Difference between revisions of "Hanzi orthography"

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{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
 
|-
 
|-
!'''Seq.num.'''
+
!Lojban
 
!'''Character'''
 
!'''Character'''
 
!'''Pronunciations and explanations'''
 
!'''Pronunciations and explanations'''
 
|-
 
|-
| | 1
+
||
 
|  | 的
 
|  | 的
 
| [de] <grammatical particle marking genitive as well as simple and composed adjectives>; 我的 wǒde my; 高的 gāode high, tall; 是的 shìde that's it, that's right; 是...的 shì...de one who...; 他是说汉语的. Tā shì shuō Hànyǔde. He is one who speaks Chinese.<br />[dì] 目的 mùdì goal<br />[dí] true, real; 的确 díquè certainly
 
| [de] <grammatical particle marking genitive as well as simple and composed adjectives>; 我的 wǒde my; 高的 gāode high, tall; 是的 shìde that's it, that's right; 是...的 shì...de one who...; 他是说汉语的. Tā shì shuō Hànyǔde. He is one who speaks Chinese.<br />[dì] 目的 mùdì goal<br />[dí] true, real; 的确 díquè certainly
 
|-
 
|-
| | 2
+
||pa
 
|  | 一(A壹)
 
|  | 一(A壹)
 
| [yī] one, a little; 第一 dì-yī first, primary; 看一看 kànyīkàn have a (quick) look at<br />[yí] (used before tone #4); 一个人 yí gè rén one person; 一定 yídìng certain; 一样 yíyàng same; 一月yíyuè January<br />[yì] (used before tones #2 and #3); 一点儿 yìdiǎnr a little; 一些 yìxiē some<br />{Compare with 幺(F么) yāo, which also means "one"}
 
| [yī] one, a little; 第一 dì-yī first, primary; 看一看 kànyīkàn have a (quick) look at<br />[yí] (used before tone #4); 一个人 yí gè rén one person; 一定 yídìng certain; 一样 yíyàng same; 一月yíyuè January<br />[yì] (used before tones #2 and #3); 一点儿 yìdiǎnr a little; 一些 yìxiē some<br />{Compare with 幺(F么) yāo, which also means "one"}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 3
+
||
 
|  | 是
 
|  | 是
 
| [shì] to be, 是不是? shìbushì? is (it) or is (it) not?; 是否 shìfǒu whether or not, is (it) or is (it) not?
 
| [shì] to be, 是不是? shìbushì? is (it) or is (it) not?; 是否 shìfǒu whether or not, is (it) or is (it) not?
 
|-
 
|-
| | 4
+
||
 
|  | 不
 
|  | 不
 
| [bù] not<br />[bú] (used before tone #4); 不是 bú shì isn't
 
| [bù] not<br />[bú] (used before tone #4); 不是 bú shì isn't
 
|-
 
|-
| | 5
+
||co'i
 
|  | 了
 
|  | 了
 
| [le] <verb particle marking a new situation or a completed action>; 你来了! Nǐ láile! You have come! 我累了! Wǒ lèile! I've gotten tired! 那好了! Nà hǎole! That's OK (now)! 我只请了一位客人. Wǒ zhǐ qǐngle yí wèi kèren. I invited only one guest.<br />[liǎo] end, finish, settle, dispose of, know clearly, to be able, (=了解 liǎojiě) understand, comprehend; 了了 liǎoliaǒ clearly understand, settle (a debt/etc.), to be intelligent; 了了 liǎole to be over/ended/finnish/settled; 你卖不了! Nǐ mài bùliǎo! You will not be able to sell (it)!
 
| [le] <verb particle marking a new situation or a completed action>; 你来了! Nǐ láile! You have come! 我累了! Wǒ lèile! I've gotten tired! 那好了! Nà hǎole! That's OK (now)! 我只请了一位客人. Wǒ zhǐ qǐngle yí wèi kèren. I invited only one guest.<br />[liǎo] end, finish, settle, dispose of, know clearly, to be able, (=了解 liǎojiě) understand, comprehend; 了了 liǎoliaǒ clearly understand, settle (a debt/etc.), to be intelligent; 了了 liǎole to be over/ended/finnish/settled; 你卖不了! Nǐ mài bùliǎo! You will not be able to sell (it)!
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{Compare with 子 zǐ child}
 
{Compare with 子 zǐ child}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 6
+
||prenu
 
|  | 人
 
|  | 人
 
| [rén] person; 人类 rénlèi humankind; 有人吗? yǒu rén ma? Is there anybody here?<br />{Compare with 入 rù enter}
 
| [rén] person; 人类 rénlèi humankind; 有人吗? yǒu rén ma? Is there anybody here?<br />{Compare with 入 rù enter}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 7
+
||mi
 
|  | 我
 
|  | 我
 
| [wǒ] I, me, my; 我们 wǒmen we, us<br />{Compare with 找 zhǎo seek}
 
| [wǒ] I, me, my; 我们 wǒmen we, us<br />{Compare with 找 zhǎo seek}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 8
+
||
 
|  | 在
 
|  | 在
 
| [zài] at; 现在 xiànzài now; 存在 cúnzài exist
 
| [zài] at; 现在 xiànzài now; 存在 cúnzài exist
 
|-
 
|-
| | 9
+
||
 
|  | 有
 
|  | 有
 
| [yǒu] have, there is; 没有 méiyǒu haven't, there isn't; 有没有? Yǒuméiyǒu? Is there or isn't there? Have (you) or haven't (you)?; 有的 yǒude some<br />[yòu] (=又 yòu) again, both... and...
 
| [yǒu] have, there is; 没有 méiyǒu haven't, there isn't; 有没有? Yǒuméiyǒu? Is there or isn't there? Have (you) or haven't (you)?; 有的 yǒude some<br />[yòu] (=又 yòu) again, both... and...
 
|-
 
|-
| | 10
+
||ra
 
|  | 他
 
|  | 他
 
| [tā] he, him, his, (she, her, it, its), (=其他 qítā) other<br />[tuō] (in classical texts) someone else, something else
 
| [tā] he, him, his, (she, her, it, its), (=其他 qítā) other<br />[tuō] (in classical texts) someone else, something else
 
|-
 
|-
| | 11
+
||
 
|  | 这(F這)
 
|  | 这(F這)
 
| [zhè] this; 这儿 zhèr here<br />[zhèi] this (before classifier)
 
| [zhè] this; 这儿 zhèr here<br />[zhèi] this (before classifier)
 
|-
 
|-
| | 12
+
||
 
|  | 中
 
|  | 中
 
| [zhōng] middle, in; 中国 Zhōngguó China<br />[zhòng] hit (a target)
 
| [zhōng] middle, in; 中国 Zhōngguó China<br />[zhòng] hit (a target)
 
|-
 
|-
| | 13
+
||
 
|  | 大
 
|  | 大
 
| [dà] big; 多大? duōdà? how large?; 大小 dàxiǎo size; 大家 dàjiā everybody<br />[dài] 大夫 dàifu doctor<br />{Compare with 太 tài very and 木 mù tree}
 
| [dà] big; 多大? duōdà? how large?; 大小 dàxiǎo size; 大家 dàjiā everybody<br />[dài] 大夫 dàifu doctor<br />{Compare with 太 tài very and 木 mù tree}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 14
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||
 
|  | 来(F來)
 
|  | 来(F來)
 
| [lái] come; 原来 yuánlái originally, as a matter of fact; 来年 láinián coming/next year(s)<br />[lai] (when used as a verb complement); 起来 qǐlai get up
 
| [lái] come; 原来 yuánlái originally, as a matter of fact; 来年 láinián coming/next year(s)<br />[lai] (when used as a verb complement); 起来 qǐlai get up
 
|-
 
|-
| | 15
+
||
 
|  | 上
 
|  | 上
 
| [shàng] above, on, over, top, (go) up, last, previous<br />[shǎng] 上声 shǎngshēng 3rd tone in Mandarin<br />[shang] (when used as a verb complement)<br />{Compare with 下 xià under}
 
| [shàng] above, on, over, top, (go) up, last, previous<br />[shǎng] 上声 shǎngshēng 3rd tone in Mandarin<br />[shang] (when used as a verb complement)<br />{Compare with 下 xià under}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 16
+
||
 
|  | 国(F國)
 
|  | 国(F國)
 
| [guó] (=国家 guójiā) country, state, nation, <family name>; 中国 Zhōngguó China; 美国 Měiguó USA
 
| [guó] (=国家 guójiā) country, state, nation, <family name>; 中国 Zhōngguó China; 美国 Měiguó USA
 
|-
 
|-
| | 17
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||
 
|  | 个(F個,箇)
 
|  | 个(F個,箇)
 
| [gè] <general and non-specific classifier>; 个人 gèrén personal; 个人主页 gèrénzhùyè personal homepage<br />[gě] 自个 zìgě oneself
 
| [gè] <general and non-specific classifier>; 个人 gèrén personal; 个人主页 gèrénzhùyè personal homepage<br />[gě] 自个 zìgě oneself
 
|-
 
|-
| | 18
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||
 
|  | 到
 
|  | 到
 
| [dào] to, towards, until, arrive, reach
 
| [dào] to, towards, until, arrive, reach
 
|-
 
|-
| | 19
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||
 
|  | 说(F說)
 
|  | 说(F說)
 
| [shuō] explain, scold, refer to, (=说话 shuōhuà) speak, say; 游说 yóushuō persuade<br />[shuì] try to persuade; 游说 yóushuì lobbying
 
| [shuō] explain, scold, refer to, (=说话 shuōhuà) speak, say; 游说 yóushuō persuade<br />[shuì] try to persuade; 游说 yóushuì lobbying
 
|-
 
|-
| | 20
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||
 
|  | 们(F們)
 
|  | 们(F們)
 
| [men] <pluralizing suffix for pronouns and nouns referring to persons>; 我们 wǒmen we; 人们 rénmen people, persons
 
| [men] <pluralizing suffix for pronouns and nouns referring to persons>; 我们 wǒmen we; 人们 rénmen people, persons
 
|-
 
|-
| | 21
+
||
 
|  | 为(F為)
 
|  | 为(F為)
 
| [wèi] for, for the sake of, in order to, in this connection<br />[wéi] do, act, act as, be, become; 认为 rènwéi think or believe that...; 以为 yǐwéi think or believe erroneously that...<br />{Compare with 办 bàn do}
 
| [wèi] for, for the sake of, in order to, in this connection<br />[wéi] do, act, act as, be, become; 认为 rènwéi think or believe that...; 以为 yǐwéi think or believe erroneously that...<br />{Compare with 办 bàn do}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 22
+
||
 
|  | 子
 
|  | 子
 
| [zǐ] child, son; 子女 zǐnǚ sons and daughters; 儿子 érzi son<br />[zi] (noun suffix); 桌子 zhuōzi table<br />{Compare with 了 le <particle>}
 
| [zǐ] child, son; 子女 zǐnǚ sons and daughters; 儿子 érzi son<br />[zi] (noun suffix); 桌子 zhuōzi table<br />{Compare with 了 le <particle>}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 23
+
||
 
|  | 和
 
|  | 和
 
| [hé] together, with, (F龢) harmony, gentle, mild, kind, <family name>; 和平 hépíng peace<br />[Hé] Japan<br />[huo] 暖和 nuǎnhuo nice and warm<br />[hè] join in singing, compose a poem in reply<br />[huó] mix with water<br />[huò] mix, blend<br />[hú] complete a set in Mahjong
 
| [hé] together, with, (F龢) harmony, gentle, mild, kind, <family name>; 和平 hépíng peace<br />[Hé] Japan<br />[huo] 暖和 nuǎnhuo nice and warm<br />[hè] join in singing, compose a poem in reply<br />[huó] mix with water<br />[huò] mix, blend<br />[hú] complete a set in Mahjong
 
|-
 
|-
| | 24
+
||
 
|  | 你
 
|  | 你
 
| [nǐ] (Alternative feminine form: 妳 nǐ) you, your; 你们 nǐmen you (plural)
 
| [nǐ] (Alternative feminine form: 妳 nǐ) you, your; 你们 nǐmen you (plural)
 
|-
 
|-
| | 25
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||
 
|  | 地
 
|  | 地
 
| [dì] earth, ground, soil, place, position, distance; 地支 dìzhī the Twelve Terrestrial Branches<br />[de] <adverbial particle: descripion + 地 + verb>, ~ly; 快地走 kuàide zǒu walk quickly
 
| [dì] earth, ground, soil, place, position, distance; 地支 dìzhī the Twelve Terrestrial Branches<br />[de] <adverbial particle: descripion + 地 + verb>, ~ly; 快地走 kuàide zǒu walk quickly
 
|-
 
|-
| | 26
+
||
 
|  | 出
 
|  | 出
 
| [chū] go out, come out, in direction out from something, emit, issue, prouce; 出现 chūxiàn appear, emerge, (F齣) <classifier for operas and plays>
 
| [chū] go out, come out, in direction out from something, emit, issue, prouce; 出现 chūxiàn appear, emerge, (F齣) <classifier for operas and plays>
 
|-
 
|-
| | 27
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||
 
|  | 道
 
|  | 道
 
| [dào] way, path, channel, way, say, a streak (of light), doctrine, <classifier for rivers, topics, etc.>, (=道教 Dàojiào) Taoism; 知道 zhīdao know<br />[dǎo] (=导 dǎo) lead; 领道 = 领导 lǐngdǎo leader
 
| [dào] way, path, channel, way, say, a streak (of light), doctrine, <classifier for rivers, topics, etc.>, (=道教 Dàojiào) Taoism; 知道 zhīdao know<br />[dǎo] (=导 dǎo) lead; 领道 = 领导 lǐngdǎo leader
 
|-
 
|-
| | 28
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||
 
|  | 也
 
|  | 也
 
| [yě] also, as well; 也许 yěxǔ perhaps
 
| [yě] also, as well; 也许 yěxǔ perhaps
 
|-
 
|-
| | 29
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||
 
|  | 时(F時)
 
|  | 时(F時)
 
| [shí] period, season, (=时间 shíjiān, =时候 shíhou) time, (=小时 xiǎoshí) hour
 
| [shí] period, season, (=时间 shíjiān, =时候 shíhou) time, (=小时 xiǎoshí) hour
 
|-
 
|-
| | 30
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||
 
|  | 年
 
|  | 年
 
| [nián] year, <family name>; 今年 jīnnián this year; 明年 míngnián next year; 去年 qùnián last year; 中年 zhōngnián middle age
 
| [nián] year, <family name>; 今年 jīnnián this year; 明年 míngnián next year; 去年 qùnián last year; 中年 zhōngnián middle age
 
|-
 
|-
| | 31
+
||
 
|  | 得
 
|  | 得
 
| [de] <adverbial particle: verb + 得 + descripion>; 走得快 zǒude kuài walk quickly<br />[dé] get, reach, achieve<br />[děi] should
 
| [de] <adverbial particle: verb + 得 + descripion>; 走得快 zǒude kuài walk quickly<br />[dé] get, reach, achieve<br />[děi] should
 
|-
 
|-
| | 32
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||
 
|  | 就
 
|  | 就
 
| [jiù] just, simply, right away; 就要 jiùyào about to (do something); 这就是我! Zhè jiùshì wǒ! This is simply me!; 他就要去. Tā jiùyào qù. He is about to leave.
 
| [jiù] just, simply, right away; 就要 jiùyào about to (do something); 这就是我! Zhè jiùshì wǒ! This is simply me!; 他就要去. Tā jiùyào qù. He is about to leave.
 
|-
 
|-
| | 33
+
||
 
|  | 那
 
|  | 那
 
| [nà] that<br />[nèi] that (before classifier)<br />[nuó] 禅那 chánnuó deep meditation<br />[nuò] 无那 wúnuò helpless, unfortunately<br />[nǎ] (=哪 nǎ) what?<br />[něi] (=哪 něi before classifier) which?
 
| [nà] that<br />[nèi] that (before classifier)<br />[nuó] 禅那 chánnuó deep meditation<br />[nuò] 无那 wúnuò helpless, unfortunately<br />[nǎ] (=哪 nǎ) what?<br />[něi] (=哪 něi before classifier) which?
 
|-
 
|-
| | 34
+
||
 
|  | 要
 
|  | 要
 
| [yào] want, will, shall, need, important, essential; 主要 zhǔyào main, fundamental<br />[yāo] 要求 yāoqiú demand
 
| [yào] want, will, shall, need, important, essential; 主要 zhǔyào main, fundamental<br />[yāo] 要求 yāoqiú demand
 
|-
 
|-
| | 35
+
||
 
|  | 下
 
|  | 下
 
| [xià] below, under, (go) down, next (as opposed to previous/last)<br />{Compare with 上 shàng above}
 
| [xià] below, under, (go) down, next (as opposed to previous/last)<br />{Compare with 上 shàng above}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 36
+
||
 
|  | 以
 
|  | 以
 
| [yǐ] use, take, according to, because of, in order to; 可以 kěyǐ OK, may; 所以 suǒyǐ so, therefore, as a result; 以外 yǐwài beyond, except
 
| [yǐ] use, take, according to, because of, in order to; 可以 kěyǐ OK, may; 所以 suǒyǐ so, therefore, as a result; 以外 yǐwài beyond, except
 
|-
 
|-
| | 37
+
||
 
|  | 生
 
|  | 生
 
| [shēng] give birth, life; 先生 xiānsheng mister, gentleman, Sir
 
| [shēng] give birth, life; 先生 xiānsheng mister, gentleman, Sir
 
|-
 
|-
| | 38
+
||
 
|  | 会(F會)
 
|  | 会(F會)
 
| [huì] can, able, meet, meeting, society, union, party<br />[kuài] 会计 kuàijì accounting<br />[huǐ] 会儿 huìr moment
 
| [huì] can, able, meet, meeting, society, union, party<br />[kuài] 会计 kuàijì accounting<br />[huǐ] 会儿 huìr moment
 
|-
 
|-
| | 39
+
||
 
|  | 自
 
|  | 自
 
| [zì] from, since, (=自己 zìjǐ) self; 自然 zìrán nature<br />{Compare with 目 mù eye and 白 bái white}
 
| [zì] from, since, (=自己 zìjǐ) self; 自然 zìrán nature<br />{Compare with 目 mù eye and 白 bái white}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 40
+
||
 
|  | 着(F著)
 
|  | 着(F著)
 
| [zhe] <verb particle marking a continuing progress/state><br />[zháo] touch<br />[zhuó] wear clothes, dress, touch<br />[zhāo] put in, add, (F招) make move in chess, trick, decieve
 
| [zhe] <verb particle marking a continuing progress/state><br />[zháo] touch<br />[zhuó] wear clothes, dress, touch<br />[zhāo] put in, add, (F招) make move in chess, trick, decieve
 
|-
 
|-
| | 41
+
||
 
|  | 去
 
|  | 去
 
| [qù] go, leave, depart (opposite of 来 lái)
 
| [qù] go, leave, depart (opposite of 来 lái)
 
|-
 
|-
| | 42
+
||
 
|  | 之
 
|  | 之
 
| [zhī] <subordinator similar to 的 de>, it (in classical texts)
 
| [zhī] <subordinator similar to 的 de>, it (in classical texts)
 
|-
 
|-
| | 43
+
||
 
|  | 过(F過)
 
|  | 过(F過)
 
| [guò] pass, cross, go by, exceed, <verb particle marking that someone has had the experience of doing something, that it has happened at least once>; 过马路 guò mǎlù cross the street; 我去过中国两次. wǒ qùguo Zhōngguó liǎng cì. I have gone to China twice.
 
| [guò] pass, cross, go by, exceed, <verb particle marking that someone has had the experience of doing something, that it has happened at least once>; 过马路 guò mǎlù cross the street; 我去过中国两次. wǒ qùguo Zhōngguó liǎng cì. I have gone to China twice.
 
|-
 
|-
| | 44
+
||
 
|  | 家
 
|  | 家
 
| [jiā] home, house, family; 国家 guójiā nation; 大家 dàjiā everybody<br />[jie] 整天家 zhěngtiānjie all day long; 家里 jiālǐ (at) home, (in the) family
 
| [jiā] home, house, family; 国家 guójiā nation; 大家 dàjiā everybody<br />[jie] 整天家 zhěngtiānjie all day long; 家里 jiālǐ (at) home, (in the) family
 
|-
 
|-
| | 45
+
||
 
|  | 学(F學)
 
|  | 学(F學)
 
| [xué] study, learn; 学校 xuéxiào school; 学生 xuésheng student<br />{Compare with 字 zì written character}
 
| [xué] study, learn; 学校 xuéxiào school; 学生 xuésheng student<br />{Compare with 字 zì written character}
 
|-
 
|-
| | 46
+
||
 
|  | 对(F對)
 
|  | 对(F對)
 
| [duì] correct, answer, treat, agree, mutual, pair; 对不起 duìbuqǐ excuse me
 
| [duì] correct, answer, treat, agree, mutual, pair; 对不起 duìbuqǐ excuse me
 
|-
 
|-
| | 47
+
||
 
|  | 可
 
|  | 可
 
| [kě] ~able, (=可以 kěyǐ) may, can, (=可是 kěshì) but, however; 可爱 kě'ài loveable, cute; 可能 kě'néng possible, probable, maybe; 可口可乐 kěkǒukělè Coca Cola<br />[kè] 可汗 kèhán khan
 
| [kě] ~able, (=可以 kěyǐ) may, can, (=可是 kěshì) but, however; 可爱 kě'ài loveable, cute; 可能 kě'néng possible, probable, maybe; 可口可乐 kěkǒukělè Coca Cola<br />[kè] 可汗 kèhán khan
 
|-
 
|-
| | 48
+
||
 
|  | 她
 
|  | 她
 
| [tā] she, her
 
| [tā] she, her
 
|-
 
|-
| | 49
+
||
 
|  | 里
 
|  | 里
 
| [lǐ] neighbourhood, half kilometer, <family name>, (F裏,裡) in, inside, lining; 哪里? nǎli? where?; 那里 nàli there; 这里 zhèli here
 
| [lǐ] neighbourhood, half kilometer, <family name>, (F裏,裡) in, inside, lining; 哪里? nǎli? where?; 那里 nàli there; 这里 zhèli here
 
|-
 
|-
| | 50
+
||
 
|  | 后
 
|  | 后
 
| [hòu] queen, (F後) after, behind, <family name>; 后天 hòutiān the day after tomorrow
 
| [hòu] queen, (F後) after, behind, <family name>; 后天 hòutiān the day after tomorrow

Revision as of 11:57, 11 July 2014

Hanzi Chinese orthography uses Hanzi characters instead of most common brivla and digits. lujvo are expressed using a special separator |.

This can make Lojban easily readable (but of course not immediately pronouncable) by most speakers of Chinese dialects.

Some examples of Hanzi:

Hanzi Lojban
pa
re
ci
vo
prenu
fetsi
verba
cmana
Lojban Character Pronunciations and explanations
[de] <grammatical particle marking genitive as well as simple and composed adjectives>; 我的 wǒde my; 高的 gāode high, tall; 是的 shìde that's it, that's right; 是...的 shì...de one who...; 他是说汉语的. Tā shì shuō Hànyǔde. He is one who speaks Chinese.
[dì] 目的 mùdì goal
[dí] true, real; 的确 díquè certainly
pa 一(A壹) [yī] one, a little; 第一 dì-yī first, primary; 看一看 kànyīkàn have a (quick) look at
[yí] (used before tone #4); 一个人 yí gè rén one person; 一定 yídìng certain; 一样 yíyàng same; 一月yíyuè January
[yì] (used before tones #2 and #3); 一点儿 yìdiǎnr a little; 一些 yìxiē some
{Compare with 幺(F么) yāo, which also means "one"}
[shì] to be, 是不是? shìbushì? is (it) or is (it) not?; 是否 shìfǒu whether or not, is (it) or is (it) not?
[bù] not
[bú] (used before tone #4); 不是 bú shì isn't
co'i [le] <verb particle marking a new situation or a completed action>; 你来了! Nǐ láile! You have come! 我累了! Wǒ lèile! I've gotten tired! 那好了! Nà hǎole! That's OK (now)! 我只请了一位客人. Wǒ zhǐ qǐngle yí wèi kèren. I invited only one guest.
[liǎo] end, finish, settle, dispose of, know clearly, to be able, (=了解 liǎojiě) understand, comprehend; 了了 liǎoliaǒ clearly understand, settle (a debt/etc.), to be intelligent; 了了 liǎole to be over/ended/finnish/settled; 你卖不了! Nǐ mài bùliǎo! You will not be able to sell (it)!

[liào] (=瞭 liaò) to survey/watch {Compare with 子 zǐ child}

prenu [rén] person; 人类 rénlèi humankind; 有人吗? yǒu rén ma? Is there anybody here?
{Compare with 入 rù enter}
mi [wǒ] I, me, my; 我们 wǒmen we, us
{Compare with 找 zhǎo seek}
[zài] at; 现在 xiànzài now; 存在 cúnzài exist
[yǒu] have, there is; 没有 méiyǒu haven't, there isn't; 有没有? Yǒuméiyǒu? Is there or isn't there? Have (you) or haven't (you)?; 有的 yǒude some
[yòu] (=又 yòu) again, both... and...
ra [tā] he, him, his, (she, her, it, its), (=其他 qítā) other
[tuō] (in classical texts) someone else, something else
这(F這) [zhè] this; 这儿 zhèr here
[zhèi] this (before classifier)
[zhōng] middle, in; 中国 Zhōngguó China
[zhòng] hit (a target)
[dà] big; 多大? duōdà? how large?; 大小 dàxiǎo size; 大家 dàjiā everybody
[dài] 大夫 dàifu doctor
{Compare with 太 tài very and 木 mù tree}
来(F來) [lái] come; 原来 yuánlái originally, as a matter of fact; 来年 láinián coming/next year(s)
[lai] (when used as a verb complement); 起来 qǐlai get up
[shàng] above, on, over, top, (go) up, last, previous
[shǎng] 上声 shǎngshēng 3rd tone in Mandarin
[shang] (when used as a verb complement)
{Compare with 下 xià under}
国(F國) [guó] (=国家 guójiā) country, state, nation, <family name>; 中国 Zhōngguó China; 美国 Měiguó USA
个(F個,箇) [gè] <general and non-specific classifier>; 个人 gèrén personal; 个人主页 gèrénzhùyè personal homepage
[gě] 自个 zìgě oneself
[dào] to, towards, until, arrive, reach
说(F說) [shuō] explain, scold, refer to, (=说话 shuōhuà) speak, say; 游说 yóushuō persuade
[shuì] try to persuade; 游说 yóushuì lobbying
们(F們) [men] <pluralizing suffix for pronouns and nouns referring to persons>; 我们 wǒmen we; 人们 rénmen people, persons
为(F為) [wèi] for, for the sake of, in order to, in this connection
[wéi] do, act, act as, be, become; 认为 rènwéi think or believe that...; 以为 yǐwéi think or believe erroneously that...
{Compare with 办 bàn do}
[zǐ] child, son; 子女 zǐnǚ sons and daughters; 儿子 érzi son
[zi] (noun suffix); 桌子 zhuōzi table
{Compare with 了 le <particle>}
[hé] together, with, (F龢) harmony, gentle, mild, kind, <family name>; 和平 hépíng peace
[Hé] Japan
[huo] 暖和 nuǎnhuo nice and warm
[hè] join in singing, compose a poem in reply
[huó] mix with water
[huò] mix, blend
[hú] complete a set in Mahjong
[nǐ] (Alternative feminine form: 妳 nǐ) you, your; 你们 nǐmen you (plural)
[dì] earth, ground, soil, place, position, distance; 地支 dìzhī the Twelve Terrestrial Branches
[de] <adverbial particle: descripion + 地 + verb>, ~ly; 快地走 kuàide zǒu walk quickly
[chū] go out, come out, in direction out from something, emit, issue, prouce; 出现 chūxiàn appear, emerge, (F齣) <classifier for operas and plays>
[dào] way, path, channel, way, say, a streak (of light), doctrine, <classifier for rivers, topics, etc.>, (=道教 Dàojiào) Taoism; 知道 zhīdao know
[dǎo] (=导 dǎo) lead; 领道 = 领导 lǐngdǎo leader
[yě] also, as well; 也许 yěxǔ perhaps
时(F時) [shí] period, season, (=时间 shíjiān, =时候 shíhou) time, (=小时 xiǎoshí) hour
[nián] year, <family name>; 今年 jīnnián this year; 明年 míngnián next year; 去年 qùnián last year; 中年 zhōngnián middle age
[de] <adverbial particle: verb + 得 + descripion>; 走得快 zǒude kuài walk quickly
[dé] get, reach, achieve
[děi] should
[jiù] just, simply, right away; 就要 jiùyào about to (do something); 这就是我! Zhè jiùshì wǒ! This is simply me!; 他就要去. Tā jiùyào qù. He is about to leave.
[nà] that
[nèi] that (before classifier)
[nuó] 禅那 chánnuó deep meditation
[nuò] 无那 wúnuò helpless, unfortunately
[nǎ] (=哪 nǎ) what?
[něi] (=哪 něi before classifier) which?
[yào] want, will, shall, need, important, essential; 主要 zhǔyào main, fundamental
[yāo] 要求 yāoqiú demand
[xià] below, under, (go) down, next (as opposed to previous/last)
{Compare with 上 shàng above}
[yǐ] use, take, according to, because of, in order to; 可以 kěyǐ OK, may; 所以 suǒyǐ so, therefore, as a result; 以外 yǐwài beyond, except
[shēng] give birth, life; 先生 xiānsheng mister, gentleman, Sir
会(F會) [huì] can, able, meet, meeting, society, union, party
[kuài] 会计 kuàijì accounting
[huǐ] 会儿 huìr moment
[zì] from, since, (=自己 zìjǐ) self; 自然 zìrán nature
{Compare with 目 mù eye and 白 bái white}
着(F著) [zhe] <verb particle marking a continuing progress/state>
[zháo] touch
[zhuó] wear clothes, dress, touch
[zhāo] put in, add, (F招) make move in chess, trick, decieve
[qù] go, leave, depart (opposite of 来 lái)
[zhī] <subordinator similar to 的 de>, it (in classical texts)
过(F過) [guò] pass, cross, go by, exceed, <verb particle marking that someone has had the experience of doing something, that it has happened at least once>; 过马路 guò mǎlù cross the street; 我去过中国两次. wǒ qùguo Zhōngguó liǎng cì. I have gone to China twice.
[jiā] home, house, family; 国家 guójiā nation; 大家 dàjiā everybody
[jie] 整天家 zhěngtiānjie all day long; 家里 jiālǐ (at) home, (in the) family
学(F學) [xué] study, learn; 学校 xuéxiào school; 学生 xuésheng student
{Compare with 字 zì written character}
对(F對) [duì] correct, answer, treat, agree, mutual, pair; 对不起 duìbuqǐ excuse me
[kě] ~able, (=可以 kěyǐ) may, can, (=可是 kěshì) but, however; 可爱 kě'ài loveable, cute; 可能 kě'néng possible, probable, maybe; 可口可乐 kěkǒukělè Coca Cola
[kè] 可汗 kèhán khan
[tā] she, her
[lǐ] neighbourhood, half kilometer, <family name>, (F裏,裡) in, inside, lining; 哪里? nǎli? where?; 那里 nàli there; 这里 zhèli here
[hòu] queen, (F後) after, behind, <family name>; 后天 hòutiān the day after tomorrow