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<div align="left" style="font-size:150%;color:#cc8800;text-align:left;">Instruction on how to use this course: 1. read it 2. collect your feedback and suggestions and 3. send them to [mailto:gleki.is.my.name@gmail.com gleki.is.my.name@gmail.com.]<br>For checking the grammar of your sentences use [http://lojban.github.io/ilmentufa/camxes.html this unofficial parser.]</div>
Read a newer course "[https://lojban.pw/books/learn-lojban/ Learn Lojban]" instead.
|| <div align="right" style="font-size:110%">&nbsp;''The La Gleki's''</div>
|| <div align="right" style="font-size:180%">Crash Course in Lojban</div>
<div style="font-size:110%">The guide to the speakable logical language</div>
<div>Published 2017</div>
This simplified course covers the most important aspects of Lojban, a logical language.
''<div style="font-size:130%">Why was this book born?</div>''
When I first saw the description of Lojban I was confused. A language where verbs and nouns don't differ. How is that possible? And then I saw those pronounceable smileys... but wait! It is a logical language. Where do emotions come from in the world of logic? These oddities were making me crazy.
If this language can combine those things it must be the most powerful human language in the world. And although I didn't have much free time for such hobbies I decided to look into it deeper. Why?
*I wanted to try new ways of thinking.
*I wanted a beautiful language.
*And I wanted something easy to grasp.
I heard others saying that Lojban is extremely hard to learn but what I discovered later was an amazing simplicity of its structure.
Go on reading and you'll get evidence for that.
I also learnt that Lojban allows saying things shorter without unnecessary distracting details. For example, one doesn't have to always think of what tense (past, present or future) to use in a verb when it's already clear from context: when you need details you add them. But unlike other languages Lojban doesn't force you to do so.
But why did I decide to write my own course?
When I first opened textbooks on Lojban ... darn, they were written not for humans for sure. An awkward and boring style making it impossible to learn the language fast. A lot of distracting not necessary details, no solutions for real situations and bulky, bulky, bulky.
And I said &quot;Enough! If you can't explain it yourself then I'll do that, in simpler words, with better examples and as concise as possible.&quot;
''<div style="font-size:130%">Using this course.</div>''
Lojban is likely to be very different to the kinds of languages you are familiar with — which certainly include English. Learning it is much more than just learning its words and grammar: it is more about understanding it. It will make you think about the ways you express ideas in words. Something that you learned and used every day but never tried to understand how it works.
Learning may be easy or hard, depending on how well you understand the ideas behind it. There are not many words and rules that you need to learn to get into a basic level. You will get there rather quickly if you put a systemic effort. On the other hand, if you fail to understand some basic point, memorizing things will not help you much. In such cases don't hesitate to move on, and come back to it later. Likewise, some of the exercises are trickier than others (particularly the translation exercises at the end of sections). If you can't work out the answer to a particular question, feel free to skip it — but do look at the answer to the question.
''<div style="font-size:130%">Conventions used in this book.</div>''
*Lojbanic text is in '''bold'''.
*Translations are in ''italic''.
*<tt>Explanations of the structure of text in Lojban are in such &quot;fixed width&quot; letters.</tt>
*Brackets are used to clarify the grammatical structure of Lojban in examples. <nowiki>[These brackets are used only for clarifying stuff]</nowiki>.
{{mupli|Examples are marked by a line on the left. This is an example of a case study sentence.}}
{{vajni|Examples of common colloquial phrases are marked by a double line.}}
{{notci|Side notes and tips are in boxes. This is an example of a note.}}
For more information on Lojban, please contact the Logical Language Group:
*e-mail: [mailto:bangu@lojban.org bangu@lojban.org]
*web-site: [http://lojban.org lojban.org]
This course is created by the author La Gleki with the help of the Lojban community throughout years 2013-2015. This book teaches a simplified and optimized style in Lojban and explains latest trends in Lojban language.
== Lesson 1. The language at a glance ==
=== Alphabet<span id="1.0"></span> ===
The basic thing you need to know about Lojban is obviously the alphabet.
Lojban uses the Latin alphabet (vowels are colored):
:'''<font color="#FF1493">a</font> b c d <font color="#FF1493">e</font> f g <font color="#FF1493">i</font> j k l m n <font color="#FF1493">o</font> p r s t <font color="#FF1493">u</font> v x <font color="#FF1493">y</font> z ' .'''
Letters are pronounced exactly as they are written.
There are six vowels in Lojban:
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">a</font></center>'''
| as in ''b<u>a</u>th'' (not as in ''face'')
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">e</font></center>'''
| as in ''g<u>e</u>t''
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">i</font></center>'''
| as in ''mach<u>i</u>ne'' (not as in ''hit'')
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">o</font></center>'''
| as in ''ch<u>o</u>ice'', ''n<u>o</u>t'' or ''ough'' in ''th<u>ough</u>t'' (not as in ''so'', '''o''' should be a &quot;pure&quot; sound).
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">u</font></center>'''
| as in ''c<u>oo</u>l'' (not as in ''but'')
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">y</font></center>'''
| as in ''comm<u>a</u>'' (not as in ''misty'' or ''cycle'')
'''a''', '''e''', '''i''', '''o''', '''u''' are pretty much the same as vowels in Italian or Spanish.
The sixth vowel, '''y''' sounds like ''a'' in the word ''comma''. So it's kind of ''er'' or, in American English, ''uh''. <b>y</b> is the sound that comes out when the mouth is completely relaxed (this sound is also called ''schwa'' in the language trade).
The following combinations '''au''', '''ai''', '''ei''', '''oi''' are considered additional vowels and pronounced in a special way:
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">au</font></center>'''
| as in ''n<u>ow</u>''
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">ai</font></center>'''
| as in ''<u>eye</u>'', ''sk<u>y</u>'', ''n<u>i</u>ce''
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">ei</font></center>'''
| as in ''<u>ei</u>ght'', ''th<u>ey</u>'', ''d<u>ay</u>''
|'''<center><font color="#FF1493">oi</font></center>'''
| as in ''v<u>oi</u>ce'', ''j<u>oy</u>''
As for consonants they are pronounced like in English or Latin, but there are a few differences:
|is pronounced as ''c'' in ''ocean'', as ''sh'' in ''shop''.
|always ''g'' as in ''gum'' (never ''g'' as in ''gem'').
|like ''s'' in ''pleasure'' or ''treasure'', like ''j'' in French ''bonjour''.
|like ''ch'' in Scottish ''loch'' or as in German ''Bach'', Spanish ''Jose'' or Arabic ''Khaled''. Try pronouncing ''ksss'' while keeping your tongue down and you get this sound.
|''' ' '''
|like English ''h''. So the apostrophe is regarded as a proper letter of Lojban and pronounced like a ''h''. It can be found only between vowels. For example, '''u'i''' is pronounced as ''oo-hee'' (whereas '''ui''' is pronounced as ''wee'').
|a full stop (period, word break) is also regarded as a letter in Lojban. It's a short pause in speech to stop words running into each other. Actually any word starting with a vowel has a full stop placed in front of it. This helps prevent undesirable merging of two sequential words into one.
|'''i''' before vowels: '''ia''', '''ie'''...
|is considered a consonant and pronounced shorter, for example:
*'''ia''' is pronounced as ''ya'' in ''yard''
*'''ie''' is pronounced as ''ye'' in ''yes''
|'''u''' before vowels: '''ua''', '''ue'''...
|is considered a consonant and pronounced shorter, for example:
*'''ua''' is pronounced as ''wo'' in ''wow''
*'''ue''' is pronounced as ''whe'' in ''when''
Stress is put on the second-to-last vowel or shown explicitly using symbol '''`''' before the stressed vowel in order to break this rule. For example, '''dansu''' (which means ''to dance'') can be also written as '''d`ansu''' to explicitly show the stress. If a word has only one vowel you just don't stress it.
'''r''' can be pronounced like the ''r'' in English, Scottish, French, Russian, thus there is a range of acceptable pronunciation for it.
Non-Lojban vowels like short ''i'' and ''u'' in Standard British English ''h<u>i</u>t'' and ''b<u>u</u>t'' are used by some people to separate consonants. So if you have problems spitting out two consonant one after another, e.g. the '''ml''' in '''mlatu''' (which means ''cat''), then you can say ''mɪlatu'' — where the ''ɪ'' is very short, but other vowels: '''a''', '''u''' have to be long.
=== The simplest sentence ===
{{pixra|Image:Mona_ciciak.jpg|'''lo mlatu'''<br/>''a cat / cats''}}
{{pixra|Image:Peoria - Fifi (Just Found) Drinking Milk (1974).png|'''pinxe'''<br/>''drinks, to drink''}}
{{pixra|Image:Milk_glass1.jpg|'''lo ladru'''<br/>''milk''}}
{{pixra|Image:Red_Apple.jpg|'''lo plise'''<br/>''an apple / apples''}}
{{pixra|Image:Jenson_Button_2009_Turkey_2.jpg|'''karce'''<br/>''… is a car''}}
{{pixra|Image:PSM_V04_D543_Primeval_rain.jpg|'''carvi'''<br/>''… is rain''}}
Now let's turn to constructing our first sentences in Lojban.
{{mu|lo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|Cats drink milk.}}
One of your first thoughts might be &quot;Where are nouns and verbs in Lojban?&quot;
Here are three verbs:
:'''pinxe''' means ''drinks, to drink''.
:'''mlatu''' means ''is a cat, are cats, to be a cat''.
:'''ladru''' means ''is some milk''.
To turn a verb into a noun we put a short word '''lo''' in front of it: '''lo mlatu''', '''lo ladru'''.
It might sound strange how ''cat'' and ''milk'' can be verbs but in fact this makes Lojban very simple:
{| class="wikitable"
! verb !! noun
| '''pinxe''' - ''to drink'' || '''lo pinxe''' - ''drinkers''
| '''mlatu''' - ''are cats, is a cat'' || '''lo mlatu''' - ''cats''
| '''ladru''' - ''is some milk'' || '''lo ladru''' - ''milk''
We can also say that '''lo''' creates a noun from a verb with roughly the meaning of ''those who do…'' (''drink'' - ''drinkers''), ''those who are…'' (''are cats'' - ''cats'') or ''one which is…'' (''is some milk'' - ''milk).
The most basic sentence in Lojban consists of one phrase otherwise called ''clause''. Clause has the following parts from the left to the right:
*the head of the clause: one or more nouns. The noun '''lo mlatu''' in this case.
*the head separator '''cu''' (remember that '''c''' is pronounced as ''sh'')
*the tail of the clause: the main verb ('''pinxe''') with possibly one or more nouns after it: the noun '''lo ladru''' in this case.
One more example:
{{mu|lo plise cu kukte|Apples are tasty.}}
Here, '''lo plise''' means ''apples'', '''kukte''' means ''to be tasty''.
A simpler clause in Lojban would contain only one main verb:
You could say this when you see a car coming. Here the context would be clear enough that there is a car somewhere around and probably it's dangerous.
'''karce''' itself is a verb meaning ''is a car, to be a car''.
Similarly, you can say
{{mu|carvi|It is raining.}}
{{gl|carvi|is rain, to be raining}}
{{mu|pluka|It's pleasant}}
{{gl|pluka|to be pleasant}}
Notice that in Lojban there is no need in the word ''it'' in such sense. You just use the verb you need.
{{mu|prami|Someone loves.}}
where '''prami''' - ''to love (someone)''
{{mu|bajra|Someone runs.}}
where '''bajra''' - ''to run''.
Again context would probably tell who loves whom and who runs.
{{notci|Lojban does not require any punctuation, separate words are used instead. Punctuation marks like ''! ? “ ”'' can be used for stylistic purposes or to make the text look smarter. They don't add or change the meaning.
Note that the symbol '''.''' (dot) can be used as we use dot in English (i.e. as a punctuation mark) but its main purpose in Lojban is that it is a proper letter that denotes a pause.}}
=== Pronouns: ''I'' - '''mi''', ''you'' - '''do''' ===
{{gl|ti|this one (near me, the speaker)}}
{{gl|ta|that one(near you, the listener)}}
{{gl|tu|that one (not near you or me)}}
Like their English name hints, pronouns work like nouns by default. And they don't require '''lo''' in front of them.
{{mu|mi pinxe|I drink.}}
{{mu|do pinxe|You drink.}}
{{mu|ti ladru|This is some milk.}}
{{mu|tu mlatu|That is a cat.}}
{{mu|do citka lo plise|You eat apples.}}
{{gl|citka|to eat (something)}}
{{mu|mi prami do|I love you.}}
After pronouns '''cu''' is often omitted, thus '''mi cu prami''' is rarely said, a concise '''mi prami''' is said instead.
Unlike in English we don't have to add the verb &quot;is/are/to be&quot; to the sentence. It is already there: '''mlatu''' means ''<u>to be</u> a cat''.
===== Task =====
Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|'''do citka'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''You eat.''
|'''mi pinxe lo ladru'''
|''I drink milk.''
|'''mi citka lo plise'''
|''I eat apples.''
Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|''That is an apple.''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''tu plise'''
|''Milk is tasty.''
|'''lo ladru cu kukte'''
|''You love me.''
|'''do prami mi'''
|''That one eats apples.''
|'''tu citka lo plise'''
=== '''.i''' separates sentences ===
The most precise way of uttering or writing sentences in Lojban would be placing a short word '''.i''' in the beginning of each of them:
{{mu|.i mi viska lo mlatu .i lo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|I see cats. Cats drink milk.}}
{{gl|viska|to see (something)}}
'''.i''' separates sentences like the full stop (period) at the end of sentences in English texts.
When saying one sentence after another in English we make a pause (it may be short) between them. But pause has many different meanings in English. In Lojban we have a better way of understanding where one sentence ends and another begins.
Also note that sometimes when pronouncing words quickly you can't figure out where one sentence ends and the word of the next sentence begins. Therefore it's advised to use the word '''.i''' before starting a new sentence.
=== Numbers: ''1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0'' = '''pa re ci vo mu xa ze bi so no''' ===
'''lo''' simply turns a verb into a noun but such noun has no number associated with it. The sentence
{{mu|lo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|<u>Cats</u> drink milk.}}
is a general statement. Now let's specify how many of them are relevant to our discussion.
<!--''A cat'' in English means &quot;one cat&quot;, and ''cats'' means &quot;two or more cats&quot;. In Lojban, '''lo mlatu''' can mean either of them. Usually context tells us how many cats are here.
But what if we want to specify the number?-->
Let's add a number after '''lo'''.
|| '''pa'''
|| '''re'''
|| '''ci'''
|| '''vo'''
|| '''mu'''
|| '''xa'''
|| '''ze'''
|| '''bi'''
|| '''so'''
|| '''no'''
|| 1
|| 2
|| 3
|| 4
|| 5
|| 6
|| 7
|| 8
|| 9
|| 0
:{{gl|ro|each, all}}.
{{mu|pa mlatu cu citka lo plise|One cat eats apples. There is one cat that eats apples.}}
We replace '''lo''' with a number and hence specify individual cats.
Note that we retain '''lo''' for apples since we talk not about specific apples but about eating <u>any</u> apples.
For numbers consisting of several digits we just string those digits together.
{{mu|re mu mlatu cu citka lo plise|There are 25 cats who eat apples.}}
Yes, it's that simple.
If we want to count we can separate numbers with '''.i''':
{{mu|mu .i vo .i ci .i re .i pa .i no|5 ... 4 ... 3 ... 2 ... 1 ... 0}}
'''ro''' is used to express the meaning of ''each, every, all'':
{{mu|ro mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|Every cat drinks milk.}}
The number '''za'u''' means ''more than ...'' (''>'' in math), the number '''me'i''' means ''less than'' (''<'' in math):
{{mu|za'u mlatu cu pinxe|More of the cats drink.}}
{{mu|me'i mlatu cu pinxe|Fewer of the cats drink.}}
{{mu|za'u ci mlatu cu pinxe|More than three cats are drinking.}}
{{mu|me'i ci mlatu cu pinxe|Fewer than three cats are drinking.}}
To say just ''cats'' (plural number) as opposed to ''one cat'' we use '''za'u pa''', ''more than one''.
{{mu|za'u pa mlatu cu pinxe|There are cats that drink.}}
{{mu|pa mlatu cu pinxe|One cat drinks. There is one cat that is drinking.}}
Putting '''za'u''' before '''lo''' means ''more'', putting '''me'i''' means ''fewer'':
To put it in short:
{{gl|lo prenu|people (in general)}}
{{gl|pa prenu|there is one person}}
{{gl|za'u prenu|more of the people}}
{{gl|za'u pa prenu|people (two or more in number)}}
===== Task =====
Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.
{{gl|lo prenu|person, people}}
{{gl|stati|to be smart, to have a talent}}
{{gl|klama|to go (to some place)}}
{{gl|nelci|to like (something)}}
{{gl|lo zarci|market}}
{{gl|lo najnimre|an orange (fruit), oranges}}
{{gl|lo badna|a banana, bananas}}
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|'''mu prenu cu klama lo zarci'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''Five people go to markets. There are five people who go to markets.''
|'''pa no prenu cu stati .i do stati'''
|''10 people are smart. You are smart.''
|'''lo prenu cu nelci lo plise'''
|''People like apples.''
|'''za'u prenu cu nelci lo najnimre .i me'i prenu cu nelci lo badna'''
|''More people like oranges. Fewer people like bananas.''
|'''za'u re prenu cu stati'''
|''More than two people are smart.''
Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|''There are 256 cats who are smart.''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''re mu xa mlatu cu stati'''
|''Fewer than 12 apples are tasty.''
|'''me'i pa re plise cu kukte'''
|''Each of the people eats. Fewer people eat oranges.''
|'''ro prenu cu citka .i me'i prenu cu citka lo najnimre'''
=== ''the'', ''he'' and ''she'' ===
{{mu|pa mlatu cu pinxe i le mlatu cu taske|There is a cat that is drinking. The cat is thirsty.}}
{{gl|taske|to be thirsty}}
When we start a noun with '''le''' (instead of '''lo''' or numbers) we refer to nouns that have just been mentioned. They are translated to English as ''he'', ''she'' or by using the article ''the''.
{{gl|lo fetsi|females}}
{{gl|lo nakni|males}}
{{gl|lo prenu|people}}
{{gl|le fetsi|she, the female}}
{{gl|le nakni|he, the male}}
{{gl|le prenu|he or she, the person (gender is not known or not important)}}
If several nouns can match then the last one is used:
{{mu|pa prenu cu viska pa fetsi i le fetsi cu melbi|One person sees a female. She (the female) is beautiful.}}
{{gl|melbi|to be beautiful}}
In this case '''le fetsi''' is applied to the female as it is the last female object mentioned. The person who sees her might be female too but it's a noun used earlier.
{{notci|In spoken language '''le''' can be applied to nouns not found in text but obvious from context. Consider the outer reality a part of the text.}}
=== Compound verbs ===
Compound verbs ('''lo tanru''' in Lojban) are several verb words one after another.
{{mu|tu melbi zdani|That one is a nice home.}}
{{gl|melbi|to be beautiful, nice}}
{{gl|zdani|to be a home or nest (to someone)}}
{{mu|do melbi dansu|You nicely dance.}}
{{gl|dansu|to dance}}
Here the verb '''melbi''' adds an additional meaning as it is to the left of another verb: '''zdani'''. The left part is usually translated using adjectives and adverbs.
Compound verbs are a powerful tool that can give us richer verbs. You just string two verbs together. And the left part of such compound verb adds a flavor to the right one.
We can put '''lo''' or a number to the left of such compound verb getting a compound noun:
{{gl|pa melbi zdani|a beautiful home.}}
Now you know why there was '''cu''' after nouns in our example
{{mu|pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|A cat drinks milk.}}
Without '''cu''' it'd turn into '''pa mlatu pinxe''' … with the meaning ''a cat drinker'' whatever that could mean.
{{notci|Remember about placing '''cu''' before the main verb in a clause to prevent unintentional creating of compound verbs.}}
Compound verbs can contain more than two verbs. In this case the first verb modifies the second one, the second one modifies the third and so on:
{{gl|pa melbi cmalu verba|a pretty-small child, a child small in a pretty way}}
{{gl|verba|to be a child}}
{{gl|pa mutce melbi zdani|a very beautiful home}}
{{gl|mutce|to be very, to be much}}
===== Task =====
{{gl|sutra|to be quick}}
{{gl|barda|to be big}}
{{gl|cmalu|to be small}}
{{gl|bajra|to run}}
Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|'''lo melbi fetsi'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''beautiful females''
|'''do sutra klama'''
|''You quickly go. You go fast.''
|'''tu barda zdani'''
|''That is a big home.''
|'''pa sutra bajra mlatu'''
|''a quickly running cat''
|'''pa sutra mlatu'''
|''a quick cat''
|'''pa bajra mlatu'''
|''a running cat''
Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|''This is a small child.''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''ti cmalu verba'''
|''tasty apples''
|'''lo kukte plise'''
|''quick eaters''
|'''lo sutra citka'''
|''You are a quickly going male.''
|'''do sutra klama nakni'''
=== &quot;''Yes/No''&quot; questions ===
In English, we make a ''yes/no'' question by changing the order of the words (for example, &quot;''You are …''&quot; — &quot;''Are you …?''&quot;) or putting some form of the verb ''to do'' at the beginning (for example, ''Do you know?'') In Lojban we can retain the order of words.
We turn any assertion into a ''yes/no'' question by simply putting the word '''xu''' somewhere in the sentence, for example in the beginning:
{{mu|xu do nelci lo gerku?|Do you like dogs?}}
{{gl|lo gerku|dog, dogs}}
{{notci|Remember that in Lojban punctuation like &quot;?&quot; (question mark) is totally optional and used mostly for stylistic purposes. After all, we use the question word '''xu''' that shows the question anyway.}}
Other examples:
{{mu|xu mi klama|Am I coming?}}
{{gl|klama|to come (to somewhere)}}
{{mu|xu pelxu|Is it yellow?}}
{{gl|pelxu|to be yellow}}
We can shift the meaning by placing '''xu''' after different parts of a clause. Some possible explanations of such shift in meaning are given in brackets:
{{mu|— xu do nelci lo gerku|— Do you like dogs?}}
{{mu|— do xu nelci lo gerku|— Do YOU like dogs? (I thought it was someone else who likes them).}}
{{mu|— do nelci xu lo gerku|— Do you LIKE dogs? (I thought you were just neutral towards them).}}
{{mu|— do nelci lo gerku xu|— Do you like DOGS? (I thought you liked cats).}}
So what is expressed using intonation in English is expressed by moving '''xu''' after the part we want to emphasize. Note, that the first sentence with '''xu''' in the beginning asks the most generic question without stressing any particular aspect.
'''xu''' is an interjection word. Here are the features of Lojban interjections:
*interjection modifies the construct before it. So when put after certain part of the clause like pronoun or a verb it modifies that verb: '''do <u>xu</u> nelci lo gerku''' - ''Do <u>YOU</u> like dogs?''
*being put in the beginning of a clause, interjection modifies the whole clause: '''xu do nelci lo gerku''' - ''Do you like dogs?''
*we can put an interjection after different parts of the same clause shifting the meaning.
Interjections don't break compound verbs, they can be used within them:
{{mu|— do nelci lo barda xu gerku|— Do you like BIG dogs?}}
Now how to reply to such 'yes/no' questions?
{{mu|— xu do nelci lo gerku|— Do you like dogs?}}
{{mu|— je'u|— Yes.|— True}}
{{mu|je'u nai|No.|Not true}}
Another way to answer ''yes'' is to repeat the main verb, for example
{{mu|— '''xu lo mlatu cu melbi'''<br>— '''melbi'''|— ''Are cats pretty?''<br>— ''Pretty.''}}
'''je'u''' and '''je'u nai''' are also interjections. We can use them not only in questions:
{{mu|je'u do lazni|Truly you are lazy.}}
{{gl|lazni|to be lazy}}
{{mu|je'u nai mi nelci lo gerku|It is false that I like dogs.}}
The particle '''nai''' is a modifier of interjections, it creates the opposite meaning when put after them.
===== Task =====
Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|'''xu le barda zdani cu melbi'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''Is the big home beautiful?''
|'''— le nakni cu stati xu<br>— je'u nai'''
|''— Are the men smart?<br>— No.''
|'''do klama lo zarci xu'''
|''Do you go to the market?'' (not having any specific market in mind)
|'''xu le verba cu prami le mlatu'''
|''Does the child love the cats?''
Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|''Is the car fast?''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''xu le karce cu sutra'''
|''— Is the orange tasty?<br>— Yes, it is.''
|'''— xu le najnimre cu kukte<br>— je'u'''
|''Does the female love you?''
|'''xu le fetsi cu prami do'''
=== Polite requests ===
The interjection '''.e'o''' in the beginning of a sentence turns it into a request:
{{mu|.e'o do lebna le cukta|Could you take the book, please?|Please take the book.}}
{{gl|.e'o|interjection: please (pronounced as ''eh-haw'' with a short pause or break before the word)}}
{{gl|lebna|to take (something)}}
{{gl|le cukta|the book}}
In English to be polite one has to use ''could you'' + ''please'' + a question). In Lojban '''.e'o''' is enough to make a polite request.
===== Task =====
{{gl|lo tcati|tea}}
{{gl|lo ckafi|coffee}}
{{gl|catlu|to watch}}
{{gl|le skina|the film, the movie}}
Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|'''.e'o do sutra bajra'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''Run quickly!''
|'''.e'o do pinxe lo tcati'''
|''Please, drink tea!''
|'''.e'o catlu le skina'''
|''Please, watch the film!''
Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|''Please, be smart!''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''.e'o stati'''
|''Please, go home!''
|'''.e'o do klama le zdani'''
|''Please, drink coffee!''
|'''.e'o do pinxe lo ckafi'''
|''Please, take care of the child.''
|'''.e'o do kurji le verba'''
=== &quot;''And''&quot; and &quot;''or''&quot; ===
{{mu|pa melbi je cmalu zdani cu zvati ti|A pretty and small home is here.}}
{{gl|zvati|to be present at ...}}
{{gl|ti|this thing, this place near me}}
'''je''' is a conjunction particle in Lojban, it means ''and'' in compound verbs.
Without '''je''' the sentence changes the meaning:
{{mu|pa melbi cmalu zdani cu zvati|A prettily small home is here.}}
Here '''melbi''' modifies '''cmalu''' and '''melbi cmalu''' modifies '''zdani''' according to how compound verbs work.
In '''pa melbi je cmalu zdani''' (''a pretty and small house'') both '''melbi''' and '''cmalu''' modify '''zdani''' directly.
For connecting nouns and pronouns we use a similar conjunction '''.e''':
{{mu|mi .e do nelci lo jisra|I like juice, and you like juice.}}
{{gl|lo jisra|juice}}
Using conjunctions it's possible to connect sentences as well:
{{mu|mi nelci lo plise .i je do nelci lo jisra|I like apples. And you like juice.}}
Other common conjunction particles:
{{mu|le verba cu fengu ja bilma|The child is angry or ill (or maybe both angry and ill)}}
{{mu|do .a mi ba vitke le laldo|You or I (or both of us) will visit the old one.}}
{{gl|.a|and/or}} when connecting nouns and pronouns.
{{gl|fengu|to be angry}}
{{gl|bilma|to be ill}}
{{gl|vitke|to visit}}
{{gl|laldo|to be old}}
{{mu|le karce cu blabi jo nai grusi|The car is either white or gray.}}
{{mu|do .o nai mi vitke le laldo|Either you or I visit the old one.}}
{{gl|jo nai|either … or … but not both}} (it consists of two words but it has one single meaning)
{{gl|.o nai|either … or … but not both}} when connecting nouns and pronouns
Note that it's better to remember '''jo nai''' as a single construct. The same for '''.o nai'''.
{{mu|mi prami do .i ju do fenki|I love you. Whether or not you are crazy.}}
{{mu|le verba cu nelci lo plise .u lo badna|The child likes apples whether or not (he likes) bananas.}}
{{gl|ju|whether or not…}}
{{gl|.u|whether or not…}} when connecting nouns and pronouns.
{{gl|fenki|to be crazy}}
=== '''jo'u''' is ''and'' for joint actions ===
When we need to show that nouns are considered together, instead of '''.e''' we use the particle '''jo'u''':
{{mu|pa nanla jo'u pa nixli cu klama pa panka|A boy with a girl go to a park.}}
{{gl|pa nanla|a boy}}
{{gl|pa nixli|a girl}}
{{gl|pa panka|a park}}
Another example:
{{mu|pa nanla jo'u pa nixli cu casnu pa karce|A boy and a girl discuss a car with each other.}}
{{gl|casnu|to discuss}}
The verb '''casnu''' requires using '''jo'u''' to specify a group of those who discuss between each other.
{{mu|pa nanla .e pa nixli cu klama pa panka|A boy goes to a park, and a girl goes to a park.}}
This means that they don't necessarily go together.
Again notice that omitting '''lo''' or numbers starting nouns can cause weird results:
{{mu|pa nanla jo'u nixli cu casnu pa karce|Someone who is a boy and a girl (at the same time considered together!) discusses a car.}}
The correct sentence uses '''lo''' or a number before each noun:
{{mu|lo nanla jo'u lo nixli cu casnu pa karce|Boys and girls discuss a car.}}
{{mu|pa nanla jo'u pa nixli cu casnu pa karce|A boy and a girl discuss a car.}}
{{notci|The pronoun '''mi'o''' (''you and I together'') can actually be expressed as '''mi jo'u do''', which means exactly the same (it's just longer).
In Lojban people mostly use not a single word for ''we'' but more precise constructs like '''mi jo'u lo pendo''' (literally ''I and friends'').}}
===== Task =====
Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|'''mi nelci lo badna .e lo plise'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''I like bananas, and I like apples.''
|'''do sutra ja stati'''
|''You are quick or smart or both.''
|'''za'u pa prenu cu casnu lo karce .u lo gerku'''
|''There are people who discuss cars whether or not (they discuss) dogs.''
|'''mi citka lo najnimre .o nai lo badna'''
|''I eat either oranges or bananas.''
Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|''Females like rain, and males like rain.''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''lo fetsi .e lo nakni cu nelci lo carvi'''
|''Either I or you go to the market.''
|'''mi .o nai do klama le zarci'''
|''I see a big and beautiful car.''
|'''mi viska pa barda je melbi karce'''
|''The child drinks milk and/or juice.''
|'''le verba cu pinxe lo ladru .a lo jisra'''
|''A child and someone small discuss a car.''
|'''pa verba jo'u pa cmalu cu casnu pa karce''' (note the use of '''jo'u'''. ''someone small'' is just '''pa cmalu''').
=== But … ===
{{mu|lo najnimre cu barda i ku'i je lo badna cu cmalu|Oranges are big. But bananas are small.}}
{{gl|ku'i|interjection: but, however}}
Actually ''but'' is the same as ''and'' + it adds a flavor of contrast.
In Lojban we just use the interjection '''ku'i''' and then add '''je''' (''and''). That will give us the necessary contrast.
=== Events: ''dancing and being together'' - '''lo nu dansu .e lo nu kansa''' ===
Any clause can be turned into a verb by putting '''nu''' in front of it:
{{mu|lo nicte cu nu mi viska le lunra|Night is when I see the Moon.|Night is the event when I see the Moon.}}
{{gl|nicte|(some event) is a nighttime}}
{{gl|lo nicte|night (in general sense), nighttimes}}
{{gl|viska|to see (something)}}
{{gl|le lunra|the Moon}}
Here '''lo nicte''' is a noun of the clause and '''nu mi viska le lunra''' is the main verb of the clause as it starts with '''nu'''. But inside this main verb we can see another clause ('''mi viska le lunra''') embedded!
The word '''nu''' actually transforms a clause into a verb that denotes an event or a process.
Adding '''lo''' in front of '''nu''' creates nouns that denote events:
{{gl|pinxe|to drink}}
{{gl|lo nu pinxe|drinking}}
{{gl|dansu|to dance}}
{{gl|lo nu dansu|dancing}}
{{gl|kansa|to be together with}}
{{gl|lo nu kansa|being together}}
{{gl|klama|to come}}
{{gl|lo nu klama|coming}}
{{gl|lo nu do klama|coming of you, you coming}}
'''lo nu''' often corresponds to English ''-ing'', ''-tion'', ''-sion''.
Some verbs require using events instead of ordinary nouns. For example:
{{mu|mi djica lo nu do klama ti|I want you to come here (to this place)}}
{{gl|djica|to want (some event)}}
Some nouns describe events by themselves so no '''lo nu''' is used:
{{mu|lo cabna cu nicte|Now it's night. At present it's night.}}
{{gl|lo cabna|present time, (an event) is at present.}}
Nouns made with '''lo nu''' can be used for verbs that describe events by themselves:
{{mu|lo nu pinxe lo ladru cu nabmi mi|Drinking milk is a problem to me.}}
{{gl|nabmi|(event) is a problem (to someone), (event) is problematic (to someone)}}
For known events we use '''le nu''' instead:
{{mu|mi gleki le nu do klama|I'm happy because you are coming.}}
{{gl|gleki|to be happy (of some event)}}
{{gl|lo gleki|a happy one, a happy person}}
{{notci|All Lojban words are divided into two groups:
* particles (called  '''lo cmavo''' in Lojban). Examples: '''lo''', '''nu''', '''mi'''
* verbs (called '''lo selbrivla''' in Lojban). Examples: '''gleki''', '''verba'''.<br>It is quite common to write several particles one after another without spaces between them. This is allowed by Lojban grammar. So don't be surprised to see '''lonu''' instead of '''lo nu''', '''je'unai''' instead of '''je'u nai''', '''jonai''' instead of '''jo nai''' and so on. This doesn't change the meaning. However, this is not applied to verbs: they are to be separated with spaces.}}
===== Task =====
{{gl|pilno|to use (something)}}
{{gl|lo skami|computer}}
Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|'''mi nelci lo nu do dansu'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''I like you dancing.''
|'''xu do gleki lo nu do pilno lo skami'''
|''Are you happy because of using computers?''
|'''do djica lo nu mi citka lo plise xu'''
|''Do you want me to eat <u>an apple</u>?''
Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|''Coming here is a problem.''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''lo nu klama ti cu nabmi'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''I want you to be happy.''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''mi djica lo nu do gleki'''
=== Prepositions and tenses: ''was'', ''is'', ''will be'' - '''pu''', '''ca''', '''ba''' ===
Prepositions in Lojban are grouped into series by their meaning to make them easier to remember and use.
Here is the series of &quot;prepositions of tense&quot; that tell <u>when</u> something happens:
{{mu|mi pinxe lo ladru ca lo nu do klama|I drink milk while you are coming.}}
{{mu|mi citka ba lo nu mi dansu|I eat after I dance.}}
*'''pu''' means ''before (some event)'' or denotes past tense.
*'''ca''' means ''at the same time as (some event)'' or denotes present tense.
*'''ba''' means ''after some event'' or denotes future tense.
Yes, we need '''lo nu''' to insert a whole clause after such prepositions.
Let's put a bare preposition just before the main verb:
{{mu|lo mlatu pu pinxe lo ladru|Cats drank milk.}}
{{mu|lo mlatu ca pinxe lo ladru|Cats drink milk (at present).}}
{{mu|lo mlatu ba pinxe lo ladru|Cats will drink milk.}}
Here '''pu''' denotes past tense, '''ca''' denotes present tense, '''ba''' denotes future tense.
As you can see we replaced '''cu''' with a preposition since prepositions also clearly separate the head from the main verb.
Tenses add information about time when something happens. English forces us to use certain tenses. One has to choose between
:''Cats drink milk''.
:''Cats drank milk''.
:''Cats will drink milk''.
and other similar choices.
But in Lojban prepositions of tense like all prepositions are optional, we can be as vague or as precise as we want.
The sentence
{{mu|lo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|Cats drink milk.}}
actually says nothing about <u>when</u> this happens. Context is clear enough in most cases and can help us. But if we need more precision we just add more words.
Similarly, '''ba''' means ''after (some event)'' so when we say '''mi ba citka''' we mean that we eat after the moment of speaking, that's why it means ''I <u>will</u> eat''.
We can combine tense words with and without clauses after them:
{{mu|mi pu citka lo plise ba le nu mi dansu|I ate apples after I danced.}}
Note, that '''pu''' (past tense) is put only in the main clause ('''mi pu citka'''). In Lojban it is assumed that the event "I danced" happens relatively to the event of eating.
We shouldn't put '''pu''' with '''dansu''' (unlike English) as '''mi dansu''' is viewed relative to '''mi pu citka''' so we already know that everything was in past.
More examples of prepositions of tense:
{{mu|le nicte cu pluka|The night is pleasant.}}
{{gl|pluka|to be pleasant}}
Tense words before nouns and pronouns turn into prepositions:
{{mu|ba le nicte cu pluka|After the night it is pleasant.}}
Here, the head of the clause is '''ba le nicte''', a preposition with its noun. Then after the separator '''cu''' the main verb of the clause '''pluka''' is followed ('''pluka''' alone means ''It is pleasant'').
Therefore, to say ''will be pleasant'' we should place the tense word before the main verb:
{{mu|le nicte ba pluka|The night will be pleasant.}}
{{notci|Note that '''ca''' can extend slightly into the past and the future, meaning ''just about now''. Thus, '''ca''' reflects a widely used around the world the notion of "present time".}}
=== Prepositions of aspect: '''co'a''', '''ca'o''', '''co'i''' ===
Another series of prepositions, ''prepositions of aspect'':
{{gl|co'a|preposition: the event is at its beginning}}
{{gl|ca'o|preposition: the event is in progress}}
{{gl|co'i|preposition: the event is viewed as a whole (has started and then finished)}}
Most verbs describe events without specifying the stage of those events. Prepositions of aspect allow us to be more precise:
{{mu|mi pu co'a cikna|I woke up.}}
{{gl|cikna|... is awake}}
{{gl|co'a cikna|... wakes up, becomes awake}}
To precisely express English Progressive tense we use '''ca'o''':
{{mu|mi pu ca'o pinxe|I was drinking.}}
{{mu|mi ca ca'o pinxe|I am drinking.}}
{{mu|mi ba ca'o pinxe|I will be drinking.}}
'''co'i''' usually corresponds to English Perfect tense:
{{mu|lo mlatu ca co'i pinxe lo ladru|Cats have drunk milk.}}
We could omit '''ca''' in these sentence since the context would be clear enough in most such cases.
Present Simple tense in English describes events that happen sometimes:
{{mu|lo mlatu ca ta'e pinxe lo ladru|Cats (habitually, sometimes) drink milk.}}
{{gl|ta'e|simple tense: the event happens habitually}}
We can use the same rules for describing the past using '''pu''' instead of '''ca''' or the future using '''ba''':
{{mu|lo mlatu pu co'i pinxe lo ladru|Cats had drunk milk.}}
{{mu|lo mlatu ba co'i pinxe lo ladru|Cats will have drunk milk.}}
{{notci|The relative order of tenses is important. In '''ca co'i''' we first say something happens in present ('''ca'''), then we state that in this present time the described event has been completed ('''co'i'''). Only when using this order we get Present Perfect tense.}}
=== Prepositions of interval: ''during'' - '''ze'a''' ===
Another series of prepositions emphasizes that events happened during an interval:
{{gl|ze'i|for a short time}}
{{gl|ze'a|through some time, for a while, during ...}}
{{gl|ze'u|for a long time}}
{{mu|mi pu ze'a sipna|I slept for a while.}}
{{mu|mi pu sipna ze'a pa nicte|I slept through the night. I slept all night.}}
{{mu|mi pu sipna ze'i pa nicte|I slept through the short night.}}
Compare '''ze'a''' with '''ca''':
{{mu|mi pu sipna ca pa nicte|I slept at night.}}
{{gl|sipna|to sleep}}
{{gl|pa nicte|a nighttime}}
When using '''ze'a''' we are talking about the whole interval of what we describe.

Don't forget that '''nicte''' is itself an event so we don't need '''nu''' here.
=== Other useful prepositions: ''because'' - '''ri'a''', ''towards'' - '''fa'a''', ''at (place)'' - '''bu'u''' ===
Preposition for ''because'':
{{mu|mi pinxe ri'a lo nu mi taske|I drink because I am thirsty.}}
{{mu|mi citka ri'a lo nu mi xagji|I eat because I am hungry.}}
{{gl|ri'a|because … (of some event)}}
{{gl|taske|to be thirsty}}
{{gl|xagji|to be hungry}}
Prepositions denoting place work the same way:
{{mu|mi klama fa'a do to'o pa mlatu|I go to you from a cat.}}
{{mu|mi cadzu bu'u le tcadu|I walk in the city.}}
{{gl|fa'a|towards …, in the direction of …}}
{{gl|to'o|from …, from the direction of …}}
{{gl|bu'u|at … (some place)}}
<!--The interesting thing about prepositions is that you can freely move them with with nouns after them around the sentence as you like without changing the meaning.
{{mu|fa'a do mi ca klama je to'o pa mlatu|Towards you I go from a cat.}}
{{mu|to'o pa mlatu je fa'a do mi ca klama|From a cat and towards you I go.}}
'''je''' is necessary here to connect different prepositions.
but omit if it is a tense
As you can see Lojban is very flexible.-->
One thing is important. '''nu''' shows that a new clause in a sentence starts. Put '''vau''' after such clause to show its right border. Here is an example:
{{mu|pa mlatu cu plipe fa'a mi ca lo nu do ca'o klama|A cat jumps towards me when you are coming.}}
{{gl|plipe|to jump}}
{{mu|pa mlatu cu plipe ca lo (nu do ca'o klama <u>vau</u>) fa'a mi|A cat jumps (when you are coming) towards me.}}
(brackets are used here only to show the structure)
We use '''vau''' after the clause '''nu do ca'o klama''' to show that it ended and other parts of the sentence begin like '''cu''', a preposition, a noun or a pronoun.

Compare this sentence with the following:
{{mu|pa mlatu cu plipe ca lo (nu do ca'o klama fa'a mi)|A cat jumps (when you are coming towards me).}}
As you can see '''do klama fa'a mi''' is a clause inside the big one. So '''fa'a mi''' is now inside it.
Now you, not the cat, come towards me.
At the end of the sentence '''vau''' is never needed as it's already the right border.
One more example with a tense particle:
{{mu|mi pu citka lo plise ba le nu mi dansu|I ate apples after I danced.}}
{{mu|mi pu citka ba le nu mi dansu vau lo plise|I ate (after I danced) apples.}}
Thus we can move '''ba le nu mi dansu''' around the sentence provided that it's still put after '''pu'''.
===== Task =====
{{gl|le tsani|the sky}}
{{gl|zvati|to be present at (some place or event), to stay ... (at some place)}}
{{gl|lo canko|window}}
{{gl|lo fagri|a fire}}
{{gl|mi'o|You and I}}
Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|'''mi ca gleki lo nu do viska le tsani'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''I am happy that you see the sky.''
|'''xu le mlatu pu ca'o zvati lo zdani'''
|''Were the cats staying at home?''
|'''do pu citka pa plise ba lo nu mi pinxe lo ladru'''
|''You ate an apple after I drank milk.''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''ko catlu fa'a le canko'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''Look towards the window.''
|'''xu do gleki ca lo nu do ca'o cadzu bu'u le purdi'''
|''Are you happy when you are walking in the garden?''
|'''ca lo nu mi klama lo zdani vau do pinxe lo tcati ri'a lo nu do taske'''
|''When I go home you drink tea because you are thirsty.''
Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|''You will see the sun.''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''do ba viska le solri''' ('''lo solri''' is also fine since usually there is only one sun possible)
|''You understand that it will rain.''
|'''do ca jimpe lo nu ba carvi'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''Quickly run away from the fire!''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''ko sutra bajra to'o le fagri'''
|''You and I were staying together at home when it was raining.''
|'''mi'o pu ca'o zvati lo zdani ca lo nu carvi'''
=== Negation ===
The preposition '''na''' makes everything to its right within the clause negative in meaning:
{{mu|mi na nelci do|I don't like you.}}
{{gl|na|preposition: it is not true that ...}}
Its opposite, the preposition '''ja'a''' affirms the meaning:
{{mu|mi ja'a nelci do|I do like you.}}
{{gl|ja'a|preposition: it is true that ...}}
=== Names. Choosing a name ===
'''lo cmevla''', or ''name word'' is a special kind of verb used to build personal names. It's easy to recognize lo cmevla in a flow of text as only lo cmevla end in a consonant.
Besides, they are wrapped by one dot from each side.
Examples of lo cmevla are: '''.paris.''', '''.robin.'''
If one's name is Bob then we can create a cmevla ourselves that would sound as close as possible to this name, for example '''.bob.'''
The most simple example of using a name would be
{{mu|la .bob. cu tcidu|Bob reads/is reading.}}
{{gl|tcidu|to read}}
'''la''' is similar to '''lo''' but it converts a verb not to a simple noun but to a name.
In English we start a word with a capital letter to show that it's a name. In Lojban we use the prefix word '''la'''.
{{notci|Always use '''la''' when producing names!}}
A name can consist of several cmevla one after another:
{{mu|la .bob.djonson. cu tcidu|Bob Johnson reads/is reading.}}
Here, we separated the two cmevla with just one dot, which is also a common style.
{{notci|It's common to omit dots in front of and at the end of lo cmevla to write texts faster, for example, when text chatting. After all, lo cmevla are still separated from neighboring words by spaces around them:
{{mu|la bob djonson cu tcidu}}
However, in spoken language it is still necessary to put a short pause before and after lo cmevla.}}
Bob's first name goes into Lojban without much changes. The same for the name ''Lojban''. It's a cmevla and is written as '''.lojban.''':
{{mu|la .lojban. cu bangu mi|I speak Lojban.|Lojban is a language of me.<br/>Lojban is a language I use.}}
{{gl|bangu|is a language (used by someone)}}
However, Lojban letters directly correspond to sounds. Therefore, there are some rules for adapting names to how they are written in Lojban. This may sound strange — after all, a name is a name — but in fact all languages do this to some extent. For example, English speakers tend to pronounce ''Jose'' something like ''Hozay'', and ''Margaret'' in Chinese is&nbsp;''Magelita''. Some sounds just don't exist in some languages, so you need to rewrite the name so that it only contains Lojban sounds, and is spelt according to letter-sound correspondence.
{{gl|la .djonson.|Johnson}}
{{gl|la .suzyn.|Susan}}
In the English name ''Susan'' the two letters ''s'' are pronounced differently. The second one is actually a ''z'', and the ''a'' is not really an ''a'' sound, it's the &quot;schwa&quot; explained in the beginning of this chapter. So ''Susan'' is written '''.suzyn.''' in Lojban.
{{notci|Pay attention to how the name is pronounced natively. Thus, the English and French names ''Robert'' come out differently in Lojban: the English name is rather '''.robyt.''' in UK English, or '''.rabyrt.''' in some American dialects, but the French is '''.rober.'''}}
Here are some names that we'll use throughout this book:
|'''la .alis.'''
|rowspan = 6|
|'''la .meilis.'''
|''Mei Li''
|'''la .bob.'''
|'''la .abdul.'''
|'''la .ian.'''
|''Yan'' or ''Ian''
|'''la .al.'''
|'''la .doris.'''
|'''la .micel.'''
|'''la .kevin.'''
|'''la .edvard.'''
|'''la .adam.'''
|'''la .lukas.'''
*Two extra full stops (periods) are necessary because if you didn't put those pauses in speech, you might not know where the name started and ended, or in other words where the previous word ended and the next word began.
*The last letter of a cmevla must be a consonant. And if a name doesn't end in a consonant we usually add use ''s'' to the end; so in Lojban, ''Mary'' becomes '''.meris.''', ''Joe'' becomes '''.djos.''' and so on. An alternative is to leave out the last vowel, so ''Mary'' would become '''.mer.''' or '''.meir.'''
*You can also put a full stop in between a person's first and last names (though it's not compulsory), so ''Jim Jones'' becomes '''.djim.djonz.'''
====Rules for making lo cmevla====
Here is a compact representation of Lojban sounds:
* vowels:
** '''a e i o u y au ai ei oi'''
* consonants
** '''b d g v z j''' (voiced)
** '''p t k f s c x''' (unvoiced)
** '''l m n r'''
** '''i u'''. They are considered consonants when put between two vowels or in the beginning of a word. '''.iaua''' - '''i''' and '''u''' are consonants here. '''.iai''' - here is the consonant '''i''' with an vowel '''ai''' after it.
** ''' ' ''' (apostrophe). It is put only between two vowels: '''.e'e''', '''.u'i'''
** '''.''' (dot, word break)
We first write a name with Lojban letters and then change them according to these rules:
# they start and end in consonants except ''' ' '''. Additionally they are wrapped by a dot from each side: '''.lojban.''' It's quite common to omit word breaks in informal texts.
# vowels can be put only between two consonants: '''.sam.''', '''.no'am.'''
# double consonants are merged into one: ''dd'' becomes '''d''', ''nn'' becomes '''n''' etc. Or a '''y''' is out between them: '''.nyn.'''
# if a voiced and a unvoiced consonants are next to each other then '''y''' is inserted inside: '''kv''' becomes '''kyv'''. Or you can remove one of the letters instead: '''pb''' can be turned into a single '''p''' or a single '''b'''.
# if one of '''c''', '''j''', '''s''', '''z''' are next to each other then '''y''' is inserted inside: '''jz''' becomes '''jyz'''. Or you can remove one of the letters instead: '''cs''' can be turned into a single '''c''' or a single '''s'''.
# if '''x''' is next to '''c''' or next to '''k''' then '''y''' is inserted inside: '''cx''' becomes '''cyx''', '''xk''' becomes '''xyk'''. Or you can remove one of the letters instead: '''kx''' can be turned into a single '''x'''.
# the substrings '''mz''', '''nts''', '''ntc''', '''ndz''', '''ndj''' are fixed by adding '''y''' inside or deleting one of the letters: '''nytc''' or '''nc''', '''.djeimyz.'''
#double '''ii''' between vowels is merged into a single '''i''': '''.eian.''' (but not '''.eiian.''')
#double '''uu''' between vowels is merged into a single '''u''': '''.auan.''' (but not '''.auuan.''')
==== Other verbs as names ====
You can use not only cmevla, but also other types of verbs to choose your nickname in Lojban. If you prefer, you can translate your name into Lojban (if you know what it means, of course) or adopt a completely new Lojban identity.
Here are a few examples of Lojbanic names:
{| class="wikitable"
! Original name !! Meaning !! Word in Lojban !! Your name
| Blake || black || '''lo xekri''' — ''black'' || '''la xekri'''
| Ethan || solid, during || '''lo sligu''' — ''solid'' || '''la sligu'''
| Mei Li || ''beautiful'' in Mandarin Chinese || '''lo melbi''' — ''beautiful'' || '''la melbi'''
==== '''le''' and names ====
{{notci|Lojban has a single term {{gln|lo sumti|"noun or pronoun or name"}}
Indeed, nouns, pronouns and names work grammatically exactly the same in Lojban. For brevity we'll be calling them all ''nouns''.}}
'''le''' can be used to refer to names mentioned earlier:
{{mu|la alis cu klama pa zarci i le fetsi cu xagji|Alice is going to a shop. She is hungry.}}
{{gl|xagji|to be hungry}}
{{mu|la alis cu viska la doris i le fetsi cu melbi|Alice can see Doris. She (Doris) is beautiful.}}
Here, '''le fetsi''' is applied to Doris, the last noun describing a female person.
In this example we assume that both Alice and Doris are females.
=== Introducing yourself. Vocatives ===
{{pixra|Image:Alishan_sunrise.JPG|'''cerni'''<br/>''... is morning''}}
{{pixra|Image:Fanabe_beach_Day_6_Sunset_2_(400636804).jpg|'''vanci'''<br/>''... is evening''}}
{{pixra|Image:The_Strand,_Ballinskelligs,_Kerry,_1990_(7787237516).jpg|'''donri'''<br/>''... is daylight time''}}
{{pixra|Image:Stormy_night_skies_in_Glacier_(4455539994).jpg|'''nicte'''<br/>''... is night''}}
''Vocatives'' in Lojban are words that function just like interjections ('''xu''' which we earlier discussed) but they attach the following noun after them:
{{mu|coi do|Hello, you!}}
{{gl|coi|vocative: Hello! Hi!}}
We use '''coi''' + a noun or pronoun to greet someone.
{{mu|co'o do|Goodbye to you.}}
{{gl|co'o|vocative: goodbye!}}
{{vajni|'''coi ro do''' {{=}} ''Hello each of you'' is how people usually start a conversation with several people. '''coi re do''' means ''Hello you two'' and can be useful when, for example, one starts a letter to their parents).}}
Since vocatives work like interjections we have nice types of greetings:
'''cerni coi'''<br>''Good morning!''<br><tt>It's morning — Hello! [literally]</tt>
'''vanci coi'''<br>''Good evening!''
'''donri coi'''<br>''Good day!''}}
{{mu|nicte coi|Nightly greetings!}}
Note that in English "Goodnight!" means "Goodbye!" or denotes wishing someone spending good night. By its meaning "Goodnight!" doesn't belong to the series of greetings above. Thus, we use a different wording in Lojban:
{{vajni|'''nicte co'o'''<br>''Goodnight!''<br>
'''a'o pluka nicte'''<br>''Pleasant night!''}}
{{gl|a'o|interjection: I hope}}
{{gl|pluka|to be pleasant to … (someone)}}
Of course, we can be vague by just saying '''pluka nicte''' (just meaning ''pleasant night'' without any wishes explicitly said).
The vocative '''mi'e''' + a noun/pronoun is used to introduce yourself:
{{mu|mi'e la .doris.|I'm Doris. This is Doris speaking.}}
{{gl|mi'e|vocative: identifies speaker}}
The vocative '''doi''' is used to show who we're talking to:
{{mu|mi cliva doi la .robert.|I'm leaving, Robert.}}
{{gl|cliva|to leave (something or someone)}}
Without '''doi''' the name might become the first noun of the clause:
{{mu|mi cliva la .robert.|I'm leaving Robert.}}
'''doi''' is a like Old English ''O'' (as in ''O ye of little faith'') or the Latin vocative (as in ''Et tu, <u>Brute</u>''). Some languages don't distinguish between these contexts although as you can see Old English and Latin did.
Two more vocatives are are '''ki'e''' for saying thanks and '''je'e''' for accepting them:
{{mu|— ki'e do do pu sidju mi<br>— je'e do|— Thank you, you helped me.<br>— Not at all.}}
{{gl|sidju|to help (someone)}}
We can omit the noun after the vocative only if this is the ends of the sentence. For example we can just say
{{mu|— coi .i xu do kanro|— Hello. How do you do?|— Hello. Are you healthy?}}
{{gl|kanro|to be healthy}}
Here, a new sentence starts immediately after the vocative '''coi''' so we omitted the name. Or we can say:
{{mu|coi do mi djica lo nu do sidju mi|Hello. I want you to help me.|Hello you. I want that you help me.}}
Thus, in case you don't know the name of the listener you just place '''do''' after it if you want to continue the same sentence after the vocative.
If you use the vocative on its own (without a noun after it) and the sentence is not finished yet then you need to separate it from the rest, because the things likeliest to follow the vocative in a sentence could easily be misconstrued as describing your addressee. Use the word '''do''' for that. For example,
{{mu|coi do la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva|Hello! Alice left Doris.|Hello you! Alice left Doris}}
{{mu|coi la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva|Hello, Alice! Doris left.}}
And if you want to put both vocatives and interjections modifying the whole sentence please put interjections first:
{{mu|.ui coi do la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva|Yay, Hello! Alice left Doris.}}
Note that in the beginning of sentences usually interjections are put before vocatives because
:'''coi .ui do la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva'''
:''Hello (I'm happy about this greeting) you! Alice left Doris.''
So an interjection immediately after a vocative modifies that vocative.
Similarly, interjection modifies the vocative noun when being put after it:
{{mu|coi do .ui la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva|Hello you (I'm happy about you)! Alice left Doris.}}
===== Task =====
Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.
{{gl|nelci|to like (someone or something)}}
{{gl|lo mamta|a mother, mothers}}
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|'''cerni coi la .alis.'''
|style="width: 50%;"|''Good morning, Alice.''
|'''— mi ba sipna<br>— a'o pluka nicte'''
|''— I will sleep.<br>— Good night.''
|'''mi'e la .adam. i mi nelci lo nu mi ca'o tavla do'''
|''I am Adam. I like that I am talking to you.''
Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.
{|class="wikitable" width="100%"
|style="width: 50%;"|''Mommy, I will eat an apple.''
|style="width: 50%;"|'''doi lo mamta mi ba citka pa plise'''
|''You leave? Goodbye.''
|'''xu do cliva .i co'o do'''<br/>or just<br/>'''xu do cliva .i co'o'''
== Lesson 2. More basic stuff ==
=== Order of arguments ===
Earlier we provided such definitions of verbs as:
{{gl|mlatu|is a cat, to be a cat}}
{{gl|citka|to eat}}
{{gl|prami|to love}}
{{gl|klama|to come}}
The dictionary in the end of this textbook presents all verbs with x<sub>1</sub>, x<sub>2</sub> etc. symbols:
{{gl|mlatu|x1 is a cat ...}}
{{gl|citka|x1 eats x2 ...}}
{{gl|prami|x1 loves x2}}
{{gl|klama|x1 comes to x2 ...}}
These x<sub>1</sub>, x<sub>2</sub> are quite simple. They are called places of arguments and more precisely represent the order in which we add nouns or pronouns. For example:
{{mu|mi prami do|I love you.}}
This also means that
*x<sub>1</sub> denotes ''the one who loves'' and
*x<sub>2</sub> denotes ''the one who is loved by''.
The advantage of such style of definitions is that all participants of a relation are in one definition.
We can also omit nouns making the sentence more vague:
{{mu|carvi|It is raining.|is rain, is raining}}
:(although tense here is determined by context, it can also mean ''It often rains'', ''It was raining'' etc.)
{{mu|prami do|Someone loves you.|loves you}}
All omitted places in a clause just mean '''zo'e''' = ''something/someone'' so it means the same as
{{mu|zo'e prami do|Someone loves you.}}
is the same as
{{mu|zo'e prami zo'e|Someone loves someone.}}
{{notci|Prepositions add new places to verbs but they don't remove existing places. In
{{mu|mi klama fa'a do|I come towards you.}}
the second place of '''klama''' is still omitted. For example:
{{mu|mi klama fa'a pa cmana do|I come (towards a mountain) to you.}}
And here the second place of '''klama''' is '''do'''. And the sentence means that the mountain is just a direction whereas the final point is you.
Similarly, in
{{mu|mi citka ba lo nu mi cadzu|I eat after I walk.}}
the second place of '''citka''' is still omitted. A new preposition '''ba''' with its phrase '''lo nu mi cadzu''' adds meaning to the sentence.}}
The order of arguments of compound verbs is the same as the of the last verb word in it:
{{mu|tu sutra bajra pendo mi|That is my quickly running friend.|That is a quickly running friend of me.}}
{{gl|pendo|to be a friend, is a friend (of someone)}}
So the order of arguments is the same as of '''pendo''' alone.
=== More than two places ===
There might be more than two places. For example:
{{mu|mi pinxe lo ladru pa kabri|I drink milk from a cup.}}
{{gl|pinxe|x1 drinks x2 from x3}}
{{mu|pa kabri|a cup}}
In this case there are three places and if you want to exclude the second place in the middle you have to use '''zo'e:'''
{{mu|mi pinxe zo'e pa kabri |I drink [something] from a cup.}}
If we omit '''zo'e''' we get something meaningless:
{{mu|mi pinxe pa kabri|I drink a cup.}}
Another example:
{{mu|mi dunda pa cukta do|I give a book to you.}}
{{gl|dunda|x1 gives, donates x2 to x3}}
{{gl|pa cukta|a book}}
=== General rules in the order of arguments ===
The order of places in verbs might be sometimes hard to remember. But let's not worry — like in English you don't need to remember all places of all verbs (do you remember the meaning of hundreds of thousands of words in English?)
You may study places when you find them useful or when people use them in a dialogue with you.
Most of verbs have one or two places. Usually you can guess the order using context and a few rules of thumb:
#The first place is often the person or thing who <u>does</u> something or <u>is</u> something:
#:'''klama''' = ''x1 goes ...''
#The object of some action is usually just after the first place:
#:'''punji''' = ''x1 puts <u>x2</u> on x3'', '''dunda''' = ''x1 gives <u>x2 (gift)</u> to x3 (recipient)''
#And the next place will usually be filled with the recipient:
#:'''punji''' = ''x1 puts x2 on <u>x3</u>'', '''dunda''' = ''x1 gives x2 (gift) to <u>x3 (recipient)</u>''
#Destination (''to'') places nearly always come before origins (''from'') places:
#:'''klama''' = ''x1 goes to x2 from <u>x3</u>''
#Less-used places come towards the end. These tend to be things like ‘by standard’, ‘by means’ or ‘made of’.
The general idea is that first come the places which are most likely to be used.
{{notci|No need to fill all places all the time. Unfilled places just have values irrelevant or obvious to the speaker (they take the value of '''zo'e''' {{=}} ''something'').}}
=== Prepositions and places ===
Prepositions don't replace places:
{{mu|mi klama fa'a le cmana le zdani be mi|I go in the direction of the mountain to my home.}}
{{gl|le zdani be mi|home of me, my home}}
Here, the preposition '''fa'a''' (''in the direction of'') doesn't replace the second place of the verb '''klama''' (which is filled with '''le zdani be mi''' - ''my home''). The sentence means that my home is simply located in the direction of the mountain but it doesn't mean I want to reach that mountain.
=== Places for nouns ===
{{pixra|File:Alex friends.JPG|'''lo pendo'''<br/>''friend / friends''}}
{{pixra|Image:Ezhednevnik.jpg|'''pa cukta'''<br/>''a book''}}
{{pixra|File:Fetch volumes ok 2.jpg|'''mi dunda pa cukta'''<br/>''I give a book.''}}
How do we say ''You are my friend'' ?
{{mu|do pendo mi|You are my friend.|You are a friend of me.}}
And now how do we say ''My friend is crazy.''?
{{mu|pa pendo be mi cu fenki|My friend is crazy.}}
So when we convert a verb into a noun ('''pendo''' — ''to be a friend'' into '''pa pendo''' — ''a friend'') we can still retain other places of that verb by placing '''be''' after it.
By default it attaches the second place (x<sub>2</sub>). We can attach more places by separating them with '''bei''':
{{mu|mi dunda le cukta do|I give the book to you.}}
{{mu|le dunda be le cukta bei mi|The grantor of a book to me}}
{{mu|le dunda be le cukta bei mi cu pendo mi|The giver of the book to me is my friend.|The one who gives the book to me is a friend of mine.}}
Another example:
{{mu|mi klama pa pendo be do|I come to a friend of yours.}}
We can't omit '''be''' because '''pa pendo do''' are two independent places:
{{mu|mi klama pa pendo do|I come to a friend from you.}}
{{gl|klama|x1 comes to x2 from x3 ...}}
Here, '''do''' took the third place of '''klama''' since it's not bound to ''pendo''' using ''be'''.
Neither could we use '''nu''' because '''pa nu pendo do''' is one event about a friend of yours. So '''pa pendo be do''' is the correct solution.
Another example:
{{mu|la .lojban. cu bangu mi|Lojban is my language.|Lojban is a language of me.}}
{{mu|mi nelci lo bangu be mi|I like my language.}}
Using '''be''' for verbs not converted to nouns has no effect: '''mi nelci be do''' is the same as '''mi nelci do'''.<!--DELETE?What if I want to attach nouns from several places to a noun? Maybe ''The giver of the apple to you'' is '''le dunda be le plise be do'''? No.
{{gl|plise|x1 is an apple of variety x2}}
The second '''be''' attaches to the apple, meaning '''le plise be do''' — ''The apple of the strain of you'', which makes no sense. So '''le dunda be le plise bei do''' is the correct solution.-->
=== Relative clauses ===
{{mu|pa mlatu poi blabi cu pinxe lo ladru|A cat that is white is drinking milk.}}
{{mu|pa mlatu noi blabi cu pinxe lo ladru|A cat, which is white, is drinking milk.}}
{{gl|blabi|to be white}}
In the first sentence the word &quot;''that''&quot; is essential to identifying the cat in question, it clarifies which cat we are talking about. Out of probably many cats we choose only those who are white. Maybe there is only one cat around that is white like in this example.
As for &quot;''which is white''&quot; from the second sentence it just provides additional information about the cat. It doesn't help us to identify cats. For example, this might happen when all the cats are white.
'''poi blabi''' is a relative clause, a mini-clause attached to the right of the noun '''lo mlatu'''. It ends just before the next word '''cu''':
{{mu|pa mlatu (poi blabi) cu pinxe lo ladru|A cat (that is white) is drinking milk.}}
So in addition to '''pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru''' — ''a cat drinks milk'' we state that the cat is white.
In Lojban we use '''poi''' for relative clauses that identify entities (objects, people or events) and '''noi''' for incidental information.
{{mu|le nakni ba co'a speni pa ninmu poi pu xabju lo nurma|He will marry a girl who lived in the country.}}
{{gl|xabju|to live, to inhabit}}
{{gl|lo nurma|rural area}}
This sentence doesn't exclude him marrying someone else as well! Removing the relative clause with '''poi''' changes the meaning:
{{mu|le nakni ba co'a speni pa ninmu|He will marry a girl.}}
Another example:
{{mu|lo prenu poi gleki cu ze'u renvi|People (which ones?) who are happy live long.}}
{{gl|ze'u|preposition: for a long time}}
{{gl|renvi|to survive}}
Removing the relative clause with '''poi''' changes the meaning:
{{mu|lo prenu ze'u renvi|People live long.}}
On the other hand, relative clauses with '''noi''' contain just additional information about the noun to which they are attached. That noun is sufficiently defined by itself so that removing a relative clause with '''noi''' doesn't change its meaning:
{{mu|mi nelci la .doris. noi mi ta'e zgana bu'u pa panka|I like Doris, whom I habitually see in a park.<br>I like Doris. What else can I say about her? I habitually see her in a park.}}
{{gl|zgana|to observe (using any senses)}}
Removing the relative clause with '''noi''' retains the meaning: ''I like Doris.''
In spoken English the distinction is often achieved using intonation or by guessing. Also relative clauses with '''noi''' are traditionally separated with commas in English, they use ''which'' or&nbsp;''who'' and the word ''that'' is not used in them.
Let's have another example.
{{mu|mi klama pa tricu|I come to a tree.}}
{{mu|pa tricu cu barda|A tree is big.}}
{{gl|pa tricu|a tree}}
{{gl|barda|x1 is big/large}}
And now let's join those two sentences:
{{mu|pa tricu noi mi klama ke'a cu barda|A tree, to which I go, is big.}}
Note the word '''ke'a'''. We move the second sentence about the same tree into a relative clause and replace the noun '''lo tricu''' with '''ke'a''' in the relative clause. So the pronoun '''ke'a''' is like&nbsp;''who'' and ''which'' in English. It points back to the noun to which the relative clause is attached.
So literally our Lojbanic sentence sounds like
:''A tree, such that I go to which, is big.''
'''ke'a''' can be dropped if we are to place it just after '''noi''' or '''poi'''. That's why the two following sentences have the same meaning:
{{mu|pa mlatu poi blabi cu pinxe lo ladru<br>pa mlatu poi <u>ke'a</u> blabi cu pinxe lo ladru|A cat that is white is drinking milk.}}
'''ke'a''' goes to the first unfilled place:
{{mupli|'''le nakni ba co'a speni pa ninmu poi le nakni pu penmi bu'u pa zarci''' or<br>'''le nakni ba co'a speni pa ninmu poi le nakni pu penmi ke'a bu'u pa zarci'''<br>''He will marry a girl whom he had met in a store.''}}
Here, '''le nakni''' fills the first place of '''penmi''', thus, '''ke'a''' is assumed for the next, second place.
Relative clauses like usual clauses can contain constructs with prepositions:
{{mu|pa tricu noi mi pu klama ke'a ca lo cabdei cu barda|A tree, to which I went today, is big.}}
{{gl|lo cabdei|the day of today}}
Note that '''ca lo cabdei''' belongs to the relative clause. Compare:
{{mu|pa tricu noi mi pu klama ke'a cu barda ca lo cabdei|A tree, to which I went, is big today.}}
The meaning has changed a lot.
Finally, '''voi''' is used to refer to clauses that have just been mentioned:
{{mu|mi zgana pa prenu poi ca'o kelci i mi zgana pa prenu poi ca'o citka i pa prenu voi kelci cu verba|I observe a person who is playing. I observe a person who is eating. One person (mentioned as playing) is a child.}}
{{mu|lo cabna cu pluka vanci i lo simsa ditcu voi vanci na cafne|Now it's a pleasant evening. Such times that is pleasant evenings does not happen often.}}
{{gl|lo cabna|event that is now, in present}}
{{gl|simsa|to be similar}}
{{gl|ditcu|x1 (clause) is a period, some time}}
{{gl|cafne|to happen often}}
'''voi''' parallels '''le''': '''le''' refers to nouns in context, '''voi''' refers to clauses in context. Despite its utility '''voi''' hasn't been used a lot by Lojban speakers.
=== Short relative clauses. &quot;''About''&quot;. ===
Sometimes you might need to attach to a noun an additional noun or pronoun:
{{mu|mi djuno lo vajni pe do|I know something important about you.}}
{{gl|lo vajni|something important}}
'''pe''' and '''ne''' are similar to '''poi''' and '''noi''' but connect nouns (and pronouns) to nouns:
{{mupli|'''pa penbi pe mi cu xunre'''<br>''A pen that is mine is red.'' (''mine'' is essential to identifying the pen in question)}}
{{mupli|'''pa penbi ne mi cu xunre'''<br>''A pen, which is mine, is red.'' (additional information)}}
{{gl|ne|which is about, has relation to ... (a noun/pronoun follows)}}
{{gl|pe|that is about, has relation to ... (a noun/pronoun follows)}}
=== '''be''' and '''pe''' ===
Notice that relative clauses are attached to nouns whereas '''be''' connects to the verb that is transformed into a noun afterwards.
Actually, '''lo bangu pe mi''' is a better translation of ''my language'', since like in English, the two nouns are related to each other in a vague way.
However, you can say '''lo birka be mi''' as ''my arm''. Even if you saw off your arm, it'll still be yours. That's why '''birka''' has a place of the owner:
{{gl|birka|x1 is an arm of x2}}
Notice that '''be''' attaches to the verb word. But '''pe''', '''ne''', '''poi''' and '''noi''' attach to nouns. For example,
{{mu|pa melbi be mi cukta pe pa pendo be mi cu barda|A beautiful to me book of a friend of mine is big.}}
Here, '''be mi''' is applied only to the verb '''melbi''' = ''to be beautiful to … (someone)''. But '''pe pa pendo''' is applied to the whole noun '''pa melbi be mi cukta''' = ''a beautiful to me book''.
It can also happen that we need to attach '''be''' to a noun and then attach '''pe''' to the same noun:
{{mu|pa pendo be do be'o pe la paris cu stati|A friend of yours who is related to Paris is smart.}}
{{mu|lo pu dunda be pa cukta bei do be'o pe la paris cu stati|Who gave a book to you (and who is related to Paris) is smart.}}
'''be'o''' shows that the nouns attached with '''be''' and with '''bei''' (if they are used) end, and thus '''pe la paris''' is attached to the whole bigger noun '''pa pendo be do be'o''' and '''lo pu dunda be pa cukta bei do be'o'''.
Compare it to:
{{mu|pa pendo be do pe la paris cu stati|A friend of you (who is related to Paris) is smart.}}
{{mu|lo pu dunda be pa cukta bei do pe la paris cu stati|Who gave a book to you (who is related to Paris) is smart.}}
The difference in the meaning is huge. In the first two examples your friend has some relation to Paris (maybe, he/she is from Paris). In the second two examples, you have this relation.
=== &quot;''She is a teacher''&quot; and &quot;''She is the teacher''&quot; ===
In English the verb ''is, are, to be'' makes a noun work like a verb in English. In Lojban even such concepts as ''cat'' ('''mlatu'''), ''person'' ('''prenu'''), ''house'' ('''dinju'''), ''home'' ('''zdani''') work like verbs by default. Only pronouns work as nouns.
However, here are three cases:
{{mu|le nakni cu ctuca|He teaches.}}
{{mu|le nakni cu me lo ctuca|He is one of those who teach.}}
{{gl|me|to be among ..., to be one of ..., to be a member of ... (noun follows)}}
{{mu|le nakni ta'e ctuca|He habitually teaches.}}
{{gl|ta'e|preposition: the event happens habitually}}
{{mu|le nakni cu du le ctuca|He is the teacher.}}
{{gl|du|to be identical to ...}}
The particle '''me''' takes a noun after it and shows that there are probably other teachers, and he is one of them.
However, when using the verb '''du''' we mean that he is, for example, the teacher that we have been searching for or talking about.
Thus '''me''' and '''du''' can sometimes reflect what in English we use the verb ''to be/is/was'' for.
{{notci|In Lojban we first rely on the meaning of what we need to say, not necessarily on how it is literally said in English or other languages.}}
Other examples:
{{mu|mi me la bond|I am Bond.}}
{{mu|mi du la .kevin.|I am Kevin (the one you needed).}}
{{mu|ti du la .alis. noi mi ta'e zgana bu'u pa panka|This is Alice, whom I often see in a park.}}
<!-- di'e zo'u ma sa'e se .aidji mi'e la ~~~~ -->
<!-- {{mu|la .doris. poi du pa pendo be la .kevin. cu bu'u zvati|Doris, who is Kevin's friend, is here.}} -->
'''noi du''' and '''poi du''' are used in Lojban to introduce alternate names for something. So they correspond to English ''namely, i.e.'':
{{mu|la .alis. cu penmi pa prenu <u>noi du</u> la .abdul.|Alice met a person, <u>namely</u> Abdul.}}
=== Prepositions inside nouns ===
We can place a tense not only before the main verb of a clause but at the end of it giving the same result:
{{mu|mi ca tcidu<br>mi tcidu ca|I (now read).}}
{{gl|tcidu|to read (some text)}}
When using '''nu''' we create a clause. Notice, the difference between these two examples:
{{mu|le nu tcidu ca cu nandu|The current reading is complicated, difficult.}}
{{mu|le nu tcidu cu ca nandu|The reading is now complicated.}}
<!--If we omit '''cu''' our clause will turn into a compound verb:
{{mu|lo nu tcidu ca nandu|The current reading complication.}}-->
Other examples:
{{mu|mi klama pa cmana pu|I went to a mountain.|I go to a mountain (in past).}}
{{mu|lo nu mi klama pa cmana pu cu pluka|That I went to a mountain is pleasant.}}
When not using '''nu''' we don't have clauses. Nouns start with '''lo''' and end in its verb (like a single or a compound verb). Thus we can insert prepositions to nouns only before that verb:
{{mu|lo pu kunti tumla ca purdi|What was a desert is now a garden.}}
So '''pu''' belongs to '''lo kunti tumla''' and '''ca''' belongs to '''purdi''' (as '''lo pu kunti tumla''' can't add '''ca''' in the end).
This doesn't contradict with using '''be''' after the verb since with '''be''' you change the verb: '''bangu be mi''' is considered one verb.
Placing prepositions <u>after</u> nouns binds them to outer verbs:
{{mu|lo kunti tumla pu purdi|The desert was a garden.}}<!--binding nouns after main verb with '''be'''-->
=== New nouns from places of the same verb ===
{{mu|do dunda ti mi|You grant this to me.}}
{{mu|ti se dunda do mi|This is granted by you to me.}}
{{gl|dunda|x1 grants, gives x2 to x3}}
<!--{{notci|Note: ''gift'' here is anything given without payment or exchange, it doesn't need to have the "special present" associations of the English word).}}-->
We can swap the first two places round in the verb using '''se''' and thus change the place structure.
'''do dunda ti mi''' means exactly the same as '''ti se dunda do mi'''. The difference is solely in style.
You may want to change things around for different emphasis, for example, to mention the more important things in a sentence first. So the following pairs mean the same thing:
{{mu|mi prami do|I love you.}}
{{mu|do se prami mi|You are loved by me.}}
{{mu|lo nu mi tadni la .lojban. cu xamgu mi|My study of Lojban is good for me.}}
{{gl|xamgu|to be good for (someone)}}
{{mu|mi se xamgu lo nu mi tadni la .lojban.|For me it's good to study Lojban.}}
The same can be dont with nouns:
{{gl|lo dunda|those who give, givers, donors, donators}}
{{gl|lo se dunda|something that is given, gifts}}
As we know, when we add '''lo''' in front of a verb it becomes a noun. So
*'''lo dunda''' means ''something(s) which could fit in the first place of '''dunda'''''
*'''lo se dunda''' means ''something(s) which could fit in the second place of '''dunda'''''
Thus, in Lojban we don't need a separate word for ''gift''. We reuse the same verb and save a lot of effort because of such clever design. Indeed, we can't imagine a gift without implying that someone gave it or will give it. When phenomena are interconnected Lojban reflects this.
For the ease of understanding and memorizing predicate words prefixed with '''se''' are put into the dictionary in entries for many verbs together with their definitions although you can figure out their meaning yourself.
=== Changing other places in main verbs ===
'''se''' is the first particle in the series '''se, te, ve, xe''' (they go in alphabetical order):
*'''se''' changes round the first and second places
*'''te''' changes round the first and third places
*'''ve''', the first and fourth, and
*'''xe''', the first and fifth.
{{mu|le nakni cu zbasu pa stizu lo mudri|He made a chair out of wood.}}
{{gl|zbasu|x1 builds, makes x2 out of x3}}
{{gl|pa stizu|a chair}}
{{gl|lo mudri|wood}}
{{mu|lo mudri cu te zbasu le stizu le nakni|Wood is the material the chair is made of by him.}}
The '''le nakni''' has now moved to the third place in the sentence, and can now be dropped out without being missed if we are too lazy to specify who made the chair or we just don't know who made it:
{{mu|lo mudri cu te zbasu le stizu|Wood is the material of the chair.}}
Similarly to our example with '''lo se dunda''' (''gift'') we can use '''te''', '''ve''', '''xe''' to get more words from other places of verbs:
{{gl|klama|x1 goes to x2 from x3 via x4 by means x5}}
Thus, we can derive that
{{gl|lo klama|a goer/goers}}
{{gl|lo se klama|destination place}}
{{gl|lo te klama|place of origin of the movement}}
{{gl|lo ve klama|route}}
{{gl|lo xe klama|vehicle}}
'''lo xe klama''' and the fifth place of '''klama''' can denote any means of movement like a car or your feet.
{{notci|'''se''' is used a lot more than the other particles for swapping places.}}
=== Free word order. Prepositions for places ===
Usually we don't need all the places of a verb, so we can omit the unnecessary ones by replacing them with '''zo'e'''. However, we can use ''place tags'' - special prepositions to explicitly refer to a needed place.
<!--explain x2 rule-->
{{mupli|'''mi prami do''' is the same as<br/>'''fa mi prami fe do'''<br>''I love you.''}}
*'''fa''' marks the first place of a verb (x<sub>1</sub>)
*'''fe''' - marks the second place (x<sub>2</sub>)
*'''fi''' - marks the third place (x<sub>3</sub>)
*'''fo''' - marks the fourth place (x<sub>4</sub>)
*'''fu''' - marks the fifth place (x<sub>5</sub>)
More examples:
{{mu|mi klama fi le tcadu|I go from the city.}}
'''fi''' marks '''le tcadu''' as the third place of '''klama''' (the origin of movement). Without '''fi''', the sentence would turn into '''mi klama le tcadu''' meaning ''I go <u>to</u> the city.''
{{mupli|'''mi pinxe fi pa kabri''' is the same as<br/>'''mi pinxe zo'e pa kabri'''<br>I drink (something) from a cup.}}
{{gl|pinxe|x1 drinks x2 from x3}}
{{mupli|'''mi tugni zo'e lo nu vitke lo rirni'''<br>'''mi tugni fi lo nu vitke lo rirni'''<br>I agree (with someone) about visiting parents.}}
{{gl|tugni|x1 agrees with someone x2 about x3 (clause)}}
With place tags we can move places around:
{{mu|fe pa cukta pu dunda fi pa nanla|Someone gave a book to a boy.}}
{{gl|dunda|x1 gives the gift x2 to x3}}
*'''pa cukta''' = ''a book'', we put it into the second place of '''dunda''', what is given
*'''pa nanla''' = ''boy'', we put it into the third place of '''dunda''', the recipient.
As we can see in the last example we can't even reflect the order of words in its English translation.
Extensive use of place tags can make our speech harder to perceive but they allow for more freedom.
{{notci|Unlike '''se''' series using place tags like '''fa''' doesn't change the place structure.}}
We can use place tags inside nouns by placing them after '''be''':
{{mu|lo dunda be fi lo nanla cu pendo mi|Who gives something to a boy is my friend.}}
Another option in placing nouns is that we can put all the nouns of one main verb in front of the verb (preserving their relative order). Because of this freedom we can say:
{{mupli|'''mi do prami''' which is the same as<br>'''mi prami do'''<br>''I love you.''}}
{{mupli|'''ko kurji ko''' is the same as<br/>'''ko ko kurji'''<br>''Take care of yourself.''}}
The following clauses are also equal in meaning:
{{mu|mi dunda pa plise do|I give an apple to you.}}
{{mu|mi pa plise cu dunda do|I an apple give to you.}}
{{mu|mi pa plise do dunda|I an apple to you give.}}
=== Infinitives ===
Infinitives are verbs that are often prefixed with &quot;to&quot; in English. Examples include &quot;I like to run&quot; with &quot;to run&quot; being the infinitive.
{{mu|pa mlatu cu djica lo ka pinxe|A cat wants to drink.}}
The particle '''ka''' works much like '''nu''' but it indicates that the noun on the left does or would do the action following '''ka'''. It makes the first noun of the outer verb ('''djica''' in this case) also the first omitted noun of the embedded verb started by '''ka''' ('''pinxe''' in this case) so you don't have to repeat this noun the second time.
Thus we can rewrite the sentence as
{{mu|pa mlatu cu djica lo nu le mlatu cu pinxe||A cat wants that the cat drinks}}
The previous translation with '''ka''' sounds more natural and compact so using '''ka''' is preferred in such case.
Another example with a pronoun in the place of the first noun
{{mu|mi djica lo ka pinxe|I want to drink.}}
{{mu|mi djica lo nu mi pinxe||I want that I drink}}
Again the sentence with '''ka''' looks nicer.
{{mu|mi djica lo nu do pinxe|I want you to drink.|I want that you drink}}
Here, the first pronoun of '''djica''' differs from the one from '''pinxe''' so we can't use '''ka'''.
It is also possible to use '''ka''' when we usually use the ending ''-ing'' in English:
{{mu|mi gleki lo ka jinga|I'm glad of winning.}}
which is the same as
{{mu|mi gleki lo nu mi jinga|I'm glad that I won.}}
Some verbs require only infinitives in some of their places. Definitions of such words mark such places with the term "property". For example,
{{gl|cinmo|x1 feels x2 (property of x1)}}
This means that the infinitive in the second place (x<sub>2</sub>) is applied to the first place (x<sub>1</sub>). Cases where infinitive is applied to other place are rare and are explained for corresponding verbs.
Note that only the first unfilled place of the embedded clause takes the meaning of the outer place:
{{mu|mi djica lo ka do nelci|I want that you like me.}}
{{gl|nelci|x1 likes x2}}
Here, the first unfilled place is the second place of '''nelci''' thus it takes the value '''mi''' (''I'').
It is also possible to explicitly mark a place to refer to by using the pronoun '''ce'u''':
{{mu|mi djica lo ka do nelci ce'u|I want that you like me.}}
Another example:
{{mu|mi cinmo lo ka xebni ce'u<br>mi cinmo lo ka se xebni|I feel like someone hates me.<br>I feel being hated.}}
=== Nouns of existence ===
<!--todo:explain "lo pa mlatu" {{mu|pa mlatu cu citka pa finpe|There is one cat such that it eats one fish.}}
Using a bare number <u>without</u> '''lo''' makes a noun meaning ''there is something that ...'' In other words, it states the existence of some entity in the current discourse.
{{mu|lo pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|A cat drinks milk.}}
{{mu|pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|There is one cat that drinks milk.}}
{{gl|lo pa mlatu|noun: a cat (any cat)}}
{{gl|pa mlatu|noun: there is one cat}}
Another example showing two distinct opinions:
{{mu|lo pa bangu na banzu|One language (any language) is not enough.}}
{{mu|pa bangu na banzu|There is one language (probably known by the speaker) that is not enough.}}
{{gl|banzu|x1 (clause) is enough for x2 (clause)}}
The first sentence means that one language is not enough. For example, it doesn't matter which language you speak but no matter which one you speak you need to speak more languages to be successful.
In the second sentence, '''pa bangu''' means ''there is one language'', and it can refer to some rare language like Sumerian that is not enough in the modern world whereas some other language might be enough.
One more example:
{{mu|lo ci prenu cu gunka|People (which are three in number) work.}}
{{mu|pa lo ci prenu cu gunka|One of the three people works.}}
{{mu|ci prenu cu gunka|There are three people and they work.}}
{{gl|gunka|x1 works}}
Nouns starting with '''lo''' don't imply any particular objects:
{{mu|xu do tavla lo na slabu be do|Do you talk to not familiar to you? (no particular person in mind is described).}}
{{mu|e'u mi jo'u do casnu bu'u lo drata|Let's discuss in another place (no particular place in mind)}}
Objects in general are finely described using nouns with '''lo'''.
As opposed to them nouns starting with numbers like '''pa mlatu''' and '''ci prenu''' refer to new entities every time they are used:
{{mu|ci mlatu cu citka re finpe|There are three cats, there are two fishes for each cat, and each cat eats two fishes.}}
Note that we apply nouns from left to the right: first we talk about the three cats and then we specify for each of the cats that it eats two fishes. So in fact there are 6 fishes.
==='''da''' - ''there is something ...''===
{{mu|da tavla da|Someone talk to themselves.}}
{{mu|da tavla da da|Someone talk to themselves about themselves.}}
The pronoun '''da''' is translated as ''there is something/someone ...'' But unlike nouns of existence like '''pa mlatu''' we've just looked at if we use '''da''' the second time in the same clause it always refers to the same thing as the first '''da''':
More examples:
{{mu|mi tavla|I talk.}}
{{mu|mi tavla da|There is someone I talk to.}}
{{gl|tavla|x1 talks to x2 about x3}}
{{gl|mi nitcu lo mikce|I need a doctor (implying &quot;any doctor will do&quot;)}}
{{gl|mi nitcu da poi mikce|There is a doctor whom I need}}
Note the difference:
*'''da''' means ''there is something/someone'', '''da''' always refers to the same entity when used more than once in the same clause.
* noun like '''lo mlatu''' (starting with '''lo''') can refer to new entities every time it is used.<!-- no! -->
* noun like '''pa mlatu''' (with a bare number and without '''lo''') is similar to using '''pa da poi mlatu''' but it can refer to new entities every time it is used.
=== &quot;''To have''&quot; ===
The English verb ''to have'' has several meanings.
{{mu|pa da birka mi|I have an arm.|There is something that is an arm of me}}
{{gl|birka|x1 is an arm of x2}}
We use the same strategy for expressing family relationship:
{{mu|pa da bruna mi<br>mi se bruna pa da|Someone is my brother.<br>I have one brother.|There is someone who is a brother of me}}
{{mu|re bruna be mi cu clani|I have two brothers and they are tall.}}
{{gl|clani|x1 is long, tall}}
So we don't need the verb &quot;to have&quot; to denote such relationship. The same for other family members:
:'''da mamta mi''' or '''mi se mamta da''' = ''I have a mother.''
:'''da patfu mi''' or '''mi se patfu da''' = ''I have a father.''
:'''da mensi mi''' or '''mi se mensi da''' = ''I have a sister.''
:'''da panzi mi''' or '''mi se panzi da''' = ''I have a child (or children).''
{{gl|panzi|x1 is a child, offspring of x2}}
Note that using a number in front of '''da''' isn't necessary if context is enough.
Another meaning of ''to have'' is ''to keep'':
{{mu|mi ralte pa gerku|I have a dog.|I keep a dog}}
{{mu|mi ralte pa karce|I have a car.}}
{{gl|ralte|x1 keeps x2 in their possesion}}
If you own, possess something according to some law or documents you should use '''ponse''':
{{mu|mi ponse le karce|I own the car.}}
{{gl|ponse|x1 owns x2}}
== Lesson 3. Quoting. Questions. Interjections ==
=== '''sei''': comments to the text ===
The particle '''sei''' allows to insert into a clause a comment about our attitude about what is said in that clause:
{{mu|do jinga sei mi gleki|You won! (I'm happy about that!)}}
{{mu|do jinga sei la .ian. cu gleki|You won! (And Yan is happy about that!)}}
{{notci|Like with nouns formed with '''lo''' the clause formed with '''sei''' must end in a verb.}}
{{mu|la .alis. cu prami sei la .bob. cu gleki la .kevin.}}
Let's add brackets to make it more easily readable.
{{mu|la .alis. cu prami (sei la .bob. cu gleki) la .kevin.|Alice loves (Bob is happy) Kevin.<br>Alice loves Kevin (Bob is happy).}}
We can add more nouns to the verb with '''be''' and '''bei''' like we do for nouns:
{{mu|do jinga sei mi zausku be fo la fircku|You won! (I'll post congrats on Facebook)}}
{{gl|zausku|to praise}}
=== Quotation marks ===
For quoting text we place quotation particle '''lu''' before the quote and place '''li'u''' after it. The result is a noun representing a quoted text:
{{mu|mi cusku lu mi prami do li'u|I say &quot;I love you.&quot;}}
{{gl|cusku|x1 expresses/says x2 (quote) to audience x3}}
{{notci|A nice feature of Lojban is that '''lu''' - «quote» and '''li'u''' - «unquote» marks are pronounceable. It is quite handy since in spoken Lojban you don't have to change intonation to show where a quoted text starts and ends.}}
However, in written text that quotes a conversation, the author often pays reader's attention to the content of quotations. In such cases '''sei''' is preferred.
We can also nest quotations, for example:
{{mu|la .ian. pu cusku lu la .djein. pu cusku lu coi li'u mi li'u|Yan said &quot;Jane said ‘Hello’ to me.&quot;}}
which is similar to
{{mu|la .ian. pu cusku lu la .djein. pu rinsa mi li'u|Yan said &quot;Jane greeted me.&quot;}}
Note that in Lojban we distinguish things and their names:
{{mu|lu le munje li'u cu cmalu|"The universe" is small.}}
{{mu|le munje na cmalu|The universe is not small.}}
{{gl|le munje|the universe, world}}
Here, the text ''&quot;the universe&quot;'' is small whereas the universe is not.
Interjections and vocatives work like '''sei''' constructs:
{{mu|je'u mi jinga sei le nakni cu cusku|Truly, &quot;I won&quot;, he said.}}
As you can see '''je'u''' is not his words. It's your attitude to the clause. If you want to quote &quot;'''je'u mi jinga'''&quot; use quotation marks getting:
{{mu|lu je'u mi jinga li'u se cusku le nakni|&quot;Truly, I won&quot;, he said.}}
See the difference between the two examples?
Several common verbs related to talking:
{{mu|le fetsi pu retsku lu do klama ma li'u|She asked &quot;Where do you go?&quot;}}
{{mu|mi pu spusku lu mi klama lo zdani li'u|I replied &quot;I am going home.&quot;}}
{{mu|mi pu spuda lo se retsku be le fetsi lo ka spusku lu mi klama lo zdani li'u|I replied to her question by saying in reply &quot;I am going home.&quot;}}
{{gl|spuda|x1 replies to x2 by doing x3 (property of x1)}}
The remaining three verbs have identical place structure:
{{gl|cusku|x1 expresses/says x2 (quote) to audience x3}}
{{gl|retsku|x1 asks x2 (quote) to audience x3}}
{{gl|spusku|x1 replies/says answer x2 (quote) to audience x3}}
=== '''zo''' — quoting one word ===
'''zo''' is a quotation marker, just like '''lu'''. However, '''zo''' quotes <u>only one</u> word immediately after it. This means it does not have an unquote word like '''li'u''': we already know where the quotation ends. Thus we save two syllables making our speech more concise.
{{vajni|'''zo robin cmene mi'''<br>''"Robin" is my name.''<br>''My name is Robin''.}}
{{gl|cmene|x1 (quote) is a name of x2 ...}}
This is how you present yourself in Lojban using your Lojbanized name.If you have a name consisting of more than one verb word then use '''lu … li'u''':
{{mu|lu robin djonson li'u cmene mi|Robin Johnson is my name.}}
Another way is to use '''me'''.
{{mu|mi me la robin djonson|I'm Robin Johnson.}}
<!--{{notci|Note that '''la''' allows using several verb words or several cmevla after it like '''lu ... li'u'''. '''zo''' marks one word only.}}-->
{{notci|Note that the first place of '''cmene''' is a quote, a text. Thus, we use not '''la''' (prefix for names) but '''lu ... li'u''' or '''zo''' to make a quote and fill the first place of '''cmene''' with it. Thus, '''mi me la robin''' but
{{mu|zo robin cmene mi||"Robin" (quotation) is a name of me}}}}
=== Content questions ===
{{pixra|Image:Miss_Rep_Dominicana_07_Ada_Aimee.jpg|'''lo ninmu'''<br/>''a woman (female human)''}}
{{pixra|Image:Jens_Fink-Jensen.jpg|'''lo nanmu'''<br/>''a man (male human)''}}
English also has a number of ''wh-'' questions — ''who'', ''what'' etc. In Lojban we use one word for all of these: '''ma'''. This is like an instruction to fill in the missing place. For example:
{{mu|— do klama ma<br>— la .london.|— Where are you going?<br>— London.}}
{{mu|— ma klama la .london.<br>— la .kevin.|— Who's going to London?<br>— Kevin.}}
{{mupli|— '''mi dunda ma do'''<br>— '''lo cukta'''<br>— ''I give what to you?'' (probably meaning ''What was it I was supposed to be giving you?'')<br>— ''The book.''}}
It is quite common to use '''ma''' with relative clauses:
{{vajni|— do xabju ma noi gugde — lo gugde'usu<br>— In what country do you live?<br>— USA|— You inhabit what, which is a country?<br>— USA}}<!-- add gugdesu'u-->
{{gl|xabju|to inhabit (some place)}}
'''mo''' is like '''ma'''<!--nop, it's a verb-->, but questions the main verb, not a noun — it's like English ''What does ''x'' do?'' or ''What is ''x''?'' (remember, Lojban doesn't force you to distinguish between being and doing!)
We can see '''mo''' as asking someone to describe the relationship between the nouns in the question.
{{vajni|— '''do mo'''<br>— ''How do you do? What's up?''<br>— <code>You are what, you do what? (literally)</code>}}
This is the most common way of asking ''How do you do?'', ''Howdy?'' in Lojban. Some possible answers:
{{vajni|— '''mi gleki'''<br>— ''I'm happy.''<br><br>
— '''mi kanro'''<br>— ''I'm healthy.''}}
Another way of asking ''How do you do?'':
{{vajni|— '''do cinmo lo ka mo'''<br>— ''How do you feel (emotionally)?<br><br>
— '''gleki'''<br>— ''Happy.''<br><br>
— '''tatpi'''<br>— ''Tired.''}}
{{gl|cinmo|x1 feels x2 (property of x1)}}
Other examples:
{{mu|ti mo|What is this?}}
{{mu|la .meilis. cu mo|Who is Mei Li? / What is Mei Li? / What is Mei Li doing?}}
Possible answers depending on context:
*'''ninmu''': ''She's a woman.''
*'''jungo''': ''She's Chinese.''
*'''pulji''': ''She's a police officer.''
*'''sanga''': ''She's a singer'' or ''She's singing.''
{{mu|do mo la .kevin.|What are you to Kevin?|You are what (you do what) to Kevin.}}
The answer depends on the context. Possible answers to this question are:
*'''nelci''': ''I like him.''
*'''pendo''': ''I am his friend''
*'''prami''': ''I adore/am in love with him.''
*'''xebni''': ''I hate him.''
*'''fengu''': ''I'm angry with him.''
*'''cinba''': ''I kissed him''
{{notci|Note once again that the time is not important here: just as '''cinba''' can mean ''kiss'', ''kissed'', ''will kiss'' and so on, '''mo''' does not ask a question about any particular time.}}
To differentiate between ''to do'' and ''to be someone or something'' we use additional verbs with '''ma''':
{{mu|la meilis cu zukte ma||Mei Li does what?}}
{{mu|la meilis cu zukte lo ka lumci|Mei Li is does cleaning.}}
{{gl|zukte|x1 does x2 (property of x1)}}
{{gl|lumci|to clean (something)}}
{{mu|do du ma||You are who?}}
{{mu|mi du lo ctuca|I am the teacher.}}
Combining prepositions or relative clauses with '''ma''' can give us other useful questions:
|'''ca ma'''
|during what
|'''bu'u ma'''
|at what
|'''ma noi prenu'''
|what that is a person
|'''ma noi dacti'''
|What? (about objects)
|what that is an object
|'''ri'a ma'''
|because of what
|'''pe ma'''
|Whose? Which? About what?
|pertaining to what or whom
|'''lo mlatu poi mo'''
|Which cat? Which kind of cat?
'''pe ma''' is attached only to nouns:
{{mu|lo penbi pe ma cu zvati lo jubme|Whose pen is on the table?}}
=== Number questions ===
{{mu|lo xo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|How many cats drink milk?}}
The word '''xo''' means ''How many?'' and thus asks for a number.
The full answer will be:
{{mu|lo mu mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|5 cats drink milk.}}
So the person being asked is supposed to put an appropriate value in place of '''xo'''.
A few more examples:
{{mu|lo xo botpi cu kunti|How many of the bottles are empty?}}
{{mu|lo xo prenu cu klama ti|How many people come here?}}
{{mu|do ralte lo xo gerku|How many dogs do you keep?}}
=== Verbs of facts ===
Consider the example:
{{mu|mi djuno lo du'u do stati|I know that you are smart.}}
{{gl|djuno|x1 knows x2 (proposition) about x3}}
{{mu|mi jimpe lo du'u do pu citka|I understand that you were eating.}}
{{gl|jimpe|x1 understands x2 (proposition) about x3}}
In places that describe facts the particle '''du'u''' is used (instead of '''nu''').
'''djuno''' (''to know'') and '''jimpe''' (''to understand'') describe facts. It'd be stupid to say ''I understand that you were eating but in fact you weren't.'' However, for verbs describing events usual '''nu''' is used:
{{mu|mi sruma lo nu do pu citka|I assume that you were eating.}}
And here, I assume one thing but it doesn't imply a true fact:
{{mu|mi sruma lo nu do pu citka i ku'i do pu na citka|I assume that you were eating. But you weren't eating.}}
Note that the clause started with '''du'u''' doesn't have to be true:
{{mu|lo du'u do mlatu cu jitfa|That you are a cat is false.}}
{{gl|jitfa|x1 (proposition) is false}}
{{notci|Where to use '''du'u''' and whereto use '''nu'''? You may look into the dictionary:
*The term&nbsp;''(proposition)'' marks places where '''du'u''' is recommended.
*The term &nbsp;''(clause)'' marks places where '''nu''' is recommended.}}
If by mistake you use '''nu''' instead of '''du'u''' you will still be understood. But usually people speaking fluent Lojban distinguish these particles.
=== Indirect questions ===
{{mu|mi djuno lo du'u ma <u>kau</u> tadni la .lojban.|I know who is studying Lojban.}}
This is called an indirect question. The word ''who'' here is not a request for information, there's no question mark. The answer is presumed. In fact you yourself know the answer to the question ''Who is learning Lojban?''
'''kau''' is an interjection that we put after a question word telling that its an indirect question.
If I ask you the question '''ma tadni la .lojban.''', you know what value to fill in the '''ma''' slot with: '''la .kevin.''' So you could just say
{{mu|<u>ma</u> tadni la .lojban.|<u>Who</u> is studying Lojban?}}
{{mu|mi djuno lo du'u <u>ma kau</u> tadni la .lojban.|I know who is studying Lojban. I know the identity of the person studying Lojban.}}
{{mu|mi djica lo nu <u>ma</u> tadni la .lojban.|<u>Who</u> do I want to study Lojban?|I want <u>who</u> to study Lojban?}}
This can never be an indirect question: it is asking for an answer (even if you're doing it rhetorically).
You can put it after other question words:
{{mu|mi djuno lo du'u lo <u>xo kau</u> prenu cu tadni la .lojban.|I know how many people study Lojban.}}
=== Indirect quotations (reported speech) ===
A clause like ''Alice said &quot;Michelle said “Hello” to me&quot;'' can also be expressed in a rather more subtle way:
{{mu|la .alis. pu cusku zo'e pe lo nu la .micel. pu rinsa le fetsi|Alice said something about Michelle greeting her before.|Alice said something about the event of Michelle greeted her.}}
or a bit shorter:
{{mu|la .alis. pu cusku lo se du'u la .micel. pu rinsa le fetsi|Alice said that Michelle had greeted her.}}
<!--time shift. had greeted!!!-->
The combination '''se du'u''' allows expressing indirect speech.
Here are the examples of verbs related to talking when using reported speech:
{{mu|le fetsi pu retsku lo se du'u mi klama makau|She asked where I was going.}}
{{mu|mi pu spusku lo se du'u mi klama lo zdani|I replied that I was going home.}}
{{mu|mi pu spuda lo se retsku be le fetsi lo ka spusku lo se du'u mi klama lo zdani|I replied to her question by saying in reply that I was going home.}}
Questions in reported speech:
{{mu|mi pu cusku lo se du'u <u>ma</u> tadni la .lojban.|<u>Who</u> did I say is studying Lojban?|I said <u>who</u> is studying Lojban?}}
Thus, Lojban has several words for ''that…'', depending on what sort of thing is meant.
*If ''that'' describes what can be seen, heard, what happens, use '''nu'''.
*If ''that'' describes what you think, some fact or information, use '''du'u'''.
*If ''that'' describes what you say, use '''se du'u'''.
**But if you need a literal quote use '''lu … li'u'''.
=== Emotional interjections ===
[[Image:Allieorange.jpg|thumb|While being photographed instead of &quot;cheese&quot; say '''.ui''' (sounds like English &quot;we&quot;). It means ''I'm happy''&nbsp;in Lojban and produces better smile due to its special sounding.|link=]]
We know such interjection as '''a'o''' (''I hope''). There are interjections expressing other emotional states. They are similar to smileys like ;-)  or :-( but in Lojban we can be more specific about our emotions still remaining concise in our speech.
Here are examples of widely used emotional interjections:
{{mu|do jinga ui|You won! (I'm happy about that!)}}
:'''ui''' (pronounced as English &quot;we&quot;) expresses happiness
:Interjections work like '''sei''' with their clauses. '''ui''' means the same as '''sei mi gleki''' so we could as well say '''do jinga sei mi gleki''' meaning the same (although it's a bit more lengthy).
{{mu|ie tu mlatu|Yes, that is a cat.}}
{{mu|ie nai i tu na mlatu|No, I don't agree. That is not a cat.}}
:'''ie''' as in like ''<u>ye</u>s'' = ''Yeah! Aye!'' (agreement)
:'''ie nai''' = disagreement
{{mu|.ai mi vitke do|I'm going to visit you.}}
:'''.ai''' as in ''h<u>igh</u>'' = ''I'm going to…'' (intent)
{{mu|.au do kanro|I wish you were healthy.}}
:'''.au''' (pronounced as in ''h<u>ow</u>'') = desire
{{mu|.a'o do clira klama|I hope you come early.}}
:'''.a'o''' = I hope.
{{mu|.ei mi ciska lo xatra|I should write a letter.}}
:'''.ei''' as in ''h<u>ey</u>'' = ''I should …'' (obligation)
{{mu|i'e do pu gunka lo vajni|Very good! You did an important work.}}
:'''i'e''' = ''Fine!'' (approval)
{{mu|.o'u tu mlatu|Oh, that's only a cat.}}
:'''.o'u''' = ''Phew!'' (relaxation)
:In this case you probably thought that was something dangerous but it's only a cat so you are saying '''.o'u'''.
{{mu|.u'i ti zmiku|Ha-ha, this is a robot.}}
:'''.u'i''' = ''Ha-ha!'' (amusement)
{{notci|You can add or remove interjections to/from a sentence without the risk of breaking it.}}
{{notci|Any word that starts with a vowel is prefixed with a dot in Lojban. So the correct spelling is '''.a'o''' and so on. It's common to omit dots. We will do this later in this course for brevity. However, while speaking you should always show this dot by making a short pause before saying such word to prevent merging two neighboring words together into one.}}
In Lojban word two vowels together are pronounced as one sound:
*if the first of two vowels is '''.u''' it is pronounced as ''w''
*if the first of two vowels is '''.i''' it is pronounced as ''y'' in ''<u>y</u>es''
*if the last of two vowels is '''.i''' it is pronounced as ''y'' in ''he<u>y</u>''
*but '''.ui''' is pronounced as like <u>''we''</u> in English
Vowel combinations are pronounced in such a way even if this combination of vowels is a part of another word, for example, '''.uiski''' means &quot;whisky&quot; and can be pronounced as &quot;weeh-skeeh&quot; just like in English.
Like with '''xu''' or '''sei'''-clauses we can add interjections after any noun, pronoun or verb thus expressing our attitude towards that part of the sentence.
=== Urging interjections ===
A special group of interjections (in English called "imperative/hortative" interjections) make instigations, commands, requests. among which we already know '''.e'o''':
{{mu|.e'a do klama lo nenri|You may come in.}}
:'''.e'a''' = ''I allow, you may …'' (permission)
{{gl|lo nenri|an interior, what is inside}}
{{mu|.e'e do zukte|C'mon, do it!}}
:'''.e'e''' = ''Come on!'' (encourgament, instigation, provokation)
{{mu|.e'o mi ciksi da poi mi cusku djica|Please, let me explain what I want to say.}}
:'''.e'o''' = ''Please …'' (request)
{{mu|.e'i do zutse doi lo verba|Sit down, child!}}
:'''.e'i''' = ''Do that!'' (command)
{{mu|.e'u do pinxe lo jisra|I suggest that you drink the juice. You'd better drink the juice.}}
:'''.e'u''' = ''Let's'' (suggestion)
=== '''ko''' for quicker urges ===
{{mu|do bajra|You run.}}
{{mu|bajra|Someone runs.}}
In English the verb itself is a command:
In Lojban '''bajra''' as a sentence means ''Someone runs'' (or ''is running'' / ''was running'' and so on depending on context). '''bajra''' <u>can</u> also mean a command ''Do run!'' but sometimes context isn't enough to make you decide whether it's an urge to run or simply a statement of the fact that someone runs or is running.
The pronoun '''ko''' is used instead of '''do''' to make requests, suggestions, commands.
{{mu|ko bajra|Run! Do run! Do it so that you run!}}
'''ko''' is simply a more vague alternative to '''do .e'o''', '''do .e'u''', '''do .e'i'''.
It's perfectly fine to say a more precise
{{mu|do .e'o bajra|You, please run!}}
putting the emphasis in our politeness onto '''do''' (''you'').
Moving '''ko''' in a clause moves command/request to that part, for example:
{{mu|nelci ko|Make it so you are liked by someone!}}
{{gl|nelci|to like (something or someone)}}
As you can see we have to restructure this clause in English which still sounds weird, but you could use it in Lojban in the sense of ''Try to make a good impression.''
{{notci|Note that '''prami''' corresponds to English ''to love'' while '''nelci''' corresponds to English ''to like''.}}
We can even have several '''ko''' in one sentence:
{{mu|ko kurji ko|Take care of yourself.}}
{{gl|kurji|to take care (of someone)}}
===Discursive interjections===
{{mu|.i mi venfu do .e <u>ji'a</u> lo cmalu gerku pe do|I'll get you and your little dog, <u>too</u>!}}
{{gl|ji'a|additionally, also}}
'''ji'a''' means that there exist others who also are the same (''you'' in this case) or who do the same.
{{mu|mi si'a nelci do||I too like you}}
{{mu|— mi nelci lo mlatu<br>— mi si'a nelci lo mlatu|— I like cats.<br>— I like cats too (Me too).}}
{{gl|si'a|similarly, too}}
'''si'a''' denotes that something is similar while being different in other unmentioned aspects.
=== Structure of interjections: '''nai''', '''sai''', '''pei''', '''dai''' ===
Interjection can consist of
# the root like '''ui''' (''Yay!'')
# then suffixes like '''pei''', '''dai''', '''zo'o''':
#*{{gln|ui zo'o|Yay! (kidding, I'm not actually happy)}}
# both the root and each of the suffixes can be modified with scalar particles like '''nai''':
#*{{gln|ui nai|Alas!}}
#*{{gln|ui nai zo'o|Alas! (kidding, I'm not serious in this feeling)}}
#*{{gln|ui nai zo'o nai|Alas, I'm not kidding, I feel unhappy}}
Some examples of how scalar particles work.
#{{gln|ju'o|interjection: I'm sure (certaintty)}}
#{{gln|ju'o cu'i|interjection: maybe, perhaps (uncertainty)}}
#{{gln|ju'o nai|interjection: I have no idea!}}
*interjection with bare root:
**{{gln|ju'o le bruna co'i klama|I'm sure, the brother has come.}}
*scalar particle '''cu'i''' turns bare interjection into the middle attitude:
** {{gln|ju'o cu'i le bruna co'i klama|Maybe the brother has come, I'm not sure.}}
*scalar particle '''nai''' turns interjection into the opposite attitude:
** {{gln|ju'o nai le bruna co'i klama|Maybe the brother has come, maybe not, I have no idea}}
** Similarly, '''ui''' is ''Whee! Yay!'' while '''ui nai''' means ''Alas!''
:Precise meanings of interjections that are meaningful with their scalar particles '''cu'i''' and '''nai''' are given in the dictionary.
*scalar particle '''sai''' denotes strong intensity of interjection:
{{gl|.u'i sai|Ha-ha-ha!}}
Vocatives can also be modified with scalar particles:
{{gl|ki'e sai do|Thank you a lot!}}
Suffixes are added after the root of interjection (together with its scalar particles if we used them):
*interjection suffix '''pei''' turns interjection into a question.
**{{mun|— .au pei do e mi klama lo zarci<br>— .au cu'i|— Do you want that you and I go to the store?<br>— Meh, I don't have any preferences.}}
**{{mun|— ie pei lo ninmu cu melbi<br>— ie|— The woman is pretty, isn't she?<br>— Yeah.}}
*interjection suffix '''dai''' shows another's feelings, not feelings of the speaker:
**{{mun|ui nai dai do na co'i jinga|You must be sad, you haven't won.}}
**{{mun|.a'u|That's interesting!}}
**{{mun|.a'u dai|That must have been interesting for you!}}
**Bare interjections express the attitude of the speaker. '''ei do cliva''' means not ''You ought to leave'', but ''I feel the obligation for you to leave''. '''dai''' shows that the speaker is empathizing someone else's feelings.
***{{mun|.ei dai do cliva|You feel the obligation for yourself to leave.}}
{{notci|Note that interjections don't necessarily show attitude towards the speakers themselves. Instead, they express speakers' attitude towards other things.}}
*interjection suffix '''zo'o''' marks the attitude as expressed not seriously:
**{{mun|e'u zo'o do pinxe ti|I suggest that you drink it (kidding).}}
**'''zo'o''' is used just like the smiley-face in e-mail, to indicate that you're being humorous when saying something, and it's used for much the same reason. Although, simleys can be ambiguous, and '''zo'o''' has only one meaning, which is handy.
Suffixes can also be modified with scalar particles:
*{{mun|ie zo'o nai|I agree (not kidding).}}
:'''zo'o nai''' is used to show that the information is not a joke:
Suffixes can be used on its own:
*'''pei''' when used alone asks for any interjection that the listener would feel appropriate:
**{{mun|— pei lo lunra cu crino<br>— .ie nai|— The moon is green (what is your feeling about it?)<br>— I disagree.}}
*For other suffixes they mean that the root interjection '''ju'a''' (''I state'') was omitted:
**{{mun|zo'o do kusru<br>ju'a zo'o do kusru|You are cruel (kidding).}}
::{{gln|ju'a|interjection: I state (don't confuse it with '''ju'o''' (I'm sure))}}
=== Just for reference: interjections in a table ===
Here is a bigger picture: emotional, urging and some other interjections in series.
|Wish ...
|I'm gonna
|It should be
|'''au cu'i'''
|'''ai cu'i'''
|'''ei cu'i'''
|'''oi cu'i'''
|''meh'' (indifference)
|'''au nai'''
|'''ai nai'''
|'''ei nai'''
|'''oi nai'''
(disinclination, reluctance)
how things might need not be
{|class='wikitable' style='text-align:center;'
! rowspan="3" | u
| rowspan="3" | Emotion
|'''ua'''<br/><small>"wah" as in "<u>wo</u>n", "<u>o</u>nce"</small><br/>''Aha! Eureka!''
|'''ue'''<br/><small>"weh" as in "<u>we</u>t"</small><br/>''What a surprise''
|'''ui'''<br/><small>"weeh" as "we"</small><br/>''hooray!''
|'''uo'''<br/><small>"woh" as in "<u>wo</u>mbat", "<u>wha</u>t"</small><br/>''voila!''
|'''uu'''<br/><small>"wooh" as "woo"</small><br/>''oh poor thing''
|'''ua cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''ue cu'i'''<br/>''I'm not really surprised''
|'''ui cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''uo cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''uu cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''ua nai'''<br/>''Duh! I don't get it!'' (confusion)
|'''ue nai'''<br/>expectation, lack of surprise
|'''ui nai'''<br/>''Alas!'' (unhappiness)
|'''uo nai'''<br/>incompleteness
|'''uu nai'''<br/>''Mwa ha ha!'' (cruelty)
! rowspan="3" | i
| rowspan="3" | Emotion
|'''ia'''<br/><small>"yah" as in "<u>ya</u>rd"</small><br/>''I believe''
|'''ie'''<br/><small>"yeh" as in "<u>ye</u>s"</small><br/>''aye! agreed!''
|'''ii'''<br/><small>"yeeh" as in "hear <u>ye</u>"</small><br/>''yikes!''
|'''io'''<br/><small>"yoh" as in "<u>yo</u>gurt"</small><br/>''respect''
|'''iu'''<br/><small>"yooh" as in "c<u>u</u>te, d<u>ew</u>"</small><br/>''I love it''
|'''ia cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''ie cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''ii cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''io cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''iu cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''ia nai'''<br/>''Pshaw!'' (disbelief)
|'''ie nai'''<br/>disagreement
|'''ii nai'''<br/>''I feel safe''
|'''io nai'''<br/>disrespect
|'''iu nai'''<br/>hatred
! rowspan="3" | .u'
| rowspan="3" | Emotion
|'''u'a'''<br/><small>"oohah" as in "t<u>wo ha</u>lves"</small><br/>''gain''
|'''u'e'''<br/><small>"ooheh" as in "t<u>wo hea</u>ds"</small><br/>''what a wonder!''
|'''u'i'''<br/><small>"ooheeh" as in "t<u>wo hee</u>ls"</small><br/>''hahaha!''
|'''u'o'''<br/><small>"oohoh" as in "t<u>wo haw</u>ks"</small><br/>''courage''
|'''u'u'''<br/><small>"oohooh" as in "t<u>wo hoo</u>ds"</small><br/>''sorry!''
|'''u'a cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''u'e cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''u'i cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''u'o cu'i'''<br/>shyness
|'''u'u cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''u'a nai'''<br/>loss
|'''u'e nai'''<br/>''Pff!'' (commonplace)
|'''u'i nai'''<br/>''Blah'' (weariness)
|'''u'o nai'''<br/>cowardice
|'''u'u nai'''<br/>&nbsp;
! rowspan="3" | .i'
| rowspan="3" | Attitude
|'''i'a'''<br/><small>"eehah" as in "t<u>eaho</u>use"</small><br/>''ok, I accept it''
|'''i'e'''<br/><small>"eeheh" as in "t<u>eahea</u>d"<br/>''I approve!''
|'''i'i'''<br/><small>"eeheeh" as in "w<u>e hea</u>t"</small><br/>''I'm with you in that''
|'''i'o'''<br/><small>"eehoh" as in "w<u>e haw</u>"</small><br/>''thanks to it''
|'''i'u'''<br/><small>"eehooh" as in "w<u>e hoo</u>k"</small><br/>''familiarity''!ɩ
|'''i'a cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''i'e cu'i'''<br/>non-approval
|'''i'i cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''i'o cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''i'u cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''i'a nai'''<br/>resistance
|'''i'e nai'''<br/>''Boo!'' (disapproval)
|'''i'i nai'''<br/>antagonistically
|'''i'o nai'''<br/>envy
|'''i'u nai'''<br/>unfamiliarity, mystery
! rowspan="3" | .a'
| rowspan="3" | Attachment to situation
|'''a'a'''<br/><small>"ahah" as "aha"</small><br/>''I'm listening''
|'''a'i'''<br/><small>"aheeh" as in "Sw<u>ahi</u>li"</small><br/>''oomph! (effort)''
|'''a'o'''<br/><small></small><br/>''I hope''
|'''a'u'''<br/><small></small><br/>''hm, I wonder...''
|'''a'a cu'i'''<br/>inattentiveness
|'''a'e cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''a'i cu'i'''<br/>no special effot
|'''a'o cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''a'u cu'i'''<br/>''Ho-hum'' (disinterest)
|'''a'a nai'''<br/>avoiding
|'''a'e nai'''<br/>''I'm tired''
|'''a'i nai'''<br/>repose
|'''a'o nai'''<br/>''Gah!'' (despair)
|'''a'u nai'''<br/>''Eww! Yuck!'' (repulsion)
! rowspan="3" | .e'
| rowspan="3" | Urging
|'''e'a'''<br/><small>"ehah"</small><br/>''you may''
|'''e'e'''<br/><small>"eheh"</small><br/>''come on, do it!''
|'''e'i'''<br/><small>"eheeh"</small><br/>''do it!''
|'''e'o'''<br/><small>"ehoh"</small><br/>''please, do it''
|'''e'u'''<br/><small>"ehooh"</small><br/>''I suggest''
|'''e'a cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''e'e cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''e'i cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''e'o cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''e'u cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''e'a nai'''<br/>prohibiting
|'''e'e nai'''<br/>discouragement, demoralization
|'''e'i nai'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''e'o nai'''<br/>offer, grant
|'''e'u nai'''<br/>warning, disadvise
! rowspan="3" | .o'
| rowspan="3" | Emotion
|'''o'e'''<br/><small>"oheh"</small><br/>''I feel it at hand''
|'''o'o'''<br/><small>"ohoh" as in "s<u>awho</u>rse"</small><br/>''patience''
|'''o'a cu'i'''<br/>modesty, humility
|'''o'e cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''o'i cu'i'''<br/>&nbsp;
|'''o'o cu'i'''<br/>mere tolerance
|'''o'u cu'i'''<br/>composure, balance
|'''o'a nai'''<br/>''How embarrassing. It makes me ashamed.''
|'''o'e nai'''<br/>distance
|'''o'i nai'''<br/>rashness, recklessness
|'''o'o nai'''<br/>impatience, intolerance
|'''o'u nai'''<br/>stress, anxiety
Note how an emotion changes to its opposite with '''nai''' and to the middle emotion using '''cu'i'''.
Why are some cells of interjections with '''cu'i''' and '''nai''' empty? Because English lacks concise ways of expressing such emotions.
What is more, most of such interjections are used quite seldom.
These tables might help you understand their design.
=== Combining interjections ===
{{mu|iu ui nai|I am unhappily in love.}}
{{mu|ue ui do jinga|Oh, you won! I'm so happy!}}
{{gl|jinga|to win.}}
:In this case the victory was unprobable, I'm surprised and happy at the same time.
Interjections (unlike scalar particles and interjection suffixes) don't modify each other:
{{mu|ue ui do jinga<br/>ui ue do jinga|Oh, you won! I'm so happy!}}
Here two interjections modify the same construct (the whole sentence) but they don't modify each other so their order is not important.
{{mu|pei .u'i lo mlatu cu sutra plipe|(What do you feel?) Heh, the cat is quickly jumping.}}
:Here '''pei''' is used alone and doesn't modify '''.u'i''' which is put after it.
=== Forgot to put an interjection at the beginning? ===
{{mu|do pu sidju mi .ui|You help me (yay!)}}
'''.ui''' modifies only the pronoun '''mi''' putting the attitude only to ''me''.
{{mu|ui do pu sidju mi|Yay, you helped me.}}
What if we forgot to add '''.ui''' at the beginning of this clause?
We can start a new sentence with '''i bo''' and then put the interjection:
{{mu|do pu sidju mi i bo ui|You helped me, yay!}}
== Lesson 4. Practice ==
Now we know most crucial parts of the grammar and can start accumulating new words through situations.
===Colloquial expressions===
Here are some common structures used by fluent speakers of Lojban + examples illustrating their usage.
They may help you get used to colloquial Lojban faster.
{{gl|i ku'i|But...}}
{{mu|mi djuno i ku'i mi na djica|I know. But I don't want.}}
{{gl|mi djica lo nu|I want that ...}}
{{mu|mi djica lo nu mi sipna|I want to sleep.|I want that I sleep.}}
{{gl|mi djuno lo du'u ma kau|I know what/who ...}}
{{mu|mi djuno lo du'u ma kau smuni zo coi|I know what is the meaning of '''coi'''.}}
{{mu|mi na djuno|I don't know.}}
{{gl|jinvi lo du'u|have an opinion that ...}}
{{mu|mi jinvi lo du'u la .lojban. cu zabna|I think that Lojban is cool.}}
{{mu|coi ro do|Hello, everyone!}}
{{mu|co'o ro do|Bye, everyone!}}
{{gl|ai mi|I'm going to ...}}
{{mu|ai mi cliva i co'o|I'm going to leave. Bye!}}
{{gl|ei mi|I should ...}}
{{mu|ei mi citka i co'o|I should eat. Bye!}}
{{gl|ca lo nu|when ...}}
{{mu|mi pu bebna ca lo nu mi citno|I was stupid whne I was young.}}
{{gl|va'o lo nu|provided that ...}}
{{mu|va'o lo nu do djica vau mi ka'e ciksi|If you want I can explain.}}
{{gl|simlu lo ka|seem to be}}
{{mu|simlu lo ka zabna|It seems to be cool.}}
{{gl|ca lo cabdei|today}}
{{mu|ca lo cabdei mi surla|Today I rest.}}
{{gl|mi nelci|I like}}
{{mu|mi nelci lo mlatu|I like cats.}}
{{gl|lo nu pilno|using ...}}
{{mu|lo nu pilno lo vlaste na nandu|Using dictionaries isn't hard.}}
{{gl|kakne lo ka|capable of ...}}
{{mu|xu do kakne lo ka sutra tavla|Are you able to talk quickly?}}
{{gl|tavla fi|talk about ...}}
{{mu|.e'e tavla fi lo skami|Let's talk about computers!}}
{{gl|mutce lo ka|very ...}}
{{mu|mi mutce lo ka se cinri|I am very interested.}}
{{gl|troci lo ka|try to ...}}
{{mu|mi troci lo ka tavla bau la .lojban.|I am trying to talk in Lojban.}}
{{gl|rinka lo nu|(event) leads to ...}}
{{mu|lo nu mi tadni la lojban cu rinka lo nu mi jimpe fi do|That I study Lojban makes me understand you.}}
{{gl|gasnu lo nu|(agent) causes ...}}
{{mu|mi pu gasnu lo nu lo skami pe mi co'a spofu|I made it so that my computer got broken.}}
{{gl|xusra lo du'u|assert that ...}}
{{mu|xu do xusra lo du'u mi na drani|Do you state that I am not right?}}
{{mu|mi na birti|I am not sure.}}
=== A simple dialogue ===
|- valign="top"
|'''coi la .alis.'''
|''Hi, Alice!''
|- valign="top"
|'''coi la .doris.'''
|''Hi, Doris!''
|- valign="top"
|'''do mo?'''
|''How are you?''
|The question mark is used here for stylistic purposes.
|- valign="top"
|'''mi kanro<br>.i mi ca tadni la .lojban.<br>.i mi troci lo ka tavla do'''
|''I'm healthy.<br>I now study Lojban.<br>I'm trying to talk to you.''
|{{gl|kanro|to be healthy}}
{{gl|tadni|to study ... (something)}}
{{gl|troci|to try ... (to do something)}}
{{gl|tavla|to talk [to someone]}}
|- valign="top"
|'''zabna<br>.i ma tcima ca lo bavlamdei?'''
|''Good.<br>What will be the weather tomorrow?''
|{{gl|zabna|to be nice, cool}}
{{gl|tcima|is the weather}}
{{gl|ca|at (some time)}}
{{gl|lo bavlamdei|tomorrow day}}
|- valign="top"
|'''mi na djuno<br>.i lo solri sei mi pacna'''
|''I don't know.<br>It'll be sunny, I hope.''
|{{gl|djuno|to know (fact)}}
{{gl|lo solri|the sun}}
:Note that '''lo solri cu tcima''' (literally ''the sun is the weather'') is the usual way of how '''tcima''' is used in Lojban.
{{gl|sei|comment starts}}
{{gl|pacna|to hope (for some event)}}
|- valign="top"
|'''mi jimpe'''
|''I understand.''
|- valign="top"
=== Human senses ===
Verbs related perception will be explained after the dialogue.
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ju'i la .alis.'''
|''Hey, Alice!''
|{{gl|ju'i|vocative that draws attention: "Hey! Psst! Ahem! Attention!"}}
|{{gl|re'i|vocative: "I'm ready to receive information"}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''xu do viska lo se skari be ta'''
|''Do you see the color of that thing near you?''
|In English we say ''Сan you see'', in Lojban we say just '''xu do viska''' - ''You see?''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''je'u i plise<br/>i le plise cu xunre i skari lo xunre'''
|''Yes. It is an apple. The apple is red.<br/>It's colored red.''
|{{gl|plise|... is apple}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''xu do viska lo tarmi be le plise'''
|''Can you see the form of the apple?''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''je'u i le plise cu barda'''
|''Yes. The apple is big.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''xu do jinvi lo du'u le plise ca makcu'''
|''Do you think that the apple is ripe?''
|{{gl|makcu|... is ripe}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''au mi palpi lo sefta be le plise<br/>i ua xutla<br/>i mi pacna lo nu makcu ie'''
|''I'd like to palpate it.<br/>Oh, it is smooth.<br/>I hope that it is ripe, yeah.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''panci pei<br/>i e'o do sumne le plise'''
|''What about the smell?<br/>Please, smell it.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''lo flora cu panci<br/>i au mi smaka le plise<br/>i oi nai lo kukte cu tasta<br/>i oi'''
|''It smells of flowers.<br/>I'd like to taste the apple.<br/>Yum, it tastes sweet.<br/>Oh-no.''
|{{gl|lo flora|flower(s)}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ma pu fasnu'''
|''What happened?''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''mi pu farlu fi lo ve'i cmana'''
|''I fell down from the hill.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''xu do cortu'''
|''Do you feel pain?''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''je'u i mi cortu lo cidni<br/>i na ckape<br/>i ca ti mi gasne lo nu da vi zvati'''
|''Yes, I feel pain in the knee.<br/>It's not dangerous.<br/>And now I can sense a presence of someone here.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''doi la alis do cliva e'o sai'''
|''Alice, please, return immediately!''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ko denpa i mi ca tirna lo sance'''
|''Wait, I can hear some sound.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''lo sance be ma'''
|''A sound of what?''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''mi pu tirna lo nu lo prenu cu tavla<br/>i ca ti mi ganse lo lenku'''
|''I heard a person talking.<br/>Now I feel cold.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ju'i la alis'''
|''Hey, Alice!..''
In this dialogue most important verbs for human senses have been used. Here are their place structures together with more verbs and more examples.
{{gl|viska|x1 sees x2 (object, form, color)}}
{{gl|skari|x1 is an object with the color x2}}
{{gl|tarmi|x1 is the form of x2}}
{{mu|mi viska lo plise|I see an apple.}}
{{mu|mi viska lo tarmi be lo plise<br/>i le plise cu se tarmi lo cukla|I see the form of an apple.<br/>The apple is round.}}
{{mu|mi viska lo se skari be lo plise<br/>i le plise cu skari lo xunre|I see the color of the apple.<br/>The apple is colored red.}}
Notice that we can both say ''see the form of an apple'' and ''see an apple''.
{{gl|tirna|x1 hears x2 (object or sound)}}
{{mu|mi tirna pa palta|I hear a plate}}
{{mu|mi tirna lo sance be pa palta poi ca'o porpi<br/>i le palta cu se sance lo cladu|I hear the sound of a plate that is falling.<br/>It sounds loud.}}
{{gl|pa palta|a plate}}
{{gl|cladu|x1 is loud}}
{{gl|tolycladu|x1 is quite in sound}}
{{gl|tonga|x1 is a tone of x2}}
We can use '''cladu''' and similar words directly:
{{mu|mi tirna lo cladu|I hear something loud.}}
{{mu|mi tirna lo tolycladu|I hear something quite in sound.}}
{{gl|mi tirna lo tonga be pa palta poi farlu|I hear the tone of the plate falling down.}}
Similarly to vision, we can say ''hear a sound'' and ''hear something producing the sound'':
{{mu|— do tirna ma noi sance<br>— lo zgike|— What sound do you hear?<br/>— A music.}}
{{mu|— do tirna lo sance be ma<br/>— lo plise poi farlu|— You hear a sound of what?<br/>— An apple that has fallen down.}}
====Sense of smell====
{{gl|sumne|x1 smells x2 (odor)}}
{{gl|panci|x1 is an odor of x2 (object)}}
{{mu|mi sumne le flora|I smell the flower.}}
{{mu|mi sumne lo panci be lo za'u pa flora|I smell the odor of flowers.}}
{{mu|mi sumne lo panci be pa plise<br/>i le plise cu se panci lo za'u flora|I smell the odor of the apple.<br/>The apple smells of flowers.}}
Note that English confuses smelling an odor and smelling an object that produces that odor. We say ''to smell an apple'', ''the apple smells of flowers (has the scent of flowers)''. This two-fold distinction is important because an apple produces aromatic particles that are distinct from the apple itself. The same for a falling plate and its sound — we may not want to mix them.
In Lojban we can easily separate between those cases like shown in the examples above.
====Sense of taste====
{{gl|smaka|x1 smacks, tastes x2 (taste)}}
{{gl|tasta|x1 is a taste of x2}}
{{mu|mi smaka lo plise|I taste the apple.}}
{{mu|mi smaka lo tasta be lo plise<br/>i le plise cu se tasta lo kukte|I taste the taste of the apple.<br/>The apple tastes sweet.}}
====Sense of touch====
{{gl|palpi|x1 palpates, touch-feels x2 (surface)}}
{{gl|sefta|x1 is a surface of x2}}
{{mu|mi palpi lo plise|I palpate, touch-feel the apple.}}
{{mu|mi palpi lo sefta be lo plise<br/>i le plise cu se sefta lo xutla|I touch feel the surface of the apple.<br/>The apple has a smooth surface.}}
{{mu|mi cortu lo birka be mi|I feel pain in my arm.<br>My arm hurts.}}
{{mu|mi cortu lo cidni|I feel pain in my knee, my knee hurts.}}
{{gl|cortu|x1 feels pain in x2 (organ, part of x1's body)}}
{{gl|cidni|x1 is a knee of x2}}
====Perception in general====
We can also use the vague '''ganse''' - ''to sense''.
{{gl|ganse|x1 senses x2 (object, event) by means x3}}
{{gl|ganse lo glare|to feel the heat}}
{{gl|ganse lo lenku|to feel the cold}}
{{mu|mi ganse lo plise|I sense an apple.}}
{{mu|mi ganse lo tarmi be lo plise<br/>i le plise cu se tarmi lo cukla|I sense the form of an apple.<br/>The apple is round.}}
Some words can be used with different sensory verbs. For example, we can
{{gl|viska lo sefta|to see the surface}}
{{gl|palpi lo sefta|to palpate the surface}}
=== Colors ===
Different language use different sets of words to denote colors. Some languages just use compare the color of objects with colors of other "prototype" objects. In Lojban we use all the options:
{{mu|ti xunre|This is red.}}
{{gl|xunre|x1 is red}}
{{mu|ti skari lo xunre|This is red. This has the color or red things.}}
{{mu|ti skari lo ciblu|This has the color of blood.}}
{{gl|lo ciblu|blood}}
Below are some examples with colors that follow those of English language. Other verbs for colors can be used, they would reflect how people speaking other languages are used to classify things.
{| class='wikitable'
|style='text-align:right;'|'''lo tsani cu xunre ca lo cerni'''
| ''The sky is red in the morning.''
|{{gln|lo tsani|the sky}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i lo solri cu simlu lo ka narju'''
| ''The sun seems to be orange.''
|{{gln|lo solri|the Sun}}
{{gln|simlu|x1 looks like x2 (clause)}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i lo pelxu flora cu se farna lo solri'''
| ''Yellow flowers are oriented towards the Sun.''
|{{gln|se farna|x1 is oriented towards x2}}
{{gln|farna|x1 is the direction of x2}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i lo pezli be lo tricu cu crino'''
| ''Leaves of trees are green.''
|{{gln|pezli|x1 is a leaf of x2}}
{{gln|lo tricu|tree}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i mi zvati lo korbi be lo blanu xamsi'''
| ''I am at the border of a blue sea.''
|{{gln|zvati|to be present at ...}}
{{gln|korbi|x1 is the border of x2}}
{{gln|lo xamsi|sea}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i mi catlu lo ninmu noi dasni lo zirpu taxfu'''
| ''I look at a woman who wears a violet dress.''
|{{gln|dasni|to wear ... (something)}}
{{gl|xunre|x1 is red}}
{{gl|narju|x1 is orange}}
{{gl|pelxu|x1 is yellow}}
{{gl|crino|x1 is green}}
{{gl|blanu|x1 is blue}}
{{gl|zirpu|x1 is violet}}
Other useful verbs:
{{mu|lo gusni be lo manku pagbu pu na carmi|The light illuminating dark areas was not intense.}}
{{mu|lo gusni be fi lo solri pu carmi|The light from the Sun was intense.}}
{{gl|gusni|x1 is a light illuminating x2 from the light source x3}}
{{gl|carmi|x1 is intense, bright}}
{{gl|manku|x1 is dark}}
=== Emotions: '''cmila''' - ''to laugh''. '''cisma''' - ''to smile'' ===
{| class='wikitable'
| style="text-align:right"|'''coi<br/>i ma nuzba<br/>i do simlu lo ka badri'''
| ''Hi.<br/>What are the news?<br/>You seem to be sad.''
|{{gln|badri|x1 is sad about x2}}
| style="text-align:right"|'''mi steba lo nu lo bruna be mi co'a speni lo nixli'''
| ''I am frustrated that my brother gets married a girl.''
|{{gln|steba|x1 feels frustration about x2}}
| style="text-align:right"|'''mi se cfipu<br/>i xu do na gleki lo nu le bruna co'a speni'''
| ''I am confused.<br/>You are not happy that the gets married?''
|{{gln|se cfipu|x1 is confused about x2}}
{{gln|gleki|x1 is happy about x2}}
| style="text-align:right"|'''ie<br/>i le nixli cu pindi<br/>i le nixli cu nitcu lo jdini<br/>i mi na kakne lo ka ciksi'''
| ''Yeah.<br/>The girl is poor.<br/>She needs money.<br/>I am not able to explain.''
|{{gln|nitcu|x1 needs x2}}
{{gln|kakne|x1 is capable of x2}}
| style="text-align:right"|'''ua<br/>i la'a do kanpe lo nu le nixli na prami le bruna'''
| ''Ah!<br/>Probably, you expect that she doesn't like the brother.''
|{{gln|la'a|interjection: probably, it's likely}}
{{gln|kanpe|x1 expects some event x2 ...}}
| style="text-align:right"|'''mi terpa lo nu le nixli ba tarti lo xlali<br/>i ku'i le bruna cu cisma ca ro ka tavla le nixli<br/>i ri ta'e cmila'''
| ''I am afraid that she will behave bad.<br/>But the brother smiles every time he talks to her.<br/>And she usually laughs.''
|{{gln|terpa|x1 fears x2}}
{{gln|cisma|x1 smiles}}
{{gln|cmila|x1 laughs}}
| style="text-align:right"|'''mi kucli lo nu le nixli cu prami le bruna'''
| ''I wonder whether the girl likes the brother.''
|{{gln|kucli|x1 is curious of x2}}
| style="text-align:right"|'''mi na birti'''
| ''I am not sure.''
|{{gln|birti|x1 is sure that x2 (clause) happens}}
| style="text-align:right"|'''ko surla'''
| ''Relax!''
|{{gln|surla|x1 relaxes (by doing x2)}}
{{gl|cinmo|x1 feels emotion x2 (property of x1)}}
{{gl|nelci|x1 likes x2}}
{{gl|manci|x1 feels awe or wonder about x2}}
{{gl|fengu|x1 is angry about x2}}
{{gl|xajmi|x1 thinks x2 is funny}}
{{gl|se zdile|x1 is amused by x2}}
{{gl|zdile|x1 is amusing}}
{{gl|djica|x1 desires x2}}
{{gl|pacna|x1 hopes that x2 is true}}
=== Health ===
{| class='wikitable'
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ca glare'''
| ''It's hot now.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i ku'i mi ganse lo nu lenku'''
| ''But I feel cold.''
|{{gln|ku'i|interjection: but, however}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''xu do bilma'''
| ''Are you ill?''
| ''Yes.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''xu do bilma fi lo influ'enza<br/>i e'u do klama lo mikce'''
| ''Do you have a flu? I suggest you go to  a doctor.''
|{{gln|lo influ'enza|influenza, flu}}
{{gln|lo mikce|doctor}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''mi bilma lo ka cortu lo galxe''' <p align="right">'''i mi sruma lo nu mi bilma fi la zukam'''
| ''My symptoms is that my throat aches.''<br/>''I assume that I have a cold.''
|{{gln|cortu|x1 has pain in x2 (organ, part of x1's body)}}
{{gln|la zukam|common cold (disease)}}
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ko kanro'''
| ''Get well!''
|{{gln|kanro|x1 is healthy}}
| ''Thanks.''
{{gl|bilma|x1 is ill or sick with symptoms x2 from disease x3}}
Note that the second place of '''bilma''' describes symptoms like '''lo ka cortu lo galxe''' = ''to have pain in the throat''
The third place is the name of the disease leading to those symptoms:
Obviously, you may fill any place of '''bilma'''.
=== Human body ===
{{mu|le nanmu cu se xadni lo clani|The man has a long body. The man is tall.}}
{{gl|se xadni|x1 has the body x2}}
{{gl|xadni|x1 is the body of x2}}
{{mu|mi pu darxi lo stedu e lo zunle xance<br/>i ca ti lo degji be le xance cu cortu<br/>i ku'i lo pritu xance na cortu|I hit the head and the left hand. Now a finger of the hand hurts. But the right hand doesn't hurt.}}
Most of words for parts of body have the same place structure as '''xadni''':
{{gl|stedu|x1 is a head of x2}}
However, some describe smaller parts:
{{gl|degji|x1 is a finger/toe on part x2 (hand, foot)}}
{{mu|lo degji be lo xance be le ninmu cu clani|The woman's fingers are long.|Digits of hand of the woman are long}}
{{mu|mi viska le jamfu i ku'i mi na viska lo degji be le jamfu|I can see the feet. But I don't see its toes.}}
{{gl|janco|x1 is a joint attaching limbs x2}}<!--change the dict.! jo'u!-->
{{gl|ctebi|x1 is a lip of mouth, orifice x2}}
{{gl|cidni|x1 is a knee or elbow of limb x2}}<!--poi rango ko'i-->
[[File:xadni.png|500px]]<!--ToDo: for internal organs the second place is function-->
=== Kinship ===
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;" | '''coi do mi se cmene zo adam<br/>i ti du la Alis<br/>i ri speni mi'''
|  | ''Hello to you. I am called "Adam".<br/>This is Alice.<br/>She is my wife.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;" | '''pluka fa lo ka penmi do<br/>i e'o do klama lo nenri be le dinju'''
|  | ''Pleasure to meet you.<br/>Please, come into the house.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;" | '''ki'e'''
|  | ''Thanks.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;" | '''i au gau mi do co'a slabu lo lanzu be mi<br/>i le re verba cu panzi mi<br/>i le tixnu cu se cmene zo flor<br/>i la karl cu du le bersa'''<!--gau is not yet known-->
|  | ''I'd like you to get to know my family.<br/>The two children are my offspring.<br/>The daughter is callse "Flor".<br/>Karl is the son.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;" | '''la karl cu mutce citno'''
|  | ''Karl is very young.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;" | '''ie'''
|  | ''Yeah.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;" | '''i ji'a mi se tunba re da noi ca na zvati le dinju<br/>i sa'e mi se tunba pa bruna e pa mensi'''
|  | ''Also I have two siblings who are now not in the house.<br/>To be precise, I have a brother and a sister.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;" | '''ue<br/>i lo lanzu be do cu barda'''
|  | ''Wow!<br/>Your family is large.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;" | '''je'u pei'''
|  | ''Really?''
The verbs for names of family members have a similar place structure:
{{gl|speni|x1 is a husband/wife of x2}}
'''co'a speni''' means ''to get married'':
{{mu|mi co'a speni la .suzan.|I married Susan.}}
{{gl|lanzu|x1 is a family including x2}}
{{gl|panzi|x1 is a child of x2}}
{{gl|tixnu|x1 is a daughter of x2}}
{{gl|bersa|x1 is a son of x2}}
{{gl|tunba|x1 is a sibling (brother/sister) of x2}}
{{gl|bruna|x1 is a brother of x2}}
{{gl|mensi|x1 is a sister of x2}}
Note that '''panzi''' can be applied to grown-up children of someone
{{gl|verba|x1 is a child, immature person of age x2 (clause)}}
{{gl|panzi|x1 is a child, offspring of x2}}
'''verba''' doesn't necessarily talk of it as of a family member:<!--nanca is used too early-->
{{mu|pa bersa be pa pendo be mi cu verba lo nanca be li ci|The son of my friend is a child of three years old.}}
{{gl|citno|x1 is young}}
{{gl|laldo|x1 is old, aged}}
Pairs of traditional words (for humans only):
:'''lo ninmu''' = ''women'', '''lo nanmu''' = ''men''
:'''lo nixli''' = ''girls'', '''lo nanla''' = ''boys''
:'''lo remna''' = ''humans''
Note that '''lo prenu''' means ''people, persons''. In fairy tales and fantastic stories not only humans ('''lo remna''') but animals or alien beings from other planets can be persons.
These words can be used  for describing both animals and humans:
:'''lo fetsi''' = ''female'', '''lo nakni''' = ''male''
{{gl|mamta|x1 is a mother of x2}}
{{gl|patfu|x1 is a father of x2}}
{{gl|rirni|x1 is a parent of x2}}
=== In the shop ===
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;"|'''ue<br/>do pu te vecnu lo laldo karce'''
|''Wow!<br/>You bought an old car.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;"|'''ie<br/>i ku'i mi na pu pleji lo so'i jdini'''
|''Yeah.<br/>But I didn't pay much money.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;"|'''ma pu jdima le karce'''
|''What was the price of the car?''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;"|'''mi pu pleji lo rupnusudu be lo kilto lo kagni le karce'''
|''I paid a thousand dollars to the company for the car.''
| style="text-align:right;vertical-align: text-top;"|'''mi pu vecnu lo laldo karce pe mi lo pendo be mi<br/>i le pendo pu pleji lo rupne'uru be li re ki'o mi le karce'''
|''I sold an old car of mine to my friend.<br/>The friend paid 2 000 euro for the car.''
{{gl|vecnu|x1 sells x2 to x3}}
{{gl|te vecnu|x1 buys x2 from x3}}
{{gl|pleji|x1 pays x2 to x3 for x4}}
{{gl|jdima|x1 is the price of x2}}
{{gl|jdini|x1 is money}}
{{gl|rupnusudu|x1 costs x2 US dollars}}
{{gl|rupne'uru|x1 costs x2 euro}}
=== Shop, buildings ===
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ma stuzi lo zdani be do'''
|style='text-align:right;'|''What is the location of your home?''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''lo korbi be lo boske<br/>i mi se zdani lo nurma<br/>i lo zdani be mi cu barda dinju gi'e se kumfa ci da e lo vikmi kumfa e lo lumci kumfa'''
|style='text-align:right;'|''The edge of a forest.<br/>I live in the country.<br/>My home is a big house and has three rooms plus a toilet plus a bathroom.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''je'e<br/>i ku'i mi pu jbena lo tcadu i je ca ti mi se zdani lo jarbu be la paris<br/>i mi xabju ne'a lo zarci'''
|''I see.<br/>But I was born in a city, and now I live in the suburbs of Paris.<br/>I live near a shop.''
{{gl|stuzi|x1 is a place}}
{{gl|dinju|x1 is a building, house}}
{{gl|zdani|x1 is a home of x2}}
{{gl|se zdani|x2 lives in x2, x1 inhabits x2}}
{{gl|tcadu|x1 is a city or town}}
{{gl|jarbu|x1 is a suburban are of city/town x2}}
{{gl|nurma|x1 is a rural area, x1 is in the country}}
{{gl|kumfa|x1 is a room}}
{{gl|vikmi kumfa|x1 is a toilet}}
{{gl|zarci|x1 is a shop}}
== Lesson 5. Prepositions, '''da''', their relative position ==
=== Turning verbs into prepositions with '''fi'o''' ===
{{mu|mi klama fi'o kansa do|I go with you.|I go with you accompanying me.}}
{{gl|kansa|x1 accompanies x2}}
The verb '''klama''' — ''to come, to go'' has no place for denoting with whom you are going.
The combination of
*the particle '''fi'o'''
*then some verb, in this case the verb word '''kansa'''
*then a noun, here '''do'''
forms a new place for the verb '''klama'''.
The meaning of '''fi'o kansa do''' is that '''do''' fills the x<sub>1</sub> place of '''kansa''' (''x<sub>1</sub> accompanies x<sub>2</sub>'').
It is important to remember that even though '''do''' is placed following '''fi'o kansa''', it belongs in the x1 place of '''kansa'''.
Thus the verb '''klama''' has now acquired an additional place specifying who accompanies you while you are going.
{{notci|Prepositions add extra places to verbs.}}
<!-The term for such added place is a ''preposition place'', as distinguished from the regular numbered places. The '''fi'o''' construction marking a prepositional place is called a ''prepositional clause'', and the noun which follows it a ''prepositional noun''. ->
What's interesting is that prepositions in Lojban have their corresponding verbs.
For example,
:'''fa'a {{=}} fi'o farna'''
{{gl|farna|x1 is a direction of x2 from viewpoint x3}}<!- example ->
So if you forgot a preposition you can use '''fi'o''' plus an appropriate verb instead of that.
As you can see in English we use a preposition. '''fi'o kansa''' is also a preposition but with a verb inside!
In fact there is a preposition for '''fi'o kansa''' as well. It's '''ka'ai'''. But if you don't remember a preposition you can safely use the construct with '''fi'o'''.
We can add verbs with '''se''' and its friends for '''fi'o''':
{{mu|mi klama fi'o se pilno lo jamfu|I walk on foot.|I walk using feet.}}
There is a common preposition '''se pi'o''' which is the same as '''fi'o se pilno'''.
So if there is '''se''' inside '''fi'o''' clause the corresponding preposition also has this '''se''' (Of course, the same for '''te, ve, xe''').
The only exclusion is for '''pu''' and '''ba''':
{{mu|pu {{=}} fi'o se purci}}
{{mu|ba {{=}} fi'o se balvi}}
So those two prepositions have '''se''' in their corresponding verbs whereas they themselves don't have.
=== How prepositions refer to the clause?===
*Some prepositions like those that describe tense connect the current clause with the one in the noun after them:
{{mu|mi cadzu ca lo nu lo cipni cu vofli|I walk when birds fly.}}
{{gl|cadzu|... walks}}
{{gl|lo cipni|bird/birds}}
{{gl|vofli|... flies}}
{{mu|mi pu cadzu fa'a lo rirxe|I walked towards a river.}}
{{mu|mi pu cadzu se ka'a lo rirxe|I walked to a river.}}
{{gl|se ka'a|going to ...}}
{{gl|fa'a|directly towards ...}}
{{notci|Prepositions don't remove ordered places ('''fa''', '''fe''', '''fi''', '''fo''', '''fu''') from the verb:
{{mu|mi klama se ka'a lo rirxe lo dinju<br>mi klama fe lo rirxe .e lo dinju|I go to a river, to a house.}}
Here, the first example uses '''se ka'a''' to connect '''lo rirxe''' and then the second place of '''klama''' follows being filled with '''lo dinju'''. It's the same as just filling the second place of '''klama''' two times, that is connecting them with '''.e''' - ''and''.
However, '''se ka'a''' is nice when applied to other verbs like '''cadzu''' in a previous example.
*Some prepositions describe relations of the first place of the clause with the noun after the preposition:
{{mu|mi jinga se rai lo ka clani|I win being the tallest one.}}
{{gl|se rai|preposition from '''se traji''': being most in ...}}
:Here x<sub>1</sub> of the clause corresponds to the most one in comparison specified after '''se rai'''.
*Finally, some prepositions describe relations of the first place of the clause <u>and</u> the clause itself with the noun after the preposition:
{{mu|lo fragari cu se nelci mi te rai lo jbari|Out of berries, I like strawberries most.}}
{{gl|te rai|preposition from '''te traji''': preferring out of ...}}
{{gl|lo fragari|strawberries}}
{{gl|lo jbari|berries}}
:x<sub>1</sub> of the clause describes the most one in this comparison, the clause itself describes the comparison.
{{notci|The dictionary explains such tricky cases where the relation defined by the preposition might pose difficulty. In practice, the relation is often clear from the examples provided.}}
===Using '''ne''' + preposition. '''se mau''' - ''more than ...''===
{{mu|mi ne se mau do cu melbi|I am prettier than you.}}
{{gl|se mau|preposition from '''se zmadu''': more than; the clause itself describes the comparison}}
This example is similar to<!--zmadu is never explained, add dunli here too -->
{{mu|mi zmadu do lo ka melbi|I exceed you in prettiness.}}
In other words, the main verb '''melbi''' is similar to the third place of '''zmadu''', which specifies the comparison criteria.
Two more examples:
{{mu|mi prami do ne se mau la doris|I love you more than Doris.}}
{{mu|mi ne se mau la doris cu prami do|I love you more than Doris does.<br>I love you more than Doris loves you.|I (more than Doris) love you.}}
More examples:
{{mu|mi nelci lo pesxu ne se mau lo ladru|I like jam more than milk.}}
{{gl|lo pesxu|jam}}
{{mu|lo pesxu cu zmadu lo ladru lo ka mi nelci|I like jam more than milk.|Jam exceeds milk in how much I like it.}}
And now an interesting sentence:
{{mu||Bob likes Betty more than Mary.}}
It can mean two different things in English!
#Bob likes Betty and he likes Mary less.
#Bob likes Betty but Mary likes Betty too, though not as much as Bob does!
Do we compare Betty with Mary in how Bob likes them?
Or instead we compare Bob with Mary in how they like Betty?
English is ambiguous in this regard.
However, '''se mau''' always compares the noun after it with the first place of the clause we know what we get:
{{mu|la bob ne se mau la maris cu nelci la betis<br>la bob cu nelci la betis se mau la maris|Bob (compared to Mary) likes Betty more. Mary likes Betty less.}}
{{mu|la betis cu se nelci la bob se mau la maris|Betty is loved by Bob more than Mary. Bob likes Mary less.}}
=== Comparisons: &quot;''equal''&quot;, &quot;''the same''&quot; ===
{{mu|mi dunli lo mensi be mi lo ka clani i ku'i mi na du le mensi|I am as long as my sister. But I'm not her.|I equal the sister of me in length. But i am not identical to the sister.}}
{{gl|dunli|x1 (any type) is equal to x2 (any type) in x3 (property of x1 and x2 with {kau})}}
{{gl|du|x1 (any type) is identical to x2 (any type)}}
'''dunli''' compares two places for a single property, while '''du''' compares for identity. My sister and I are the same height, but we are not the same person. Clark Kent and Superman have different admirers, but they are the same person.
The same goes for another two verbs:
{{mu|mi frica do lo ka nelci ma kau|We differ from each other in what we like.|I differ from you in liking what.}}
{{mu|lo drata be mi cu kakne lo ka sidju|Someone other than me is able to help.}}
{{gl|frica|x1 (any type) differs from x2 (any type) in x3 (property of x1 and x2 with {kau})}}
{{gl|drata|x1 (any type) is not the same as x2 (any type)}}
===Preposition '''tai''' - ''like ...''===
The preposition '''tai''' leads to different meanings whether it's applied to a clause or to a noun with '''ne''':
{{mu|le nanmu ne tai do cadzu|The man walks like you.}}
{{mu|le nanmu pu cadzu tai lo ka bevri lo tilju|The man walked as if he was carrying something heavy.}}
{{gl|bevri|x1 carries x2}}
The infinitive starting with '''lo ka''' always refers to the first place of the clause, '''le nanmu''' in this case.
=== The concept of ''only'' ===
{{mu|mi se steci lo ka nelci lo badna|I'm the only one who likes bananas.}}
A more precise one:
{{mu|mi se steci lo ka nelci lo badna vau lo pendo be mi|I'm the only one who likes bananas among my friends.}}
{{gl|se steci|x1 is the only one in x2 (property of x1) among x3}}
Note that this example implies that you are a friend of yourself :) Otherwise, please, use an even more precise statement:
{{mu|mi se steci lo ka nelci lo badna vau mi jo'u lo pendo be mi|I'm the only one who likes bananas among the group of me and my friends.}}
{{mu|na ku mi se steci lo ka nelci lo badna|It's not just me who likes bananas.}}
It's also possible to rephrase this using '''.e no drata be''' (''and nothing different from ...''):
{{mu|mi e no drata be mi cu nelci lo badna|I and no one else likes bananas.}}
One more interesting example:
{{mu|lo troci cu se steci lo ka snada|Only the one who tries succeeds.|Who tries is the only one who succeeds.}}
{{mu|lo zukte be lo ka troci e no drata be ri cu fliba|The only who only tries fails.|The one who does attempts and nothing but it fails.}}
{{gl|troci|x1 tries to do x2 (property of x1)}}
{{gl|snada|x1 succeeds in doing x2 (property of x1)}}
{{gl|fliba|x1 fails in doing x2 (property of x1)}}
And one more solution:
{{mu|ro snada pu troci|Everyone who succeeds tried.}}
As you can see, Lojban offers different methods of saying the same, some of which can significantly differ from English forms.
=== &quot;''Most''&quot;, &quot;''many''&quot; and &quot;''too much''&quot; ===
Words like ''most'' and ''many'' are also numbers in Lojban:
|| '''ro'''
|| ''each''
|| '''so'a'''
|| ''almost all''
|| '''so'e'''
|| ''most''
|| '''so'i'''
|| ''many'', ''a lot of''
|| '''so'o'''
|| ''several''
|| '''so'u'''
|| ''few''
|| '''no'''
|| ''zero'', ''none''
|| '''su'e'''
|| ''at most''
|| '''su'o'''
|| ''at least''
|| '''za'u'''
|| ''more than…''
|| '''du'e'''
|| ''too many''
Some examples:
{{mu|su'e re no prenu ba klama|No more than 20 people will come.}}
{{mu|su'o pa prenu cu prami do|At least one person loves you.}}
=== ''never'' - '''no roi''', ''always'' - '''ro roi''' ===
Prepositions specifying the number of times:
*'''no roi''' = ''never''
*'''pa roi''' = ''once''
*'''re roi''' = ''twice''
*'''ci roi''' = ''thrice''
*'''so'i roi''' = ''many times''
*'''so'u roi''' = ''a few times''
*'''du'e roi''' = ''too many times''
*'''ro roi''' = ''always''
<!--combine with '''ta'e'''-->
{{mu|mi du'e roi klama lo zarci|I go to the market too often.}}
{{gl|zarci|x1 is a market}}
{{mu|mi pu re roi klama lo zarci|I went to the market twice.}}
Without '''pu''' the construct '''re roi''' may mean that once I went to the market but the second time I will be there only in the future.
These particles can be used with a noun after them:
{{mu|mi klama ti pa roi ro jeftu|I come here one every week.}}
=== ''for the first time'' - '''pa re'u''', ''for the last time'' - '''ro re'u''' ===
*'''pa re'u''' = ''for the first time''
*'''re re'u''' = ''for the second time''
*'''za'u re'u''' = ''again''
*'''ro re'u''' = ''for the last time''
The particle '''re'u''' works like '''roi''' but tells for which time this event happens.
{{mu|mi pa roi vitke lo muzga|I visited the museum once.}}
{{mu|mi pa re'u vitke lo muzga|I visited the museum for the first time.}}
{{mu|mi za'u roi vitke lo muzga|I visited the museum more times.}}
{{mu|mi za'u re'u vitke lo muzga|I visited the museum again.}}
<!--explain za'u xo'e-->
{{mu|mi za'u pa roi vitke lo muzga|I visited the museum more than once.}}
{{mu|mi za'u pa re'u vitke lo muzga|I visited the museum not for the first time (maybe for the second/third etc.))}}
{{gl|vitke|to visit (somebody or something)}}
Note the difference between:
{{gl|za'u re'u|again, more than the known from context number of times (e.g. more than expected or more that other already know)}}
{{gl|za'u pa re'u|not for the first time (the number of times is compared to number 1, hence no context is needed)}}
{{gl|re re'u|two times (same here, no context is needed, and even the exact number of times is given)}}
=== Prepositions: their location within a clause ===
<!--The order of prepositions makes a difference.
{{mupli|'''vi ku mi gunka'''<br>''Here, I work.''<br>(describes what happens here).}}
{{mupli|'''mi vi gunka'''<br>''I here work.''<br>(describes me, where am I and what I do).}}
And -->
{{mu|lo nu tcidu ca nandu|Reading is now difficult.}}
{{mu|ca ku lo nu tcidu cu nandu|Now reading is difficult.}}
Bare prepositions without arguments after them can be moved around the sentence by adding '''ku''' after them.
'''ku''' prevents the following nouns from attaching to such prepositions. '''ca lo nu tcidu''' would mean ''when reading''.
Here are several places where preposition can go.
*preposition modifies the clause to the right of it:
**'''ca ku mi citka''' - ''Now I eat.'' Adverb, i.e. preposition with a particle '''ku'''
**'''ca lo cabdei mi citka''' - ''Today I eat''. Preposition with a noun after it.
**'''mi ca citka''' - ''I now eat.'' Tense, i.e. preposition before the main verb and without a noun.
*Preposition is applied to the whole clause:
**'''mi citka ca''' - ''I eat now.'' Tense, preposition at the end of the clause.
=== Several prepositions in a clause (scope) ===
{{mu|mi speni|I am married, I have a wife or a husband.}}
{{mu|mi co'a speni|I get married.}}
{{mu|mi mo'u speni|I am widowed.}}
{{gl|mo'u|preposition: the event is finished}}
{{mu|mi mo'u co'a speni|I am newlywed.|I finished becoming a married person.}}
{{mu|mi co'a mo'u speni|I get widowed.|I become finishing being married.}}
If there are several prepositions in one clause, the rule is that we read them from left to right, thinking it as a so called ''imaginary journey''. We begin at an implied point in time and space (the speaker's &quot;now and here&quot; if no noun follows), and then follow the prepositions one after another from left to right.
Let's take '''mi mo'u co'a speni'''.
:'''mo'u''' means that an event is complete. Which event? The event '''co'a speni''' - to become married. Hence, '''mi mo'u co'a speni''' means ''I finish the process of the becoming married'', i.e. ''I am newlywed.''
:We say in such case that '''co'a speni''' is within the "scope" of '''mo'u'''.
In '''mi co'a mo'u speni''' the order or event is different.
:First, it is said that an event started ('''co'a'''), then it is stated that it is an event of finishing being married. Hence, '''mi co'a mo'u speni''' means ''I get widowed''.
:We can say that here '''mo'u speni''' is within the "scope" of '''co'a'''.
Another example with the preposition '''so'i roi''':
{{mu|mi co'a so'i roi citka|I started eating many times.}}
{{mu|mi so'i roi co'a citka|Many times I started to eat.}}
Examples with tenses:
{{mu|mi pu ba klama lo cmana|It happened before I went to the mountain.|I in past: in future: go to the mountain.}}
{{mu|mi ba pu klama lo cmana|It will happen after I went to the mountain.|I in future: in past: go to the mountain.}}
The rule of reading prepositions from the left to the right can be overriden by connecting prepositions with the conjunction '''ce'e''':
{{mu|mi ba ce'e pu klama lo cmana|I went and will go to the mountain.|I in future and in past: go to the mountain.}}
{{mu|mi cadzu ba lo nu mi citka ce'e pu lo nu mi sipna|I walk after I eat <u>and</u> before I sleep.}}
==== Using prepositions together with '''da''' and nouns that start with numbers ====
Like with prepositions the position of '''da''' matters:
{{mu|mi ponse da|There is something I own.}}
{{mu|mi co'u ponse da|I lost all my property.}}
{{gl|ponse|x1 owns x2}}
{{gl|co'u|preposition: the event stops}}
This might look like a mind-breaking example. Here, a person was able to say "I own something." But then for every thing the person owned this situation ended.
Another example:
{{mu|ro da vi fenki|Everyone is crazy here.|Every one here crazy}}
{{mu|vi ku ro da fenki|Here everyone is crazy.|Here: every one crazy}}
Did you catch that?
#''Everyone is crazy here'' means that if someone is not crazy somewhere then they will become crazy in this place.
#''Here everyone is crazy'' simply describes those who are here (and they are crazy). We don't know anything about others in other places.
Another example with a noun started with a number:
{{mu|pa prenu ro roi jundi|There is one person who is always attentive.}}
::- it is the same person who is always attentive.
{{mu|ro roi ku pa prenu cu jundi|Always there is one person who is always attentive.}}
::- it is always that one person is attentive. People may change but there is one always attentive.
=== Connecting sentences with prepositions ===
{{mu|mi klama pa cmana ca lo nu pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|I am coming to a mountain while a cat is drinking milk.}}
{{mu|mi klama pa cmana .i ca bo pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru|I am coming to a mountain, and at the same time a cat is drinking milk.}}
If two sentences are too long we can use '''.i''' to separate them. But we still can show that they express the same idea using prepositions. The second example differs from the first one in that it puts the assertion on both sentences.
So here we use '''.i''', then the preposition that we need and then '''bo'''.
Usually we split sentences into two and then bind them with '''bo''' when a sentence looks or sounds too bulky.
But another use of this is to move prepositions out of scope of other prepositions:
{{mu|mi na te vecnu ki'u lo nu kargu|It's not true that I buy because it's expensive.}}
So one might suppose that I only buy things if they are expensive. But no, I don't act thay way.
Here, '''na''' negates that ''I buy things because they are expensive''. '''na''' is applied to the whole clause, thus it "covers" '''ki'u'''.
{{mu|mi na te vecnu i ki'u bo kargu|I don't buy. It's because it's expensive.}}
Here, I don't buy things. Why? Because they are expensive. Maybe I prefer only cheap things.
Here, '''ki'u''' is placed to another sentence. Thus, '''na''' doesn't cover it.
Both sentences could be translated as ''I don't buy because it's expensive.'' However, they mean different things.
A special rule is for using '''i ba bo''' and '''i pu bo'''. Compare:
{{mu|mi cadzu pu lo nu mi citka|I walk before I eat.}}
{{mu|mi cadzu .i ba bo mi citka|I walk, and then I eat.}}
'''.i ba bo''' means ''afterwards, then''. The sentence after '''.i ba bo''' refers to something that took place later than what took place in the sentence before.
'''pu''' is changed into '''ba''', and vice versa. This special rule for Lojban was made by analogy of natural languages. So you just have to remember this special behavior of these two words.
<!--{{notci|It's common to split clauses by place prepositions like '''fa''', '''fe''' and its friends:
{{mu|mi gleki lo nu do jinga|I am glad that you win.}}
{{mu|mi gleki .i fe bo do jinga|I am glad. That you win.}}
Here '''fe''' refers to the second place of '''gleki'''.
It is possible to use '''se''' to reverse the order:
{{mu|do jinga .i se fe bo mi gleki|You win, and I am glad of that.}}}}-->
<!--here is the explanation of left rule with bo. do we need it inthe CRASH course?{{notci|Note: prepositions with '''bo''' after them work much like connectives. In fact our last sentence is very similar to
:'''lo dilnu cu klaku i je lo dargu cu cilmo'''
Although, of course it would have a slightly different meaning:
:''Skies are crying, and the road is wet.''
Notice that connective don't require '''bo''' after them when they connect sentences.
=== Existing things, &quot;''there are ...'' ===
There are actually three words in '''da''' series: '''da''', '''de''', '''di'''. We use them if you need to refer to different objects in one discourse:
{{mu|ci mlatu cu citka re finpe<br>ci da poi mlatu cu citka re de poi finpe|There are three cats, there are two fishes for each cat, and each cat eats two fishes.}}
If you need more such words in one discourse add a suffix '''xi''' to them and then any number (which we can call an index).
*'''da xi pa''' is the same as simple '''da''',
*'''da xi re''' is the same as '''de''',
*'''da xi ci''' is the same as '''di'''
*'''da xi vo''' is the fourth &quot;something&quot; and so on...
=== Topic and comment. '''zo'u''' ===
Sometimes it is useful to show the topic of a clause and then say a comment about it:
{{mu|lo finpe zo'u mi nelci lo salmone|As for fish I like salmon.}}
{{gl|salmone|... is a salmon}}
{{gl|zo'u|ends the topic and starts the comment of the clause}}
'''zo'u''' is more useful when a pronoun like '''da''' is defined in the topic and then used in the comment:
{{mu|da zo'u mi viska da|There is a thing such that I see it.}}
{{mu|ro da poi gerku zo'u mi nelci da|For each thing that is a dog: I like it.<br>''I like all dogs.}}
{{mu|da de zo'u da viska de|There is '''da''' and '''de''' such that '''da''' sees '''de'''.}}
The two pronouns '''da''' and '''de''' tell us that there are two things which stand in the relationship that one sees the other. It might be the case that the supposed two things are really just a single thing that loves itself: nothing in the sentence rules out that interpretation, which is why the colloquial translation does not say ''Somebody sees somebody else.'' The things referred to by different pronouns of '''da''' series may be different or the same.
It is perfectly okay for these pronouns to appear more than once in the main clause:
{{mu|da zo'u da prami da|There is '''da''' such that '''da''' loves '''da'''.''<br>''There is someone who loves himself/herself.}}
It is not necessary for a pronoun to be the direct noun of the the main verb:
{{mu|da zo'u lo gerku pe da cu viska mi|There is '''da''' such that the dog of them sees me.''<br>''Somebody's dog sees me.}}
=== Scope in '''da''' ===
<!--also include nouns of existence!-->
{{mu|ci da poi mlatu cu citka re de poi finpe|There are three cats who eat two fishes each.}}
By using '''zo'u''' we can make our sentence more clear:
{{mu|ci da poi mlatu vau re de poi finpe zo'u da citka de|For three '''da''' which are cats, for two '''de''' which are fishes: '''da''' eats '''de'''.}}
Here we see that each of the cats is said to eat two fishes, and it might be different fishes each time; six fishes in total.
How then are we to express the other interpretation, in which just two men are involved? We cannot just reverse the order of variables in the prenex to
{{mupli|'''re de poi nanmu ci da poi gerku zo'u da batci de'''<br>''For two '''de''' which are men, for three '''da''' which are dogs, '''da''' bites '''de'''''}}
for although we have now limited the number of men to exactly two, we end up with an indeterminate number of dogs, from three to six. The distinction is called a “scope distinction”: in the first example '''ci da poi gerku''' is said to have wider scope than '''re de poi nanmu''', and therefore precedes it in the prenex. In the second example the reverse is true.
To make to scope equal we use a special connective '''ce'e''' connecting two nouns.
{{mu|ci da poi gerku ce'e re de poi nanmu cu batci<br>ci gerku re nanmu cu batci|Three dogs [plus] two men, bite.}}
which picks out two groups, one of three dogs and the other of two men, and says that every one of the dogs bites each of the men. The second Lojban version uses forethought.
=== &quot;''any''&quot; and &quot;''some''&quot; in examples ===
The words &quot;any&quot; and &quot;some&quot; and their derivatives have many meanings in English. We should be careful to translate that intended meaning:
*Simple specific ''some'' is translated as '''da''':
:{{mu|da pu klama .i je ko smadi lo du'u da me ma kau|Somebody came. Guess who it was.}}
:{{mu|mi pu tirna da .i je mi fliba lo ka jimpe lo du'u da mo kau|I heard something, but I fail to understand what it was.}}
*''some'' in questions turns into "anything", "anybody":
{{mu|xu da pu klama|Did anybody come?}}
*''any'' can be used in inner clauses:
{{mu|mi rivbi lo ka jdice da|I avoided taking any decision.}}
:like in clauses of prepositions:
{{mu|ba lo nu do zgana da vau ko klama|After you notice anything, come!}}
*Scope: ''any'' is used in English when negating while Lojban uses '''na''' but then still '''da''':
{{mu|mi na viska su'o da poi prenu<br>mi na viska su'o prenu|I don't see anybody.}}
*Scope: note that negation has to take appropriate clause like here:
{{mu|mi jinvi lo du'u na ku da jimpe|I don't think that anybody understands.}}
:This can be rephrased as:
{{mu|mi jinvi lo du'u no da jimpe|I think that nobody understands.}}
*''every'' is turned into ''any'' in comparisons and translated as '''ro da''':
{{mu|do zmadu ro da lo ka clani|You are taller than anybody.|You exceed everybody in tallness.}}
*''any'' is used when providing choice and translated as '''ro da''':
{{mu|ro da poi do nelci zo'u mi e'ande do lo ka citka da |You may eat anything you like.|For everything that you like I allow you to eat it.}}
{{gl|permite|x1 allows x2 to do x3 (property of x2}}
''some'' is translated using '''lo''' when using commands, request, suggestions:
{{mu|e'u mi'o pilno lo drata|Let's try other things.}}
{{mu|e'u mi'o troci bu'u lo drata|Let's try somewhere else.}}
Compare it to:
{{mu|pa drata zo'u e'u mi'o pilno ri|There is something else, let's use it.}}
{{mu|pa drata zo'u e'u mi'o troci bu'u ri|There is another place, let's try there.}}
''any'' is translated using '''lo'''
*in generic statements:
{{mu|lo gerku cu se tuple vo da|Any dog has four legs. Dogs have four legs.}}
*and when making no distinction among members we talk about:
{{mu|mi na djica lo ka tavla lo na slabu be mi|I don't want to talk to just anybody.}}
=== &quot;''anyone, any two ...'' ===
{{mu|e'u mi'o troci bu'u lo drata|Let's try somewhere else.}}
Here, '''lo drata''' actually means ''any other thing or things, place or places''. The number of such places is not specified although any such place might fit.
What if we want to say "any place but only one place"? In this case we put a number <u>after</u> '''lo''':
{{mu|e'u mi'o troci bu'u lo pa drata|Let's try at another place.}}
{{mu|e'u mi'o troci bu'u lo pa drata|Let's try at any two other places.}}
and so on.
Note that when a noun starts with '''lo''' it still has the notion of ''any''. The difference can be important:
{{mu|lo pa bangu no roi banzu|One language (any language) is never enough.}}
{{mu|pa bangu no roi banzu|There is one language that is never enough.}}
Finally, nouns of existence imply ''each''. There are two rings on the logo of Lojban. So
{{mu|lo re djine cu sinxa la lojban|Two rings is a symbol of Lojban.}}
{{mu|na ku re djine cu sinxa la lojban|It's not true that for two rings each of the rings is a symbol of Lojban.}}
{{gl|djine|x1 is a ring}}
===Resume: which constructs does scope affect?===
Scope matters only for prepositions, '''da''', '''de''', '''di''' and nouns starting with numbers (like '''pa prenu''' - ''one of the persons''). Thus the relative order of such constructs changes the meaning:
{{mu|pa prenu ca ku zvati|There is one person who is now present.}}
{{mu|ca ku pa prenu ca zvati|Now there is one person.}}
Scope isn't relevant for verbs and nouns starting with '''lo''' (like '''lo prenu''' or '''lo re prenu'''). Both these sentences have the same meaning:
{{mu|lo prenu ca ku zvati<br/>ca ku lo prenu cu zvati|People are now present.}}
These two sentences also have the same meaning:
{{mu|lo pa bangu no roi banzu<br/>no roi ku lo pa bangu cu banzu|One language (any language) is never enough.}}
Scope ends in the end of the sentence.
Here, '''ki'u''' is under the scope of '''na''':
{{mu|na ku mi te vecnu ki'u lo nu kargu|It's not true that: I buy because it's expensive.}}
Here, '''ki'u''' is not under the scope of '''na'''. '''ki'u''' is applied to the whole previous sentence including '''na''':
{{mu|mi na te vecnu i ki'u bo kargu|I don't buy. It's because it's expensive.}}
==Lesson 6. Prepositions: time and space==
<!--least effort-->
{{mu|mi citka lo cirla}}
Possible translations:
{{mu||I eat cheese.<br>I ate cheese.<br>I always eat cheese.<br>In a moment, I will have just finished eating cheese.}}
Tenses in Lojban are optional, we don't have to think all the time what tense to use.
Context often resolves what is correct. We add tenses when we feel we need them.
Lojban tenses treat time and space the same. Saying that ''I worked a long time ago'' is not grammatically different than saying ''I work far away to the north''. English treats words like ''earlier'', past tense ending ''-ed'' and space prepositions like ''in'' or ''near'' in three different schemes, while in Lojban they follow the same principle.
==== Points in time and place ====
<!--prep. vs. adverb-->Preposition without a noun after it describes the event as relative to ''here'' and ''now'':
{{mu|mi pinxe ba|I will drink.}}
{{mu|mi pinxe bu'u|I drink at this place.}}
Preposition with a noun after it describes the event as relative to the event in that noun:
{{mu|mi pinxe ba lo nu mi cadzu|I drink after I walk.}}
==== Tenses: clauses inside clauses ====
In English we use the so called "sequence of tenses":
{{mu|la alis pu cusku lo se du'u vo'a pu penmi la doris za lo djedi be li ci|Alice told that she had seen Doris three days before.}}
Here, the event "had seen Doris" happens before the event "Alice said". However, in
{{mu|la alis pu cusku lo se du'u vo'a ca kansa la doris|Alice told that she was with Doris.}}
the two events (''told'' and ''was with Doris'') happen at the same time.
Thus in English
*the tense of the main clause is understood relative to whoever utters those sentences.
*the tense of the clause inside the main clause <u>is also</u> understood relative to whoever utters those sentences.
And in Lojban
*only the tense of the main clause is relative to who utters those sentences.
*and other tenses are relative to each other. This is why, in the first example the second '''pu''' is relative to the first '''pu'''. In the second example, we use '''ca''' (''at the same time'') which is relative to the outer clause ('''pu cusku''' - ''said'').
However, we can use the construct '''ca ti''' (''at this time or place''), which will give the same effect as how English works:
Here is an example in English style:
{{mu|la alis pu cusku lo se du'u vo'a ca ti pu kansa la .doris.|Alis said that she was with Doris.}}
==== Distance in time and space ====
{|class="wikitable" width="100%" width="100%" width=64% style="margin:0px 0px 0px 25px;"
| style="text-align: center;" colspan="2" |'''fau''' = preposition. at the same time, place or situation as …
|'''ca''' = ''at … (some time), at the same time as …''; present tense.
|'''bu'u''' = ''at … (some place)''; ''here'' (''at this place'').
| colspan="2" |
|'''zi''' = ''just'' (''short time afo'') or ''soon'' (''in a short time'')
|'''vi''' = ''near …''
|'''za''' = ''a while ago'' or ''in a while'', ''in an unspecified time''
|'''va''' = ''not far from …''
|'''zu''' = ''long time ago'' or ''in a long time''
|'''vu''' = ''far away from …''; ''far away''
This is how we can use particles specifying how far we ago into the past or future:
*'''pu zu''' means ''a long time ago''
*'''pu za''' means ''a while ago''
*'''pu zi''' means ''just''
*'''ba zi''' means ''soon''
*'''ba za''' means ''in a while''
*'''ba zu''' means ''in a long time''
Notice the vowel order '''i''', '''a''' and '''u'''. This order appears again and again in Lojban, and might be worth to memorize. ''Short'' and ''long'' in are always context dependent, relative and subjective. Two hundred years is a short time for a species to evolve, but a long time to wait for the bus.
{{notci|'''zi''', '''za''' and '''zu''' modify the previous preposition like '''pu''' and '''ba''':
*'''pu zu''' is ''a long time ago''. '''pu''' shows that we begin in the past, '''zu''' then that it is a long time backwards.
*'''zu pu''' is ''far away in time there is a point after some event''. '''zu''' shows that we begin at some point far away in time from now, '''pu''' then, that we move backwards from that point.
Thus '''pu zu''' is always in the past. '''zu pu''' could be in the future.}}<!--fixme: rephrase-->
Spatial distance is marked in a similar way by '''vi''', '''va''' and '''vu''' for short, unspecified (medium) and long distance in space.
We can use them as prepositions as well:
{{mu|ba za lo djedi be li ci mi zvati ti|In three days I will be here.}}
The space equivalent of '''ca''' is '''bu'u'''. And '''fau''' is more vague than two of them, it can mean time, space or situation.
{{mu|ba za vu ku mi gunka|Some time in the future, I will work a place long away.}}
{{gl|gunka|to work}}
{{mu|mi bu'u pu zu gunka|I used to work here a long time ago.|I here-past-long-time-distance work}}
{{mu|pu zu vu ku zasti fa lo ninmu .e lo nanmu|Long ago and far away lived a woman and a man.}}
The last sentence is how fairy tales often begin.
<!--Space prepositions work the same way:
{{mu|vi la .paris. mi gunka|In Paris, I work.}}
{{mu|vu lo mi zdani mi gunka|A long way from my home, I work.}}
{{mu|va lonu la kenedis cu se catra vau mi gunka|Not very far from where Kennedy was killed, I work.}} fixme: wrong usage of {vi}--><!--If '''vau''' in the last sentence wasn't there, '''mi''' would become the second place of '''catra''' rather than the first place of '''gunka''', so the listener would understand the sentence as ''Not very far from where Kennedy was <u>killed by me</u> someone works.''-->
==== Duration in time and space ====
{|class="wikitable" width="100%" width="100%" width=64% style="margin:0px 0px 0px 25px;"
|| '''ze'i''' — for a short time
|| '''ve'i''' — over a small space
|| '''ze'a''' — for some time
|| '''ve'a''' — over some space
|| '''ze'u''' — for a long time
|| '''ve'u''' — over the long space
Again it's easy to remember given the pattern '''i''', '''a''', '''u'''.
{{mu|mi ze'u bajra|I run for a long time.}}
{{mu|la .bob. ze'u pinxe lo birje|Bob drinks beer for a long time.}}
{{mu|mi bazize'a xabju la .djakartas.|Pretty soon I'm going to live in Jakarta for a while.}}
{{mu|lo jenmi pe la .romas. ba ze'u gunta la .kart.xadact.|The army of Romans will be attacking Carthage for a long time.}}
This does not mean that Romans are not attacking Carthage these days. In Lojban, if we say that something is true at a particular time, it doesn't mean that it is not true at any other time. You can say '''pu ba ze'u''' so that we know that this activity was in future when viewed from some point in past but in past when viewed from today.
{{mu|lo ve'u xamsi|ocean}}
{{mu|lo xamsi|sea/ocean}}
{{mu|lo ve'u cmana|hill}}
{{mu|lo cmana|mountain/hill}}
{{mu|do ve'u klama lo dotco gugde ze'u|You spend a long time traveling a long space to Germany.}}
{{mu|ti ve'u gerku|That's a big dog. This is a dog covering a large space.}}
==== Event contours ====
Here are several sets of prepositions that can help us add finer meanings when necessary.
With the ''event contours'' and unlike '''pu''', '''ca''' and '''ba''' we view each event as having shape with certain stages:
====='''pu'o''' - ''to be about'', '''ba'o''' - ''no longer''=====
{{mu|mi ba tavla lo mikce|I will speak to the doctor (and I might be speaking now too).}}
{{mu|mi pu pu'o tavla lo mikce|I was about to speak to the doctor (I was not speaking at that time, the event hadn't started by that time).}}
{{gl|pu'o|preposition: to be about to do something (the event has not yet happened)}}
{{gl|ba'o|preposition: to be no longer doing something, to have done something (the event has ended)}}
Other examples:
{{mu|lo sanmi ca pu'o bredi|The meal is not ready yet.}}
{{mu|mi pu ba'o tavla lo mikce|I had spoken to the doctor.}}
{{mu|mi ba ba'o tavla lo mikce|I will have spoken to the doctor.}}
{{mu|.a'o mi ba zi ba'o gunka|I hope soon I will have done the work.}}
====='''za'o''' - ''still'', '''xa'o''' - ''already''=====
{{mu|ri'a ma do za'o zvati vi|Why are you still here?}}
{{mu|la .kevin. xa'o zvati vi|Kevin is already here.}}
{{gl|za'o|still. The event is in process beyond its natural end}}
{{gl|xa'o|already, too early. The event already started and it is too early}}
=====Stages of event=====
{{mu|mi co'a tavla|I started talking.}}
{{mu|le fetsi ca'o ciska|She keeps writing.}}
{{mu|le nakni pu co'u vasxu|He stopped breathing (sudden unpredictable change).}}
{{gl|vasxu|x1 breathes x2}}
{{mu|mi pu mo'u citka le plise|I've eaten the apple up.}}
{{mu|la .maks. pu mo'u zbasu lo vi dinju|Max has built this house.}}
{{mu|le fetsi pu de'a vasxu|She ceased to breath (but may breath again later).}}
{{mu|mi pu di'a citka lo plise|I resumed eating apples.}}
{{gl|co'a|preposition: the event starts (the border of the event)}}
{{gl|ca'o|preposition: to be doing something (the event is in progress)}}
{{gl|co'u|preposition: the event stops}}
{{gl|mo'u|preposition: the event ends (the border of the event)}}
{{gl|de'a|the event pauses (the event can be expected to continue)}}
{{gl|di'a|the event resumes}}
{{vajni|{{gl|de'a ze'i jundi|BRB (I'll be right back)}}
{{gl|mi di'a jundi|I am back (being attentive)}}
{{gl|jundi|x1 pays attention to x2}}
These two expressions are common in text chats for saying that you stop paying attention or away, and then back online:
One could of course also say just '''de'a''' or '''di'a''' and hope the point gets across.}}
=====Continuous and Progressive=====
{{gl|ru'i|preposition: the event is continuous}}
{{mu|.i mi pu ru'i citka lo mango|I was eating apples one and on without stop.}}
{{notci|Note the difference:
*'''ru'i''' says that the event is continuous and never pauses.
*'''ca'o''' says that the event progresses. It may sometimes pause and then resume its progress.}}
==== Place contours ====
Event contours can be used to refer to space if we prefix them with '''fe'e''':
{{mu|lo rokci cu kuspe fe'e co'u lo canko|The rock reached and stopped by the window.}}
{{gl|kuspe|x1 extends, reaches across scope, range x2}}
==== Space: &quot;''to the left''&quot;, &quot;''to the right''&quot; ====
{{mu|lo prenu cu sanli lo dertu bu'u lo pritu be mi|The person stands on the ground to the right of me.}}
{{mu|lo gerku cu vreta lo ckana bu'u lo zunle be lo verba|A dog is lying on the bed to the left of a child.}}
{{mu|ko jgari le panbi poi zunle|Take the pen on the left.}}
{{mu|pa mlatu cu plipe bu'u lo crane be do|A cat jumps in front of you.}}
{{mu|ko catlu lo dinju poi crane|Look at the house in the front.}}
{{mu|lo verba cu zutse lo stizu bu'u lo trixe be mi|The child sits on the chair behind me.}}
{{gl|zunle|x1 is to the left of x2}}
{{gl|pritu|x1 is to the right of x2}}
{{gl|crane|x1 is in front of x2 (x1 is between x2 and whoever watches)}}
{{gl|trixe|x1 is behind x2}}
{{gl|sanli|x1 stands on x2}}
{{gl|zutse|x1 sits on x2}}
{{gl|vreta|x1 lies on x2}}
{{gl|lo dertu|ground, dirt}}
{{gl|lo ckana|bed}}
{{gl|lo stizu|chair}}
To specify the reference point we additionally use the preposition '''ki'''. This is important when speaking about left and right:
{{mu|lo prenu cu sanli ki mi bu'u lo pritu be lo tricu|The person stands to the right of a tree from my viewpoint.}}
{{mu|lo dinju cu zunle lo rokci ki ti|The house is to the left of the rock if viewed from here.}}
=== Practice ===
==== Position ====
<!--gi'e used too early. mei not explained-->
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ma nabmi'''
| | ''What's the problem?''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ma'a nitcu lo cukta pe la alis'''
| | ''We need Alice's book.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i la alis ca zvati ma'''
| | ''Where is Alice?''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''a bu ca na zvati lo bu'u tcadu<br/>i mi pu mrilu zo'e ne le cukta fi abu<br/>i abu ca ca'o vofli la paris<br/>i ku'i mi pu zi te benji lo se mrilu be a bu<br/>i a bu pu e'ande ma'a lo ka lebna le cukta<br/>i e'o do bevri le cukta mi'''
| | Alice is now not in the city.<br/>I mailed about the book to her.<br/>Alice is now flying to Paris.<br/>But I just received a mail from her.<br/>She permitted us to take the book.<br/>Please, bring it to me.
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i bu'u ma mi ka'e cpacu le cukta'''
| |Where can I get the book?
|style='text-align:right;'|'''lo purdi i e'o do klama lo bartu'''
| |In the garden. Please, go outside.
|style='text-align:right;'|'''mi ca zvati ne'a le vorme i ei mi ca klama ma'''
| |I am near the door. Now where should I go?
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ko muvdu lo zunle be lo tricu i ba ku do viska pa jubme'''
| |Move to the left of the tree. Then you will see a table.
|style='text-align:right;'|'''mi viska lo cipni noi vofli i ku'i mi ganse no jubme'''
| |I can see birds flying. But I sense no tables.
|style='text-align:right;'|'''ko carna gi'e muvdu lo pritu i le jubme cu crane lo cmalu dinju i le cukta cu cpana le jubme i ji'a ko jgari lo penbi e lo pelji i le za'u dacti cu cpana si'a le jubme i ba ku ko bevri le ci dacti le zdani gi'e punji fi lo kumfa pe mi'''
| |Turn and move to the right. The table is in front of a small building. The book is on top of the table. Also, take a pencil and a paper. They are similarly on top of the table. Then bring  the three things home and put them to my room.
| |Will do.
<!-- ← after ve'u/ve'i/ lujvo -->
==== Vehicles ====
|style='text-align:right;'|'''mi jo'u lo pendo be mi pu litru lo barda rirxe bu'u lo bloti'''
|''I and my friends were traveling on a big river in a boat.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i ba bo mi'a klama lo vinji tcana'''
|''Then we went to an airport.''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i xu do jai zu'e se marce lo karce'''
|''Did you take a car?''
|style='text-align:right;'|'''i je'u nai<br/>i mi'a pu pilno lo trene<br/>i ze'a lo cacra mi'a pu zvati bu'u lo carce'''
|''No.<br/>We used a train.<br/>For one hour we were in a wagon.''
{{gl|marce|x1 is a vehicle carrying x2}}
{{gl|se marce|x1 is a passenger of x2}}
{{gl|jai zu'e se marce|x1 takes a vehicle x2 as a passenger}}
{{gl|karce|x1 is a car carrying x2}}
{{gl|bloti|x1 is a boat carrying x2}}
{{gl|vinji|x1 is an aircraft carrying x2}}
{{gl|trene|x1 is a train of cars x2}}
== Lesson 7. Letters and referring to clauses==
=== Names of letters in Lojban ===
Each letter has a name in Lojban.
The following table represents the basic Lojban alphabet and how to pronounce letters (below each letter):
|| '
|| <font color="#FF1493">'''a'''</font>
|| b
|| c
|| d
|| <font color="#FF1493">'''e'''</font>
|| '''.y'y.'''
|| '''.abu'''
|| '''by.'''
|| '''cy.'''
|| '''dy.'''
|| '''.ebu'''
| colspan="6" |
|| f
|| g
|| <font color="#FF1493">'''i'''</font>
|| j
|| k
|| l
|| '''fy.'''
|| '''gy.'''
|| '''.ibu'''
|| '''jy.'''
|| '''ky.'''
|| '''ly.'''
| colspan="6" |
|| m
|| n
|| <font color="#FF1493">'''o'''</font>
|| p
|| r
|| s
|| '''my.'''
|| '''ny.'''
|| '''.obu'''
|| '''py.'''
|| '''ry.'''
|| '''sy.'''
| colspan="6" |
|| t
|| <font color="#FF1493">'''u'''</font>
|| v
|| x
|| <font color="#FF1493">'''y'''</font>
|| z
|| '''ty.'''
|| '''.ubu'''
|| '''vy.'''
|| '''xy.'''
|| '''.ybu'''
|| '''zy.'''
As you can see
*to get the name for a vowel, we add &quot;bu&quot;
*to get the name for a consonant, we add &quot;y&quot;
*the word for '''<nowiki>'</nowiki>''' (apostrophe) is '''.y'y'''.
We can spell word using these names. For example, CNN will be '''cy. ny. ny.'''
A capital letter alone has a special meaning. It denotes the name of that letter:
:'''A''' is the same as '''.abu''', '''B''' is the same as '''by.''' and so on. They means the same and even are read the same as normal '''.abu''', '''by.''' etc. So ''CNN'' can also be written as '''CNN''' in Lojban and it will be still pronounced in the same way as and mean the same thing as '''cy. ny. ny.'''
=== Letters instead of &quot;''he''&quot; and &quot;''she''&quot; ===
Names of letters are pronouns. And we can use them for another method of referring to nouns and names earlier used in speech.
{{mu|la lukas cu viska lo mlatu i lo mlatu cu na viska la lukas<br>la lukas cu viska lo mlatu i my. na viska ly.|Lucas sees a cat. The cat doesn't see Lucas.}}
As the first letter in '''lukas''' is '''l''' and the first letter in '''mlatu''' is '''m''' we can use names of letters to refer to nouns that we get from them. Both Lojban sentences have the same meaning.
So if you see a Lojban letter being used as a noun, you take it as referring to the last noun or name whose verb word ('''lukas''' and '''mlatu''' in this case) starts with that letter.
Clearly, this method is more powerful than ''he'' or ''she''. It also allows us to make the speech more concise in not forcing us to repeat possible long names or nouns over and over again.
But notice that it can happen that we'd like to refer back to, say, '''lo mlatu''', but then before we can do so, another noun or name that starts with '''m''' appeared in the meantime, so that '''my.'''&nbsp;can no longer refer to the cat. The quickest way out is to repeat the entire noun or name, i.e.  say '''le mlatu''':
{{mu|lo mlatu cu viska la .micel. i my. na viska le mlatu|A cat sees Michelle. Michelle doesn't see the cat.}}
If a name consists of several cmevla you can use the first letters of them to refer to that name. The same is for compound verbs:
{{mu|la .djon.smit. cu citka lo finpe stasu i dy.sy. nelci fy.sy.|John Smith is eating fish soup. He likes it.}}
If you need to put several pronouns one after another separate them with the particle '''boi''':
{{mu|mi klama la paris la moskov|I go to Paris from Moscow.}}
{{mu|mi klama py. boi my.|I go to P from M.}}
The phrase '''mi klama py. my.''' would mean ''I go to PM'' which wouldn't mean what is needed here.
{{mu|la .tom.silver. pu zvati i je'u ty. sy. boi .ui pu sidju mi|Tom Silver was present. And actually TS (yay!) helped me.}}
If you put an interjection after such letters separate them with '''boi'''. Without '''boi''' interjections will refer to the last letter.
==='''ri''' instead of &quot;''he''&quot; and &quot;''she''&quot;===
{{mu|mi catlu pa nanmu i ri melbi|I look at a man. He is handsome.}}
{{pixra|Image:Gael_garcia_bernal.jpg|'''lo melbi'''<br/>''beautiful, handsome, pretty''}}
{{pixra|Image:Lindo_Sol_em_Plataforma.jpg|'''lo se pluka'''<br/>''nice, pleasant''}}
The particle '''ri''' refers to the last completed noun used in text or someone's speech.
{{notci|'''melbi''' means both ''handsome'' and ''beautiful'' no matter the person of what gender you describe.}}
Another example:
{{mu|la .alis. cu sipna bu'u lo kumfa pe la .alis.|Alice sleeps in Alice's room.|Alice sleeps-in the of-Alice room.}}
is turned into:
{{mu|la .alis. cu sipna bu'u lo kumfa pe ri|Alice sleeps in her room.|Alice sleeps in the room of [last noun].}}
The '''ri''' is equivalent to repeating the last noun or name, which is '''la .alis.''' here.
Note that '''ri''' refers to completed nouns. '''ri''' does not repeat '''lo kumfa pe ri''' (which is also a noun), because '''ri''' is inside that noun and therefore that noun is not yet complete when '''ri''' appears. This prevents '''ri''' from making it recursively refer to itself.
Nouns are counted from their beginnings. So in an example like
{{mu|lo du'u lo nanmu cu melbi cu se djuno ri}}
'''ri''' refers to '''lo nanmu''' and not '''lo du'u lo nanmu cu melbi''' although bot nouns are complete: '''lo nanmu''' starts last, after the start of '''lo du'u lo nanmu cu melbi'''.
Clause inside '''sei''' forms a parallel text. '''ri''' ignores nouns inside '''sei'''-clauses:
{{mu|mi viska la .lukas. sei la .doris. pu cusku i ri jibni la .micel.|I see Lucas, — Doris said. He is near Michelle.}}
In this example '''ri''' cannot refer to '''la .doris.''' We simply ignore the whole '''sei la .doris. pu cusku''' clause when deciding what '''ri''' should refer to.
Also note that most pronouns are ignored by '''ri'''. We just repeat them directly:
{{mu|mi lumci mi|I wash me.''<br>''I wash myself.}}
{{gl|lumci|x1 washes x2 of contaminant x3}}
{{mu|mi prami mi|I love me.''<br>''I love myself.}}
#the particles '''ti''', '''ta''', '''tu''' are picked up by '''ri''', because you might have changed what you are pointing at, so repeating '''tu''' may not be effective.
#likewise, '''ri''' itself (or rather it's antecedent) can be repeated by a later '''ri'''; in fact, a string of '''ri''' particles with no other intervening nouns always repeat the same noun:
{{mu|.i la .alis. cu catlu pa nanmu .i ri melbi .i ri co'a zgana a bu|Alice notices a man. He is beautiful. He notices Alice.}}
{{gl|zgana|to observe}}
{{gl|co'a zgana|to start observing, to notice}}
Here the second '''ri''' has as antecedent the first '''ri''', which has as antecedent '''lo nanmu'''. All three refer to the same thing: the man.
{{notci|Only <u>you</u> decide what, where and when to use in speech: the method with '''le'''+verb words, the method with letter names or with '''ri'''.}}
=== &quot;''Myself, themselves''&quot; ===
{{karbi lo bangu|In Slavic languages people say literally ''I wash self''. In order to be closer to a Slavic style we can use '''lo nei'''.}}{{mu|mi nelci mi|I like myself.|I like me.}}
:It is the same in meaning as:
{{mu|mi nelci lo nei|I like myself.}}
{{mu|mi lumci mi<br>mi lumci lo nei|I wash myself.}}
{{mu|la ian ca lumci lo nei<br>la ian ca lumci ri|Yan washes himself.}}
'''lo nei''' links to the first noun of the current clause.
Remember that '''ri''' can't refer back to pronouns like '''mi''' so '''lo nei''' might be preferred in the last example. When changing the first noun '''lo nei''' doesn't change which is quite handy:
{{mu|mi lumci lo nei i do lumci lo nei i la ian cu lumci lo nei|I wash myself. You wash yourself. Yan washes himself.}}
{{mu|la .doris. cu pensi lo nei|Doris thinks about herself.}}
{{mu|pa gerku cu batci lo nei|A dog bites itself.}}
<!--'''nei''' itself is a verb so we can attach particles of '''se''' series to it:
*'''lo nei''' links to the first noun of the current clause
*'''lo se nei''' links to the second:
*'''lo te nei''' to the third and so on.-->
'''nei''' works well when a sentence only contains one clause. But when it has several embedded clauses we might need something different. In
{{mu|la .doris. cu djuno lo du'u la .alis. cu prami lo nei|Doris knows that Alice loves herself.}}
'''lo nei''' refers to '''la .alis.'''
What if we want to refer to Doris? Here is a solution:
{{mu|la .doris. cu djuno lo du'u la .alis. cu prami vo'a|Doris knows that Alice loves her.}}
So while '''lo nei''' refers to the first noun of the <u>current clause</u>, '''vo'a''' refers to the first noun of the <u>current sentence</u>.
When there are no embedded clauses those two words have the same meaning:
{{mupli|'''la .alis. cu prami vo'a''' is the same as '''la .alis. cu prami lo nei'''<br/>''Alice loves herself.''}}
*'''vo'a''' refers to the first noun of the current sentence.
*'''vo'e''' refers to the second noun of the current sentence.
*'''vo'i''' refers to the third noun of the current sentence.
*'''vo'o''' refers to the 4th noun of the current sentence.
*'''vo'u''' refers to the 5th noun of the current sentence.
'''lo nei''' can give funny results when applied to mutual actions:
{{mu|la alis e la kevin cu cinba lo nei|Alice kisses herself, and Kevin kisses himself.}}
Here is the solution:
{{mu|la alis jo'u la kevin cu cinba zu'ai|Alice and Kevin kiss each other}}
It means the same as:
{{mu|la alis cu cinba la kevin i je la kevin cu cinba la alis|Alice kisses Kevin, and Kevin kisses Alice.}}
'''zu'ai''' is put into the second place of the verb. It shows the mutual action between the first place and the second place.
Members of this mutual action are put to the first and connected with the conjunction '''jo'u'''.
=== '''go'i''' for the previous clause ===
{{mu|la .alis. cu klama lo barja .i la .alis. cu viska lo nanmu}}
:is the same in meaning as:
{{mu|la .alis. cu klama lo barja .i lo go'i cu viska lo nanmu|Alice comes to a bar. She sees a man.}}
Whereas '''lo nei''' refers to the first noun of the current clause, '''lo go'i''' refers to the first noun of the previous clause.
'''go'i''' presents yet another way of referring back to a noun that we need.
*'''lo se go'i''' refers to the second noun of the previous clause
*'''lo te go'i''' to the third etc.:
{{mu|.i la .alis. cu zgana lo nanmu .i ri melbi|Alice watches a man. He is handsome.}}
:is the same as
{{mu|.i la .alis. cu zgana lo nanmu .i <u>lo se go'i</u> cu melbi|Alice watches a man. He is handsome.}}
That's because '''lo se go'i''' refers to the second place (x2) of the preceding clause, which is '''lo nanmu'''.
Consider another example:
{{mu||Bill saw Bob. He hit him.}}
English doesn't bother with precision here — ''he'' just means &quot;''some male person mentioned earlier.''&quot; Did Bill hit Bob, or did Bob hit Bill? We don't know. In Lojban we can use say like this:
{{mu|la bil pu viska la bob i lo se go'i cu darxi lo go'i|Bill saw Bob. Bob hit Bill.}}
Although, in most cases '''ri''' is used:
{{mu|la bil cu viska la bob i ri darxi la bil|Bill saw Bob. Bob hit Bill.}}
'''go'i''' itself is a verb, and it thus has a place structure:
{{mu|mi tatpi i do ji'a go'i|I'm tired. And you too.}}
When we say '''do go'i''', we repeat the previous clause but replace its first place with '''do'''. In other words, '''do ji'a go'i''' here is the same as saying '''do ji'a tatpi'''.
=== What does '''go'i''' copy? ===
Interjections like '''pei''' (when used alone), '''xu''', '''.ui''', '''.u'i''', '''je'u''' those formed with '''sei''' and the question interjection are not parts of clauses. Thus they are not copied by '''go'i'''.
But prepositions like '''na''', '''pu''', left negators like '''na'e''', '''no'e''', '''to'e''' are parts of clauses.
Thus, '''go'i''' copies the previous clause with those particles:
{{mupli|— '''la bob na prami la alis'''<br>— '''go'i'''
— ''It is not true that Bob loves Alice.''
— ''He doesn't (love).''}}
{{mupli|— '''la bob na'e prami la alis'''<br>— '''go'i'''
— ''Bob doesn't love Alice.''
— ''He doesn't (love).''}}
In order to say &quot;No, he does love her&quot; we use the needed verb directly:
{{mupli|'''la bob na prami la alis'''<br>'''la bob ja'a prami la alis'''
''Bob doesn't love Alice.''
''Bob does love Alice.''}}
<!--To override '''na'e''' we use its opposite: '''je'a'''.
{{mupli|— '''la bob cu na'e prami la alis'''<br>— '''la bob ja'a prami la alis'''
— ''Bob doesn't love Alice.''
— ''He does.''}}
'''go'i''' is quite common for answering ''<nowiki>'yes/no'</nowiki>'' in a kind of logical style. Unlike '''je'u''' it is not an interjection and thus doesn't directly express your attitude. Instead, by saying '''go'i''' you repeat the previous clause (for example, just said by the one you are talking to) as some absolute truth.
Note that '''go'i''' repeats the meaning of the clause, not necessarily the words literally. In
{{mu|- xu do nelci la .alis.<br>- go'i|- Do you like Alice?<br>- I do.}}
'''go'i''' means '''<u>mi</u> nelci la .alis.''' (''I like Alice.'') and not '''<u>do</u> nelci la .alis.''' (''You like Alice.'')
==== Using prepositions with '''go'i''' ====
{{mu|- xu do pu'i zvati la madrid<br>- nu'o go'i|- Have you been to Madrid?<br>- I have never been.}}
{{mu|mi pu klama .i ba go'i|I went. And I will go.}}
We can use prepositions together with '''go'i'''. In this case they replace preposition of the same series if they occurred in the clause we refer to with this '''go'i'''. In this example '''pu''' replaces '''ba''' said by the first speaker since both prepositions belong to the same series of "prepositions of tense".
'''go'i''' can be omitted if the context is clear enough:
{{mu|- xu do pu'i zvati la madrid<br>- ba|- Have you been to Madrid?<br>- I will.}}
The same is true for some series of left scalar particles like '''na'e''':
{{mu|- mi to'e nelci lo gerku<br>- i mi je'a go'i|- I hate (anti-love) dogs.<br>- I do love them.}}
Here '''je'a''' replaces '''to'e''' said earlier.
Here are two most notable groups of particles that can override each other within each group when using '''go'i''':
*prepositions: '''pu''', '''ca''', '''ba'''; '''ta'e''', '''ca'o''', '''ze'a'''; '''ka'e''', '''ca'a''', '''pu'i''', '''nu'o'''; '''ja'a''', '''na''' etc.
*left scalar particles: '''je'a - no'e - to'e - na'e'''
=== Time of day, dates and calendar ===
==== Time of day ====
{{vajni|— '''ma tcika ti''' {{=}} ''What's the time?''<br>— '''li cy pa pa''' {{=}} ''Eleven hours''}}
{{gl|tcika|x1 (hours, minutes, seconds) is the time of event x2}}
In Lojban times are always the times <u>of</u> something. So we ask what the time is of '''ti''', meaning ''this event/thing'', or, in other words ''now''.
*'''cy''' is a prefix signalling that the number of hours follows. 24-hour time is used almost always in Lojban.
*'''my''' is a prefix signalling that the number of minutes follows.
*'''sy''' is a prefix signalling that the number of seconds follows.
{{mu|li cy pa pa my pa no|11:10 (Ten minutes past eleven)}}
{{mu|li cy pa pa my pa no sy pa ci|11 hours, 10 minutes and 13 seconds.}}
{{mu|li cy pa no my mu no|10:50, ten <u>to</u> eleven}}
If we want to give the time of an event, rather than just tell the time, the second place is filled:
{{mu|li cy pa no tcika lo nu mi klama|Ten o'clock is the time that I come.}}
By using the preposition '''de'i''' we can get a more naturally sounding sentence:
{{mu|mi klama de'i li cy pa no|I am going at 10 o'clock.}}
{{gl|de'i|at ... (time), on ... (date)}}
And one useful example:
{{mu|ca tcika lo nu ei sipna|It's time to sleep.}}
==== Dates ====
{{vajni|— '''ma detri ti''' {{=}} ''What's the date today?''<br>— '''li ly ze dy pa''' {{=}} ''It's July, 1''}}
{{gl|detri|x1 (year, month, day) is the date/time of event x2}}
Another option:
{{vajni|— '''ma ca detri'''<br>— ''What is the date now?''}}
*'''ny''' is a prefix signalling that the year follows.
*'''ly''' is a prefix signalling that the month follows.
*'''jy dy''' is a prefix signalling that the day of week follows.
*'''dy''' is a prefix signalling that the day follows.
Prefixes with numbers after them can be used in any order (let's use digits to show numbers):
{{mu|li dy 2 ca detri|It's the second day of the month now.}}
{{mu|li ly 4 dy 1 ca detri|It's April, the first now.}}
{{mu|li dy 5 ly 7 ny 2005 detri lo nu mi jbena|The fifth of July (seventh month), year 2005 is when I was born.}}
We can also use '''de'i''':
{{mu|mi ba klama de'i li ly pano|I will come in October.}}
Remember that particles in Lojban can be written without spaces in between like in this '''pano''', which is the same as '''pa no'''.<!--Remember that when we speak of dates in Lojban, we also need to specify the place on the globe where the date was calculated. The instant Neil Armstrong made that small step for (a) man, for instance, it wasn't the 21st of July everywhere on Earth. In Tokyo, it was closer to the 22nd. So if we want to point out that it was the 21st, ''Houston time'', we can use '''te de'i''' to specify the timezone:{{mu|lo remna cu klama lo lunra de'i li dy re pa ly ze ny pa so xa so te de'i la .xustyn.}}-->
For days of week Monday is the first day:
{{mu|mi gunka de'i li jy dy pa|I work on Monday.}}
{{mu|mi gunka de'i ro li jy dy mu|I work every Tuesday.}}
{{mu|xu do pu zvati la paris de'i li jy dy ci|Were you in Paris on Wednesday?}}
==== Specifying time intervals ====
{{mu|mi nanca li re re|I am 22 years old.}}
{{gl|nanca|x1 is of duration of x2 (number) years}}
'''nanca''' specifies the duration, and in order too say ''two years long'' you fill the second place with a number prefixed with '''li'''.
{{mu|lo verba cu masti li re|The child is two months old.}}
{{gl|masti|x1 is x2 months long}}
{{mu|lo nu carvi cu djedi li ci|It's raining for three days.}}
{{gl|djedi|x1 is x2 full days long}}
===New verbs from one scale===
{{mu|mi na'e nelci do|I other than like you.}}
"Left scalar" particles (to which '''na'e''' belongs) are put to the left of constructs they affect and form a scale:
*{{gln|je'a|indeed (the affirmative position on the scale)}}. The word '''je'a''' confirms the meaning of a part of sentence. Usually it's just omitted.
**{{mun|mi je'a nelci do|I indeed like you.}}
*{{gln|na'e|non- (other than the affirmative position on the scale)}}
**{{mun|mi na'e nelci do|I other than like you.}}
*{{gln|no'e|not really (midpoint on the scale)}}. The word '''no'e''' makes a part of sentence middle in its meaning.
**{{mun|mi no'e nelci do|As for whether I love or hate you, I'm indifferent to you. I neither like nor hate you.}}
*{{gln|to'e|anti-, dis-, mis- etc. (opposite on the scale)}}. The word '''to'e''' makes a part of sentence opposite in its meaning. It's similar to English ''anti-''.
**{{mun|mi to'e nelci do|I hate you.|I anti-like you}}
'''na'e''' is more vague than '''no'e''' and '''to'e''', it can mean any of them when you don't care about the exact meaning.
==Lesson 8. Math and more prepositions ==
=== ''Possibly can'', ''have been'' and ''haven't yet been'' ===
{{mu|lo cipni ka'e vofli|Birds can fly.}}
{{mu|lo pendo be mi ca'a xendo prenu|My friend shows himself as a friendly person.}}
{{mu|lo pendo be mi ka'e litru bu'u ro da|A friend of mine can travel in any place.}}
{{mu|mi ca'a zvati la madrid|I am in Madrid.}}
{{mu|mi pu'i zvati la madrid|I have been to Madrid.}}
{{mu|mi nu'o zvati la madrid|I have never been to Madrid.}}
{{gl|ka'e|preposition of potential: possibly can}}
{{gl|ca'a|preposition of potential: actually is}}
{{gl|pu'i|preposition of potential: has already happened}}
{{gl|nu'o|preposition of potential: hasn't ever happened}}
This series of so called prepositions of potential describes possible situations.
Note that '''ka'e''' means that an event can happen whereas, for example,
{{mu|lo cipni cu kakne lo ka vofli|Birds are capable of flying.}}
describes abilities dependent on actions of participants.
=== ''Plus'' and ''minus'' ===
{{mu|li mu du li re su'i ci|5=2+3|Five equals two plus three.}}
Here '''li''' is similar to '''lo''' but it starts a mathematical expression (or just a number). So '''li mu''' means ''Number 5'' for use in formulae unlike simple '''mu''' which is used to denote 5 objects or events.
Note that '''re su'i ci''' (''2+3'') is one single expression considered as one noun.
'''du''' is a verb and means ''to be equal to''.
*'''su'i''' means ''plus''.
*'''vu'u''' means ''minus''.
*'''pi'i''' means ''times'' and is used for multiplication
*'''fe'i''' means ''divided by'' and is used for division.
The word '''pi''' is a decimal separator so '''no pi mu''' means ''0.5'', '''ci ze pi pa so''' means ''37.19''.
In some notations 0.35 can be written as .35 and in Lojban we can also drop zero saying '''pi mu'''.
Here are some other examples.
{{gl|li pare fe'i ci du li vo|12 : 3 {{=}} 4}}
{{gl|li re pi'i re du li vo|two times two is four}}
{{gl|li pano vu'u mu pi'i re du li no|10 — 5 ⋅ 2 {{=}} 0}}
Notice that you put '''li''' only once before the equation and once after it. Thus ''12 : 3'' is considered one number. Indeed, ''4'' is the same as ''12 : 3''. They are both numbers.
<!--More examples:
{{mu|xu li mu du li re su'i ci|Is 5 {{=}} 2 + 3?}}
{{mu|na go'i|No.}}
For asking for a number we use '''ma''':
{{mu|li ci su'i vo du ma|3 + 4 {{=}} ?}}
{{mu|li ze|7}}
=== &quot;''First, second, last''&quot; ===
Ordinal numbers such as &quot;first, second, third&quot; are used to put things in order. In Lojban they are formed with a number plus '''moi''' immediately after it:
{{gl|pa moi|x1 is first among ...}}
{{gl|re moi|x1 is second among ...}}
{{gl|ci moi|x1 is third among ...}}
{{gl|ro moi|x1 is last among ...}}
It is also possible to use verbs instead of numbers:
{{gl|me mi moi|x1 is mine}}
{{gl|me do moi|x1 is yours}}
In this case we had to convert pronouns to verbs using '''me'''.
{{mu|le nakni cu pa moi lo se prami be mi|He is my first love.}}
{{mu|tu ro moi lo ratcu pe mi|That is my last rat.}}
{{mu|lo cerni tarci cu ro moi lo tarci poi cumki fa lo nu viska ke'a pu lo nu co'a donri|The morning star is the last star that's visible before the dawning of the day.}}
{{mu|tu me mi moi|That's mine.}}
{{mu|tu me mi moi lo stizu|That's my place.}}
{{mu|.i lo vi stizu cu me mi moi lo pa ci stizu poi sruri lo jubme|This place is mine among 13 places around the table.}}
Cardinal numbers are placed before ordinal numbers in a string and separated by '''boi''':
{{mu|lo ci boi pa moi be lo ckafi kabri|the first three cups of coffee}}
Without '''boi''' it would turn into '''ci pa moi''' – ''thirty-first''.
=== '''gau'''