==
my confidence  that I was teaching    This lack  of examples was a big
the language  appropriately to the  hang-up in  textbook  writing,  as
ways it  is  coming  to  be  used.  well.  I spent endless time trying
I've  also  spent  too  much  time  to concoct  meaningful examples of
dealing  with  our  unending  fi-  sentences  that  exemplified  the
nancial  problems    and  simply  points I was trying to make, which
coordinating the  rapid  expansion  were limited  in  vocabulary,  but
of our organization.                still interesting.  This is NOT my
  The reference  materials of  the  strong skill.  Still, the 50 pages
language continued  to  evolve  as  of  the  new  draft  textbook  has
well, and,  although the  language  dozens of  examples and  even more
itself  is  quite  stable,  our  exercises.
published  descriptions  of  the    When  John  Cowan  first  became
language  have    edged  towards  involved in  Lojban, 2  years ago,
obsolescence.    The  gismu  list  his first  promised goal  was  the
place structures  were  too  short  rather ambitious one of writing an
and  vague,    but  the    words  example sentence  for every gismu.
themselves were  quite stable,  as  He then  decided instead  to write
were the rafsi affixes.  The cmavo  one  sentence  for  every  cmavo,
list was  nearly  as  stable,  but  covering    every    variety    of
incessant little  changes  in  the  grammatical usage.
grammar  coupled    with    major    A  nice  ideal,  but  far  too
advances of  our knowledge  of how  ambitious,  as  John  found  out.
to communicate in Lojban have made  Some  cmavo  are  permitted  in  a
a simple list of cmavo inadequate.  variety  of  usages  but  aren't
The YACC-based  formal grammar has  pragmatically useful  in  most  of
similarly been quite stable; there  them -  at least not in a way that
were little  changes and we had to  we  English  speakers  can  easily
update the  baseline a year later,  recognize.   For example, it seems
and a new baseline will take place  rather  odd  to  contemplate  the
when  the  first  book  comes  out  mathematical number  "pi"  treated
(though  the  number  of  grammar  like all other numbers and used as
change  proposals  in  the  second  a digit,  or to  enumerate objects
baseline year  have been less than  or  events:  "pi  events  of  Mary
half of those in the first year).  going to  the store" is irrational
  Since  every  example  in  the  in more  than  one  sense  of  the
textbook  must  be  accurate  and  word.
consistent  with  the  reference    John's continuing  work with the
lists, the  more examples I've put  grammar has  made  him  even  more
into the  text,  the  shakier  the  expert in  its details  than I am.
result  has  become.      Simply  He has performed the modifications
checking  every  example  in  the  to the  YACC grammar  for all  the
existing 6 chapters requires hours  little changes  of  the  last  two
of work  - the  new  textbook  has  years.      In  developing  that
several times as many examples for  expertise,    he    learned    how
each key grammar point.            thoroughly  the    language    is
  In addition, the YACC grammar is  defined, while  how little of that
not too  well understood  by those  design is  yet set  down on paper.
who aren't  used to  that type  of  He set  to remedy  this problem in
grammar definition.  There  are a  the context  of his previous goal,
lot of trees, with no sense of the  choosing  to  write  a  "selma'o
forest.  The shorter EBNF form of  catalog" that  would list  all the
the grammar  is  better  for  some  grammatical components of the lan-
people, but it is still formalized  guage,  giving  explanations  and
and  difficult  for  non-computer  examples of  the use  of  each  of
people.  An especial  lack  is  a  them.  Maybe he wouldn't find one
series of examples showing all the  example for  every word  in  every
various structures of the grammar,  grammatical context,  but at least
and  discussing  why  they  were  there would  be an example of each
present.                            such  grammatical  form,  and  the

Back when I was writing the draft textbook lessons, Nora was busily inventing examples for me. I never finished writing draft Lesson 7, but Nora had plenty of examples. Here are those examples, without the textual explanation that was never finished. As with most of Nora's examples, they stand quite well on their own, anyway. The primary topics are abstraction, logical connection, and the mathematical selbri words.
result would show how the rules of  understand the  'B'  words,  while
the grammar  interacted in  actual  'C' requires knowledge of both 'A'
usage (as  opposed to  the  arcane  and 'B', etc.
formulae of the YACC grammar).        Finally, although  John  created
  John spent several months on the  over a  hundred example  sentences
selma'o  catalog,  and  created  a  for the  selma'o catalog,  this is
very  nice  document  that  a  few  not nearly enough to exemplify the
people have  used  effectively  to  entire Lojban grammar.
learn    about    the    language    The selma'o  catalog will appear
structures.    The  document  has  in print,  probably in  the first
remained  a  draft, though,  for  book to  be published (see below).
several  reasons.      Basically,  However, it needs to be integrated
though,  John  realized  that  his  with other materials in that book,
goal remained  far beyond  what he  which will take a bit of work.  It
was capable of writing.  I'm going  unfortunately  cannot  serve  the
to  exaggerate  the  negatives  to  purpose John  originally  set  out
make the  reasons  clear  -  as  I  for it  - to exemplify the variety
said, the  document  proved  quite  of cmavo  and their  usages in the
useful  and  informative  for the  grammar.
limited audience  of reviewers who    To accomplish  the latter,  John
already  knew  a  bit  about  the  has undertaken  and made excellent
language.  Everyone who  read it,  progress on  a new  approach.  He
including me,  learned a  lot from  has divided  the grammar of Lojban
John's explanations.               into some  15 topics.  There will
  The draft selma'o catalog  is a  be a paper on each topic, covering
couple of hundred paragraphs, with  the cmavo  used in  the portion of
a  couple  of  hundred  cross-  the grammar  that  addresses  that
references; but the latter is not  topic.  A  half  dozen  of these
nearly enough.   It turns out that  papers  are   done  or  nearly
so  many  of  the  structures  are  complete.
redundant to each other that it is    The  topics  are  not  an  even
difficult    to    write    about  division of  the  grammar  -  some
individual word categories without  topics can  be covered in very few
referring  to    what  is  said  pages, while  others need a lot of
elsewhere, or  without repeating  explanation and  examples.  On the
the same  thing many  times  over.  average,  the  topics  are  being
John also  had to  make use  of so  covered to  at least  the level of
many technical jargon terms that a  detail as the "On Lojban Negation"
explanatory glossary  was going to  paper,  which  was  published  a
be needed  that was fully as large  couple of years ago with JL and is
as the  catalog text, in order for  now distributed  with "Package  3"
the catalog  to be understood by a  for  active  language  students.
beginner.  Finally, because  John  (John's writing  in  these  new
wrote the  catalog from  start  to  papers seems to me to be much more
end, it  reads fairly  well as  a  readable  then  my  own   in  the
textual  explanation    of    the  negation paper.)  Each  paper has
selma'o.                            dozens of  examples;  in  some  of
  However, as  a catalog reference  them, over  a hundred examples may
work not  intended to be read from  be found.
start  to  finish,  the  document    The most important of the papers
failed.  Individual  entries  are completed thus  far is  the  tense
hard to understand - even with all  paper included  with  this  issue.
the cross-references,  too much of  One  of  the  most  thoroughly
the text  presumes that the reader  analyzed and  designed aspects  of
has read and understood what comes  Lojban, as  distinguished  from
'before it'  in the  catalog.  The  earlier versions  of  Loglan, the
result  is  like  a  dictionary  tense system  benefits  from  pc's
wherein  you    must  know  and  expertise in  tense logic  and its
understand almost  every  word  in  expression in the languages of the
the 'A'  section before  trying to  world.

=== Examples of bridi logical connection ===
  I've said  that the Lojban tense  suppose over  a period  of time, X
system is overdesigned - it allows  continues this cruel behavior, the
the  entire  variety  of  tense-  dog's condition  deteriorates, and
related expressions used by any of  it dies.  In English, we might say
the  world's  languages,  without  that "X  kept on:  kept on hitting
particularly  favoring  any  one  the dog  too long, too long."  But
approach.  But each  natural lan-  without      the      long-winded
guage  has  evolved  a  highly  explanation,  you  would  almost
specialized  and  often  idiomatic  certainly consider  that  sentence
approach to expressing tense.  The  both ungrammatical  and  nonsense,
English speaker  tackling  Russian  when it is neither.  (And there is
or Greek  or Irish,  all  Indo-Eu-  no way  to clearly  punctuate  the
ropean  languages,  must  learn  sentence, either,  as I just found
elaborate tense  systems involving  out.)    Lojban  expresses  this
perfective  tenses    that  work  situation easily.
entirely unlike  those of English.    Now  think  of  one  of  those
Making the matter even worse, most  cartoons where  the main character
English speakers  are ill-educated  drives  a  motorboat  across  the
as to  the complexity of the tense  lake, then  continues up  on shore
structures of  their own language,  and  across  the  land.      This
and  the  subtleties  of  nuance  situation is  expressed in  Lojban
implicit in  various forms  of ex-  using a  tense  quite  similar  to
pression.  As a  result, a  major  that of  the last  example:    the
failing people  have  in  learning  character  kept  on  driving  the
foreign languages is that they are  motorboat too far 'on' the lake.
unable to  grasp the  new ways  of    There are  all manner  of  other
relating time  and space  embodied  tense  structures  permitted  in
in the foreign language, and speak  Lojban,  some  of  which  have  no