Difference between revisions of "User:Gleki/Grammatical mood"

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Tag: 2017 source edit
Tag: 2017 source edit
 
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!Mood!!Event, as intended by speaker!!Example!!Lojban!!Problem with adaptation to Lojban!!Found in
 
!Mood!!Event, as intended by speaker!!Example!!Lojban!!Problem with adaptation to Lojban!!Found in
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Subjunctive mood|Subjunctive]]
+
|[[Subjunctive mood|Subjunctive]]  
 
|Event is considered unlikely (mainly used in dependent clauses).
 
|Event is considered unlikely (mainly used in dependent clauses).
 
|"If I loved you...", "May I love you"
 
|"If I loved you...", "May I love you"

Latest revision as of 11:17, 4 November 2021

Mood Event, as intended by speaker Example Lojban Problem with adaptation to Lojban Found in
Subjunctive Event is considered unlikely (mainly used in dependent clauses). "If I loved you...", "May I love you" ganai la'anai ... gi ...

ganai ju'onai ... gi

doesn't take into account unlikeliness and assertion of not possibly becoming real thus not being different from Conditional (add to na ku da'i toi?) English | Latin | German | Romance languages | Vedic Sanskrit | Proto-Indo-European | Hindi
Conditional Event depends upon another condition. "I would love you" da'i

ganai ... gi

English | German | Romance languages | Icelandic | Irish | Hindi | Finnish | Hungarian
Optative Event is hoped,[1] expected, or awaited. "May I be loved!" .a'o

ba'a .au

doesn't relay expectation Albanian | Ancient Greek | Sanskrit | Avestan | Proto-Indo-European
Jussive Event is pleaded, implored or asked.[2] "Everyone should be loved" .ei Arabic | Hebrew | Esperanto
Potential Event is probable or considered likely "She probably loves me" la'a Finnish | Japanese | Sanskrit | Sami languages | Proto-Indo-European
Imperative and Prohibitive Event is directly ordered or requested by the speaker.[3] Prohibitive is the negation of an imperative statement, i.e., the speaker prohibits an event (orders to it not occur).[4] "Love me!", "Do not love me" .e'i (BPFK) The CLL doesn't have an example of .e'i English[3] | Seri | Latin | Portuguese (Portuguese has distinct Imperative and Prohibitive moods) | Finnish | Hungarian
Desiderative Event is desired/wished by a participant in the state of affairs referred to in the utterance[5] "I wish she loved me." .au Sanskrit | Japanese | Proto-Indo-European
Dubitative Event is uncertain, doubtful, dubious.[6] "I think she loves me." ju'ocu'i The CLL uses ju'o and la'a scales for hypothetical worlds Ojibwe[6] | Turkish
Hypothetical Event is hypothetical, or it is counterfactual, but possible.[7] "I might love you [if...]" da'i Russian | Lakota[7]
Presumptive Event is assumed, presupposed by the speaker There is no exact English example, although it could be translated as: "[Even if] he loves you [...]" no translation? Romanian | Hindi | Punjabi | Gujarati
Permissive Event is permitted by the speaker.[8] "You may [not] love me..." .e'a Lithuanian (as a form of optative mood)
Admirative Event is surprising or amazing (literally or in irony or sarcasm). "Wow! She loves me!" u'e, ue Turkish | Bulgarian | Macedonian | Albanian | Megleno-Romanian
Hortative Event is exhorted, implored, insisted or encouraged by speaker. "Let us love!" .e'ei Latin (as a form of jussive) | Greek (as a form of the subjunctive)[9] | Hindi
Template:Visanc Event is likely but depends upon a condition. It is a combination of the potential and the conditional moods. "I would probably love you [if...]" ganai ... gi la'a ... Finnish (in the epic poem Kalevala) | Estonian, in some dialects
Precative Event is requested by the speaker.[10] "Will you love me?" .e'o
Volitive Event is desired, wished or feared by the speaker.[11] "Would that you loved me!" / "God forbid [that] you love me!" .au
Inferential Event is nonwitnessed, and not confirmed. There is no exact English example, although it could be translated as: "She is said to love me" ti'e ? Turkish | Bulgarian (Inferential mood is called "renarrative mood") | Estonian (It is called "oblique mood")
Necessitative Event is necessary, or it is both desired and encouraged. It is a combination of hortative and jussive. .ei .e'ei Armenian | Turkish
Interrogative Event is asked or questioned by the speaker "Does she love me?" xu Welsh | Nenets
  1. "Optative Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12. 
  2. "Jussive Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Imperative Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12. 
  4. "Prohibitive Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12. 
  5. "WALS Online - Chapter The Optative". wals.info. Retrieved 2021-05-11. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Dubitative Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Hypothetical Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12. 
  8. Loos, Eugene E.; Anderson, Susan; Day, Dwight H. Jr.; Jordan, Paul C.; Wingate, J. Douglas (eds.). "What is permissive mood?". Glossary of linguistic terms. SIL International. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  9. Smyth, Herbert (1984). Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 403–404 (§1797–1799). ISBN 0-674-36250-0. 
  10. "Precative Mood". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12. 
  11. "Volitive Modality". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms (in English). 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2020-08-12.