Viku: An Art Language

kuvasi analu in viku |
Viku (pronounced "VEE-koo") is an art language, created as an expression of my personal philosophy of minimalism, simplicity, and xenophilia. It is for serious fun only. One of my motivations for creating Viku is to provide a beautiful platform for writing poetry. Inspiration for Viku arose from Japanese and Polynesian languages. We could imagine people living on a tropical island speaking it. Lojban, a language based on predicate logic, has a great influence on Viku grammar. The Viku script is based on Inuktitut, a language spoken in the Arctic. Viku is a crucible for blending primitivism with modernism.
In Papua New Guinea, there is a natural language called Rotokas spoken by about 4000 people. It has only 11 phonemes (sounds), consisting of 5 vowels and 6 consonants. This is the smallest known phonemic inventory in the world. In Viku, my ambition was to beat Rotokas in being even smaller. I wanted only 10 phonemes: 3 vowels, 7 consonants. The whole Viku alphabet is: a, i, k, l, n, p, s, t, u, v.
Any comments are welcome. Victor Medrano (
Click on the icon beside the poem to hear...
put sut nipu kut |
usula an avali |
vipasi kut |

A long time before or from now, far away, I exist.
The island is small.
I am swimming.

Viku: Script and Sounds
Viku can be written using the above native script or in plain Roman letters.
Viku has 10 simple phonemes. There are seven consonants and three vowels.
The three vowels are:
a as in father /a/
i as in machine /i/
u as in lunar /u/

The seven consonants are:
k as in skin /k/
l as in love /l/
n as in night /n/
p as in spin /p/
s as in sun /s/
t as in stick /t/
v as in victory /v/

The stress in a polysyllabic word is always at the penultimate syllable (the second-to-the-last syllable).
Careful speakers will enunciate the vowels distinctly as /a/, /i/, and /u/ in both stressed and unstressed positions. Some lax speakers may use /@/ (as in about), /I/ (as in bit), and /U/ (as in put) in unstressed positions, but keep /a/, /i/, and /u/ in stressed positions. Speakers with difficulty with /v/ may pronounce it as /w/ (as in water). Speakers with difficulty with /l/ may pronounce it as /r/.
Viku: Grammar
by Victor

Viku: Grammar


Viku is an isolating language. A purely isolating language does not use affixes or root modifications like "walk, walks, walking, walked" in English. Each Viku word is invariable, and meanings have to be modified by inserting additional words, or understood by context. In more modern parlance, Viku is a highly analytic language.

Parts of Speech

There are three major parts of speech in Viku: predicate words, structure words, and names. Predicate words, the roots, are listed in the Vocabulary. They are the "meat" of the language. Structure words, which are described on this page, are small words that hold the language together. They are the "bones" of the language. Names are those of specific people, things, events, and places.
The roots are called "predicate words" as they are not really verbs, nouns, adverbs, or adjectives, but can function as any of these. Regular terminology of English grammar makes less sense in the context of Viku.
The parts of speech of Viku have certain phonological signatures. Predicate words have a structure (C)VCV or (C)VCVCV where C is a consonant and V is a vowel. Structure words have a structure (C)VC or (C)VCVC. Names can be of any length (C)V...V(C) as long as C and V are alternating.

Sentence Structure

The Viku sentence expresses a predicate relationship which is held together by a 'functor' with its zero or more arguments. In English grammar, the functor corresponds to the verb; the arguments correspond to nouns, pronouns, et cetera. In Viku, the functor normally goes in the beginning of the sentence.
functor argument1 argument2 argument3...
If we look at the Vocabulary, we see defined the predicate word for "come/go" is latu:
latu   x1 comes/goes to destination x2 from origin x3 via route x4 using means/vehicle x5
We can make a sentence like the following:
latu an apatu in pali in nuvuk |
go ART person ART Paris ART New York
functor argument1 argument2 argument3
The person is going to Paris from New York.
Two articles (ART) mark the arguments. The common article 'an' is for unnamed objects, persons, events, and places, while the name article 'in' is for named objects, persons, events, and places. There is also the functor article which is 'un'; it is used to disambiguate the functor, for example in cases when the functor is not at the beginning of the sentence. This article may often be omitted if there is no ambiguity.
an apatu in pali un latu in nuvuk |
ART person ART Paris ART go ART New York
argument1 argument2 functor argument3
The person is going to Paris from New York.

As you can see, the functor can be moved to a different slot in the sentence.
The bar | marks a pause and takes the place of periods, commas, semi-colons, question marks, and exclamation marks that would appear in an English sentence. You will note that capital letters are not normally used in Viku.
A sentence may optionally begin with 'iv' and optionally end with 'uv'. These may be used to disambiguate the limits of a sentence. Usually, the pause | is enough to disambiguate the limits of sentences.
iv latu an apatu in pali in nuvuk uv |
BEGIN go ART person ART Paris ART New York END
functor argument1 argument2 argument3
The person is going to Paris from New York.
Some structure words used as arguments:
kuswe/us/our (inclusive, with you)
kupwe/us/our (exclusive, without you)
vatyou/your (singular)
vasyou/your (plural)
tatthis/this-here/this one's, he/him/she/her/it/its
tasthese/these here/these ones', they/them/their
titthat/that-there/that one's, he/him/she/her/it/its
tisthose/those ones', they/them/their
tutthat yonder, he/him/she/her/it/its
tusthose yonder, they/them/their
nusunspecified value (used when an argument is unimportant or obvious)

The structure word 'nus' can be used to skip an argument; however, if 'nus' is at the end of the sentence, it may be omitted. In previous examples, we have skipped arguments 4 and 5.
latu kut nus an niniva |
come I ARG2 ART home
functor argument1 argument2 argument3
I am coming from home.

latu tis |
come they/those
Those/They are coming.
A functor without arguments is a perfectly grammatical sentence in Viku. Often, the context disambiguates who or what are involved.
latu |
(Someone/something) is coming.


Number is not usually explicit when refering to predicate words, so 'an apatu' may mean '(the/a/some) person(s)'. If you want to be explicit with plurality, precede the predicate word with 'pan', so 'an pan apatu' means '(the/some) persons'. If you want to be explicit with singularity, precede the predicate word with 'satus' (one), so 'an satus apatu' means '(the/a/one) person'. Usually, context gives the number and you then do not need to be explicit.

Varying the Order of Arguments

The place structure specifies the numerical order of arguments, but this can be varied. An argument may be placed out of numerical order by labelling it with a tag. When a tag is used for one argument, all other arguments must be tagged as well.

nap in nuvuk lap in pali kap an apatu un latu |
TAG3 ART New York TAG2 ART Paris TAG1 ART person ART go
argument3 argument2 argument1 functor
The person is going to Paris from New York.

Switching Place Values

Place values can be reordered by tagging the predicate word with special structure words.
lipswitch place values 1 and 2
nipswitch place values 1 and 3
pipswitch place values 1 and 4
sipswitch place values 1 and 5

We see from the Vocabulary that 'to talk' which is 'apunu' is defined as follows:
"x1 talks/speaks to x2 about subject x3 in language x4."
TALKER talks/speaks to TALKED-TO about SUBJECT in LANGUAGE
We can reorder the place values:

For example:
lip apunu in niki kut an vituta in viku |
ORD is-talked-to ART Nicky me ART mathematics ART Viku
Nicky is talked to by me about mathematics in Viku.
nip apunu an vituta in niki kut in viku |
ORD is-talked-about ART mathematics ART Nicky me ART Viku
Mathematics is talked about to Nicky by me in Viku.
We can see that emphasis and semantics are different when place values are reordered for the functor. What about in the arguments themselves?
Compare the following examples:
latu an apunu in pali |
go ART talker ART Paris
The talker is going to Paris.
latu an lip apunu in pali |
go ART ORD talked-to ART Paris
The one talked to is going to Paris.
In an argument itself, we can see that any place value can be referenced: 'an lip apunu' = one-talked-to, 'an nip apunu' = subject-talked-about, 'an pip apunu' = language-used-to-talk. Note that a predicate word without a reordering tag and used as an argument refers to the first place value: an apunu = talker.

Yes/No Questions

A yes/no question is preceded by the structure word 'kal':
kal latu vat in pali |
QUES go you ART Paris
Are you going to Paris?

But when you want to be specific about questioning a certain part of the sentence, precede the word or argument with 'kal':
latu vat kal in pali |
go you ART QUES Paris
Is it Paris where you are going?

'Yes' is 'vak'. 'No' is 'nik'.

Question Argument

The structure word 'kul' questions the value of an argument. It may ask 'who?', 'what?', 'where?', 'why?', or 'when?'.
latu kul in pali |
go QUES ART Paris
Who/What is going to Paris?

latu vat kul |
go you QUES
Where are you going?

Question Predicate

The structure word 'kil' questions the functor of the sentence.
kil vat in pali |
QUES you Paris
functor argument1 argument2
What are you doing in/about/to Paris?

Positive-Negative Scale

vakstrong positive, yes, indeed, certainly
viksomewhat positive

These can be placed before a predicate word.
vak sinala tat |
YES high this
This is certainly high.
vik sinala tat |
SOMEWHAT high this
This is somewhat high.
vuk sinala tat |
NEUTRAL high this
This is neutral on the high-low scale.
nik sinala tat |
NO high this
This is not high.
nuk sinala tat |
OPPOSITE high this
This is low (opposite of high).


An imperative or command can be expressed by 'vit' (abrupt) or 'vis' (polite) placed before the functor. vit apunu [vat] |
ABRUPT talk [you]
[You] talk!

vis apunu kus |
POLITE talk we
Please, let's talk!
vit apunu tat |
ABRUPT talk he
Let him talk!

Temporal Tense

In Viku, tense is completely optional. Often context disambiguates when an event occurs. However, if you would like to be specific about time, there are structure words for it which are placed before the predicate word.
patshort time distance
pitmedium time distance
putlong time distance
pakshort time interval
pikmedium time interval
puklong time interval

pal latu kut |
I went.
pul latu kut |
I will go.
put latu kut |
A long time before or from now, I went or will go.
pal put latu kut |
A long time ago, I went.
pul pal pat latu kut |
I will have just gone.
pal pak latu kut |
For a short interval, I went.
Note that 'time distance' when used by itself can be a distance into the future or into the past.

Spatial Tense

If you would like to be specific about spatial tense, there are structure words for it which are placed before the predicate word.
sulthere yonder
satshort spatial distance
sitmedium spatial distance
sutlong spatial distance
sakshort spatial interval
sikmedium spatial interval
suklong spatial interval

sal apunu kut |
HERE talk I
I talk here.
sul apunu kut |
I talk there yonder.
sut latu kut |
For a long distance, I go.
sak latu kut |
For a short spatial interval, I go.
The structure words 'sal', 'sil', and 'sul' may be used for demonstrative adjectives 'this' and 'that' in English. Do not confuse with 'tat', 'tas', 'tit', 'tis', etc. which mean 'this one's', 'these one's', 'that one's', 'those one's' etc when preceding a predicate word.
latu an sal apunu |
go ART HERE talker
This talker is going.
latu an tas apunu |
go ART THISONES talker
This one's talker is going.


An aspect marker may be placed before a predicate word to describe the action. See the description on Verb Aspect for more information. Here is a list of the aspect markers:
MarkerAspectEnglish Example
palakperfectiveI was eating a mango when she entered.
pilakimperfectiveI was eating a mango when she entered.
salakhabitualI used to eat a mango every morning
silakprogressiveI am eating a mango.
kapakperfect (retrospective)I have eaten a mango.
lapakprospectiveI am about to eat a mango.
lipakinceptiveI am beginning to eat a mango.
lupakinchoativeIt is turning yellow.
napakcessativeI am quitting eating mangoes.
nipakpausativeI stopped eating mangoes for awhile.
nupakresumptiveI resumed eating mangoes.
tatakpunctualThe camera flashed.
lalakdurativeI ate a mango for an hour.
titakdelimitativeI walked for a bit.
vatak perdurativeI went on eating mangoes.
vitakprotractiveI ate mangoes on and on.
vutaksuperfectiveI kept eating my mango after the meal was over.
satakiterativeI ate mangoes regularly.
sitakrandomI ate mangoes here and there.
sutakfrequentativeI ate mangoes frequently.
tavaksemelfactiveI knocked on the door.
tivaksimulfactiveI ate a mango in one fell swoop.
kipakexperientialI have eaten a mango before.
vavakintentionalI looked at the mango.
vivakaccidentalI fell on my butt.
valakfuture utilityWe will buy mangoes (for future eating).
tasakdistributiveI ate the mangoes one by one.
tisakalternationI ate a mango, did something else, ate a mango, did something else, etc.
kalakgenericMangoes grow on trees.
nanakcompletiveEat it all up.
puvakintensiveIt glared.
pivakmoderativeIt shined.
pavakattenuativeIt glimmered.
kakakcrescendoIt glimmered, shined, then glared.
kikakdecrescendoIt glared, shined, then glimmered.

pal salak latu kut in pali |
I used to go to Paris.
kipak latu kut in pali |
I have been to Paris before.
kakak anisa |
CRESCENDO illumine
It glimmered, shined, then glared.

Relative Clauses

latrestrictive relative clause introducer
litnon-restrictive relative clause introducer
talrelative pro-argument (in the relative clause, it substitutes for the argument to which the relative clause is attached)
lutrelative clause terminator (may be omitted when no ambiguity)
upapi an apatu lat latu tal in pali [lut] |
big ART person RESTRICT go PROARG ART Paris [END]
This person who goes to Paris is big.
The difference between a restrictive and non-restrictive clause is that the former describes an essential attribute of the object in question, while the latter describes incidental information. A non-restrictive clause in English is often marked off with commas.
upapi an apatu lit latu tal in pali [lut] |
This person, who goes to Paris, is big.
latu an apatu lit upapi [tal] lut in pali |
This person, who is big, goes to Paris.
When the relative clause attaches to the functor, it acts adverbially in a corresponding English sentence.
latu lat apunu kut lut vat |
go RESTRICT talk I END you
You go when I talk.


valevent introducer
vulevent terminator (may be omitted if no ambiguity)

val apunu kut vul
event of my talking
'luvala' (cause) is defined as "x1 (event/state) effects/physically causes effect x2 (event/state) under conditions x3."
luvala an val apunu kut vul an val latu vat |
cause ART EVENT talk I END ART EVENT go you
main-functor argument1(functor argument1) argument2(functor argument1)
My talking causes your going.
You go because I talk.
'nutuku' (with) is defined as "x1 is with/accompanies/is a companion of x2, in state/condition/enterprise x3 (event/state)."
nutuku an val apunu kut vul an val latu vat |
with ART EVENT talk I END ART EVENT go you
main-functor argument1(functor argument1) argument2(functor argument1)
With my talking is your going.
I talk while/when you go.
'tisani' (desire) is defined as "x1 desires/wants/wishes x2 (event/state) for purpose x3."
tisani kut an val apunu vat vul an val usapa kut vat |
desire I ART EVENT talk you END ART EVENT understand I you
main-functor argument1(functor argument1) argument2(functor argument1 argument2)
I want that you talk, so I understand you.
'liki' (future) is defined as "x1 is in the future of/later than/after x2 in time sequence; x1 is latter; x2 is former."
liki an val latu vat vul an val apunu kut |
future ART EVENT go you END ART EVENT talk I
main-functor argument1(functor argument1) argument2(functor argument1)
My going is in the future of your talking.
I go after you talk.


papOR a and/or b
kipAND a and b
nupXOR a or b, not both
vip-> if a then b
vap<- a if b
latu vat iv vap apunu ku |
go you BEGIN if talk I
You go if I talk.
latu vat pap tat iv vap apunu ku |
go you and/or he BEGIN if talk I
You and/or he go if I talk.
latu vat iv kip apunu ku kip tat|
go you BEGIN and talk I and he
You go, and I and he talk.
Note the use of 'iv' to disambiguate the boundaries of clauses.

Compounding and Modification

When a predicate word precedes another predicate word, the former modifies the latter in the way an adjective describes a noun or an adverb describes a verb in English.
akuka latu an upapi apatu |
fast go ART big person
The big person goes quickly.
In sequences of several predicate words, the compounding is cumulative grouped from the left: (((p1 p2) p3) p4)... so that (p1 p2) modifies p3 and so on.
an upapi apatu iku
((big people) company)
The structure word 'las' means 'of' and can be used the same way as English. The 'of' phrase can be terminated with the structure word 'lus' when ambiguity may arise as to its ending.
latu an apatu las upapi iku lus in pali |
go ART people OF big company END ART Paris
The people of the big company are going to Paris.
'las' is useful for discussing qualities, quantities, et cetera.
'tisani' (desire) is defined as "x1 desires/wants/wishes x2 (event/state) for purpose x3."
tisani kut an patuki las nusi |
desire I ART quality OF new
I want the newness.


In English, often one sentence refers to something from a previous sentence by the use a pronoun. By context, the reference is disambiguated.
The elephant goes home. It is blue. (Which? The elephant or the home?)
In Viku, there is a mechanism whereby the first syllable of the original word becomes the substitute as a name. For example:
latu an upapi nalinu an niniva | iluvi in na |
go ART big elephant ART home. blue ART it.
The big elephant goes home. It [the elephant] is blue.
In the previous example, 'na' substitutes for 'nalinu' (elephant). When there is a clash in the case that two or more arguments in the same sentence claim the same syllable, then we use the first three letters as substitute. Then the clash could be resolved.
Sometimes, we must refer to the entire previous utterance. We use the structure word 'tap' for this.
latu an upapi nalinu an niniva | alanu tap |
go ART big elephant ART home. good it.
The big elephant goes home. It [that the elephant goes home] is good.

Attitudinals or Emotional Indicators

The following may be placed anywhere in the sentence to express an emotion.
asdiscovery, "Ah, I get it!"
uswonder, "Wow!"
utrepentance, "I'm sorry!"
avpity, sympathy

The opposite can be expressed by placing 'nuk' before the emotional indicator.
nuk at


Place a discursive at the beginning of a sentence to control the flow of discourse.
vapal - vuk vapal - nuk vapalexaggeration – accuracy – understatement
sapal - nuk sapalprecisely speaking – loosely speaking
vikal - nik vikal - nuk vikal certainly – uncertain – certainly not
lalal - nuk lalalprobably – improbably
takal - nuk takalby the way – returning to the subject
patal - nuk patalon the one hand – on the other hand
sipal - nuk sipalin reality – hypothetically

latu kut | kilal nik latu tat |
go I. but not go he.
I am going. But he is not going.



vavpositive sign
nuvnegative sign
kavdecimal point
kivfraction slash
pavrepeating decimal
pivpercent sign
kuvcomma between digits

Numbers are expressed as strings of digits. Where a comma is seen in a number in English, it is expressed as 'kuv' in the sequence. Some examples:
10satus nulun
3/4talut kiv tipat
5%panap piv
-356nuv talut panap nanin
4,927tipat kuv sivas luval pitup
52,861,346panap luval kuv valuv nanin satus kuv talut tipat nanin
5,000,000panap kuv kuv (zeroes elided)
1,026,004satus kuv luval nanin kuv tipat (zeroes elided)

talut siv an luval sav latu |
The second goers are a threesome.
talut sav an luval suv latu |
The double goer is third.


alanu |'good', hello/goodbye, good day/evening/night
apapa |'greet', welcome
kil vat |'what predicate pertains to you?', How are you?, How do you do?
ikunu |'grateful', thanks, thank you
liki |'future', See you later!
vis |please

Foreign Words, Loanwords

Foreign words can be accomodated in Viku as names by following the phonological rules of names, which have the article 'in'. Names can be of any length as long as vowel and consonant alternate for each word and these vowels and consonants are in the Viku alphabet. Examples:
in sapakiti
in kalati
in visat uv us
The Wizard of Oz 1
Viku: Vocabulary nusa     abdomen     x1 is a/the abdomen/belly/lower trunk [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: midsection]
lanusa     able     x1 is able to do/be/capable of doing/being x2 (event/state) under conditions x3 (event/state)
ika     above     x1 is directly/vertically above/upwards-from x2 in gravity/frame of reference x3
kipavi     abstract     x1 (si'o) is abstracted/generalized/idealized from x2 [something concrete] by rules x3
unitu     accidental     x1 (event/state) is an accident/unintentional on the part of x2; x1 is an accident
ana     account     "x1 is an account/bill/invoice for goods/services x2, billed to x3 by x4"
una     acid     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of acid of composition x2; (adjective:) x1 is acidic
pukavi     acre     "x1 is x2 local area unit(s) [non-metric] (default 1) by standard x3, x4 subunits"
vatusi     across     x1 is located across/on the other side of gap/boundary x2 from x3; x1 is opposite (fi) x3
akitu     act     x1 is a volitional entity employing means/taking action x2 for purpose/goal x3/to end x3
nisasi     add     "x1 adds/combines x2 to/with x3, with result x4; x1 augments x2 by amount x3"
tiviku     address     x1 is an address of/are coordinates of x2 in system x3
isa     adjacent     x1 is adjacent/beside/next to/in contact with x2 in property/sequence x3 in direction x4
nivi     adjust     x1 (event) adjusts/regulates/changes x2 (ka/ni) in amount/degree x3
kavi     adorn     x1 (object) adorns/decorates x2; x1 is an adornment/decoration of x2; x2 is fancy/decorated
ini     affair     x1 is an affair/organized activity involving person(s) x2 (ind./mass); x1 is x2's business
pisu     affix     "x1 is an affix/suffix/prefix/combining-form for word/concept x2, form/properties x3, language x4"
tavisi     agree     x1 [person] agrees with person(s)/position/side x2 that x3 (du'u) is true about matter x4
punita     airplane     "x1 is an airplane/aircraft [flying vehicle] for carrying passengers/cargo x2, propelled by x3"
piva     alcohol     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alcohol of type x2 from source/process x3
anavu     alien     x1 is alien/foreign/[exotic]/unfamiliar to x2 in property x3 (ka)
vuvupi     alkali     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alkali/base of composition including x2
luta     alternation     "x1 is a logical alternation/disjunction, stating that x2 (du'u) and/or x3 (du'u) is/are true"
itaki     amphibian     x1 is an amphibian of species/breed x2
lipitu     amusing     x1 (abstract) is amusing/entertaining to x2 in property/aspect x3; x3 is what amuses x2 about x1
nukupu     analyze     x1 analyzes/examines-in-detail x2 by method/technique/system x3 [process/activity]
ata     angle     x1 is an angle [2-dimensional shape/form] from vertex x2 subtended by lateral [segment] x3
uvulu     angry     x1 is angry/mad at x2 for x3 (action/state/property)
pusupu     anguish     x1 is anguished/distressed/emotionally wrought/stressed by x2
ila     annoy     x1 (event) annoys/irritates/bothers/distracts x2
ivisa     answer     x1 is the answer/response/solution/[reply] to question/problem x2
kisupu     anus     "x1 is a/the anus/anal orifice/asshole/arsehole [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: exit, waste exit]"
uvi     apart     "x1 is apart/separate from x2, separated by partition/wall/gap/interval/separating medium x3"
kisa     apparatus     x1 is apparatus/mechanism/device/equipment for function x2 controlled/[triggered] by x3 (agent)
ala     apple     x1 is an apple [fruit] of species/strain x2
isati     approve     x1 approves of/gives favor to plan/action x2 (object/event)
lisi     arch     x1 arches/curves over/around x2 and is made of x3; x1 is an arch over/around x2 of material x3
ninasu     argue     x1 argues for stand x2 against stand x3; [an opponent is not necessary]
upuni     argument     x1 is a/the argument of predicate/function x2 filling place x3 (kind/number)
ita     arm     x1 is a/the arm [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: branch with strength]
nata     army     x1 (mass) is an army serving group/community x2 (mass) in function x3 (activity)
kuvasi     art     x1 (process) is an art [creative application] of craft/skill x2 (idea/activity)
vuvapi     article     x1 is an article/descriptor labelling description x2 (text) in language x3 with semantics x4
palika     artifact     x1 is an artifact; x1 is artificial; x1 is made/caused by people/se kulnu x2; x1 is man-made
navisu     ashamed     x1 feels ashamed/mortified/humiliated under conditions x2 before community/audience x3
ani     assert     x1 (agent) asserts/claims/declares x2 (du'u) is true [can be used for epistemology of authority]
tipa     assume     x1 assumes/supposes that x2 (du'u) is true about subject x3; [epistemology]
nivuvi     at     x1 (object/event) is at/attending/present at x2 (event/location)
ipa     atom     x1 is an atom of element/atomic number x2 of isotope number/atomic weight x3
sitivi     attack     x1 (person/mass) attacks/invades/commits aggression upon victim x2 with goal/objective x3
iki     attentive     x1 is attentive towards/attends/tends/pays attention to object/affair x2
avani     attract     x1 attracts/appeals to/lures x2 (person/event) with property/quality x3 (ka)
tulupa     audacity     x1 shows audacity/chutzpah in behavior x2 (event/activity); x1 dares to do/be x2 (event/ka)
uka     aunt or uncle     x1 is an aunt/uncle of x2 by bond/tie x3; x1 is an associated member of x2's parent's generation
kasu     authority     x1 has authority/is an official in/on/over matter/sphere/persons x2 derived on basis x3
tupivu     automatic     x1 is automatic in function x2 under conditions x3
lita     autumn     x1 is autumn/fall [harvest/cooling season] of year x2 at location x3
ulupu     avoid     x1 avoids/evades/shuns/escapes/skirts [fate] x2 (event) through action/state x3 (event)
isi     awake     (adjective:) x1 is awake/alert/conscious
atuti     bad     x1 is bad for x2 by standard x3; x1 is poor/unacceptable to x2
latasa     balance     x1 is in balance/equilibrium under forces x2 (mass)
pusi     balcony     x1 is a balcony/overhang/ledge/shelf of building/structure x2
sati     ball     x1 is a ball/sphere/orb/globe [shape/form] of material x2; x1 is a spherical object [made of x2]
uku     banana     x1 is a banana/plantain [fruit/plant] of species/breed x2
ina     bank     x1 is a bank owned by/in banking system x2 for banking function(s) x3 (event)
tavi     bar     x1 is a tavern/bar/pub serving x2 to audience/patrons x3
usi     bare     x1 is bare/naked/nude; x1 is without cover/clothes/[protection]
titu     barley     x1 is a quantity of barley [grain] of species/strain x2
kapila     basis     x1 is a basis/foundation/underlying or fundamental principle of x2; x1 is at the bottom of x2
usiti     basket     "x1 is a basket with contents x2, woven from material x3"
tapuki     bay     x1 is a bay in/of coast/shoreline x2
sulalu     bead     x1 is a bead/pebble [shape/form] of material x2
vusuka     bean     x1 is a bean/pea/leguminous seed from plant [legume] x2
lutu     beautiful     x1 is beautiful/pleasant to x2 in aspect x3 (ka) by aesthetic standard x4
alu     become     x1 becomes/changes/converts/transforms into x2 under conditions x3
ilitu     bed     x1 is a bed/pallet of material x2 for holding/supporting x3 (person/object/event)
isisi     beer     x1 is made of/contains/is a amount of beer/ale/brew brewed from x2
pukaka     beg     x1 begs/pleads/supplicates/entreats/implores/beseeches/prays [asks with humility] x2 for x3
akuta     behave     x1 behaves/conducts oneself as/in-manner x2 (event/property) under conditions x3
savusi     behind     x1 is posterior/behind/back/in the rear of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3
sulu     believe     x1 believes [without evidence/proof] belief/creed x2 (du'u) is true/assumed about subject x3
ilili     bell     x1 is a bell/chime/[tuning fork] [tuned percussion instrument] producing sound/note x2
aniti     beneath     x1 is directly/vertically beneath/below/under/underneath/down from x2 in frame of reference x3
pata     bent     (adjective:) x1 is bent/crooked/not straight or direct/[twisted]/folded
usu     berry     x1 is a berry (fruit/plant) of plant/species x2
alinu     between     x1 is between/among set of points/bounds/limits x2 (set)/amidst mass x2 in property x3 (ka)
lavi     beyond     x1 exceeds/is beyond limit/boundary x2 from x3 in property/amount x4 (ka/ni)
upapi     big     x1 is big/large in property/dimension(s) x2 (ka) as compared with standard/norm x3
pupavi     bird     x1 is a bird of species/breed x2
vutu     bite     x1 bites/pinches x2 on/at specific locus x3 with x4
sipavi     bitter     x1 is bitter/acrid/sharply disagreeable to observer/sense x2
sipisa     black     x1 is black/extremely dark-colored [color adjective]
vulasa     blade     x1 is a blade of tool/weapon x2
uli     block     "x1 is a block [3-dimensional shape/form] of material x2, surfaces/sides x3"
nakivi     blood     x1 is blood/vital fluid of organism x2
iluvi     blue     x1 is blue [color adjective]
ipapu     board     x1 is a board/plank [3-dimensional long flat rectangle] of material x2
silina     boat     "x1 is a boat/ship/vessel [vehicle] for carrying x2, propelled by x3"
alalu     body     x1 is a/the body/corpus/corpse of x2; (adjective:) x1 is corporal/corporeal
uta     body     x1 is a/the body/corpus/corpse of x2; (adjective:) x1 is corporal/corporeal
utu     boil     x1 boils/evaporates at temperature x2 and pressure x3
lasa     bomb     x1 is a bomb/explosive device with explosive material/principle x2
kusi     bone     "x1 is a/the bone/ivory [body-part], performing function x2 in body of x3; [metaphor: calcium]"
univu     book     x1 is a book containing work x2 by author x3 for audience x4 preserved in medium x5
lisu     born     x1 is born to x2 at time x3 [birthday] and place x4 [birthplace]; x1 is native to (fo) x4
alipi     borrow     x1 (agent) borrows/temporarily takes/assumes x2 (object) from source x3 for interval x4
viki     bottle     "x1 is a bottle/jar/urn/flask/closable container for x2, made of material x3 with lid x4"
sasili     bovine     x1 is a cow/cattle/kine/ox/[bull/steer/calf] [beef-producer/bovine] of species/breed x2
putu     box     "x1 is a box/carton/trunk/crate for contents x2, and made of material x3"
unu     boy     x1 is a boy/lad [young male person] of age x2 immature by standard x3
ulu     brain     "x1 is a/the brain [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: intelligence, mental control]"
upinu     brake     x1 brakes/causes to slow motion/activity x2 with device/mechanism/principle x3
usana     branch     x1 is a branch/bough/limb of x2; x2 forks into branches x1; [preferred over metaphorical birka]
inu     brass     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of brass [copper/zinc alloy] of composition including x2
uni     brave     x1 is brave/valiant/courageous in activity x2 (event) by standard x3
ipiti     bread     x1 is a quantity of/contains bread [leavened or unleavened] made from grains x2
apipu     break     x1 breaks/fractures/shatters/[splits/splinters/cracks] into pieces x2
unuti     breast     x1 is a/the breast/mammary/teat [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: projection providing liquid]
napisa     breathe     x1 breathes/respires x2 [gas]
vavila     breeze     x1 is a breeze/wind/gale from direction x2 with speed x3; x1 blows from x2
upa     bridge     "x1 is a bridge/span over/across x2 between x3 and x4 [unordered, typically destination first]"
ipi     broad     x1 is broad/wide in dimension x2 [2nd most significant dimension] by standard x3
lipiva     broken     x1 is broken/inoperable/broken down/non-utile/not usable for function x2
utasi     bronze     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of bronze of composition including x2
isuti     brow     x1 is a/the brow/forehead [projecting flat/smooth head/body-part] of x2
tani     brown     x1 is brown/tan [color adjective]
vutinu     brush     x1 is a brush for purpose x2 (event) with bristles x3
api     bucket     "x1 is a bucket/pail/can/deep, solid, wide-topped container of contents x2, made of material x3"
tunasu     buckwheat     x1 is a quantity of buckwheat/rhubarb/sorrel grass of species/strain x2
upi     building     x1 is a building/edifice for purpose x2
navi     bulb     "x1 is a bulb [body-part] of plant/species x2; [metaphor: rounded, bulgy]"
ilu     bundle     "x1 is a bundle/package/cluster/clump/pack [shape/form] containing x2, held together by x3"
kuka     burn     x1 burns/[ignites/is flammable/inflammable] at temperature x2 in atmosphere x3
nilivi     butter     x1 is a quantity of/contains butter/oleo/margarine/shortening from source x2
sisavi     buttock     "x1 is a/the buttock(s)/arse/rear/seat [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: rounded surface, support]"
pulu     button     "x1 is a button/knob/[handle] on/for item x2, with purpose x3, made of material x4"
unati     cabbage     x1 is a quantity of cabbage/lettuce/leafy vegetable of species/strain x2
kata     cabin     x1 is a cabin of vehicle x2
ukuna     calculate     x1 calculates/reckons/computes x2 [value (ni)/state] from data x3 by process x4
nalivi     camera     x1 is a camera/photographic equipment recording illumination type x2 images to medium x3
vivu     camp     x1 is a camp/encampment/temporary residence of x2 at location x3
anusi     can     "x1 is a can/tightly sealed/pre-sealed container for perishable contents x2, made of x3"
pikuti     canal     x1 is a canal/channel to x2 from x3 with route x4
isuvi     cancer     x1 is a cancer [malignant disease] in x2
ikini     cap     x1 is a cap/hat/crown/helmet/piece of headgear [head-top garment] of material x2
vutatu     captain     x1 is captain/commander/leader/in-charge/boss of vehicle/domain x2
napaki     capture     x1 captures/catches/apprehends/seizes/nabs x2 with trap/restraint x3
nutasi     car     "x1 is a car/automobile/truck/van [a wheeled motor vehicle] for carrying x2, propelled by x3"
kusipa     carbon     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of carbon/graphite/[diamond]/charcoal; x1 is organic
sulasu     card     "x1 is a card [small nearly-2-dimensional shape/form] of material x2, shape x3"
aniva     carry     x1 carries/hauls/bears/transports cargo x2 to x3 from x4 over path x5; x1 is a carrier/[porter]
latapa     cart     "x1 is a cart/carriage/wagon [wheeled vehicle] for carrying x2, propelled by x3"
unipi     cassava     x1 is a quantity of cassava/taro/manioc/tapioca/yam [edible starchy root] of species/strain x2
patiki     cat     x1 is a cat/[puss/pussy/kitten] [feline animal] of species/breed x2; (adjective:) x1 is feline
luvala     cause     x1 (event/state) effects/physically causes effect x2 (event/state) under conditions x3
iva     cavity     x1 is a cavity/hole/hollow/cavern in x2; x1 is concave within x2; x2 is hollow at locus x1
tisiki     cease     x1 [agent] ceases/stops/halts/ends activity/process/state x2 [not necessarily completing it]
asa     celebrate     x1 celebrates/recognizes/honors x2 (event/abstract) with activity/[party] x3
puvi     cell     "x1 is a cell/atom/unit/molecule of x2; x1 is an indivisible, most basic subunit of x2"
inupu     cent     "x1 is measured in kopeck/cent money-subunits as x2 [quantity], in monetary system x3"
uva     ceramic     "x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of ceramic made by x2, of composition x3, in form/shape x4"
taka     certain     x1 is certain/sure/positive/convinced that x2 is true
ikapa     chain     x1 is a length of chain/links of material x2 with link properties x3
sala     chair     "x1 is a chair/stool/seat/bench, a piece or portion of a piece of furniture intended for sitting"
likala     chalk     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of chalk from source x2 in form x3
apusi     challenge     x1 (person) challenges x2 at/in property x3
kilu     chaotic     x1 is chaotic/disordered in property/aspect x2 (ka)
kikala     chart     x1 is a chart/diagram/map of/about x2 showing formation/data-points x3
lutuka     chase     x1 chases/pursues/(physically) follows after x2; volition is not implied for x1 or x2
isutu     cheese     x1 is a quantity of/contains cheese/curd from source x2
navu     chemical     x1 is an instance of substance/chemical/drug x2 (individual or mass) with purity x3
sini     chest     x1 is a/the chest/thorax/upper trunk/[rib cage/breast] [body-part] of x2
lutupi     child     "x1 is a child/kid/juvenile [a young person] of age x2, immature by standard x3"
luvata     chlorine     "x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of halogen of type x2 [chlorine, fluorine, iodine, etc.]"
tiniva     choose     x1 chooses/selects x2 [choice] from set/sequence of alternatives x3 (complete set)
ivapi     chrome     "x1 is a highly reflective/polished non-tarnishing metallic surface, of metal x2 [often chromium]"
upu     cigar     x1 is a cigar/cigarette/cigarillo made from tobacco/smokable substance x2 by x3
lutusa     cinema     "x1 is a cinema/movie/film about x2 [plot/theme/subject/activity], filmmaker x3, for audience x4"
panasu     cite     x1 cites/quotes/refers to/makes reference to source x2 for information/statement x3 (du'u)
pasi     citrus     "x1 is a quantity of citrus [fruit/tree, etc.] of species/strain x2"
kilupu     city     "x1 is a town/city of metropolitan area x2, in political unit x3, serving hinterland/region x4"
lusi     class     x1 (mass/si'o) is a class/category/subgroup/subset within x2 with defining property x3 (ka)
navava     claw     "x1 is a/the claw/nail/talon [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: pointed, penetrating, physical weapon]"
anu     clay     "x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of clay [moist, clammy dirt] of composition including x2"
kakutu     clean     x1 (object) is clean/pure of material/contaminant/dirt x2 by standard x3
satalu     clear     x1 (object/medium) is clear/transparent/without obstacle to in-the-clear x2 [transmission]
atu     climb     x1 climbs/clambers/creeps/crawls on surface x2 in direction x3 using x4 [limbs/tools]
vipa     clock     x1 is clock/watch/timer measuring time units x2 to precision x3 with timing mechanism/method x4
situvu     closed     "x1 (portal/passage/entrance-way) is closed/shut/not open, preventing passage/access to x2 by x3"
asi     cloth     x1 is an amount of cloth/fabric of type/material x2
asasi     cloud     x1 is a cloud of material x2 in air mass x3 at floor/base elevation x4
tulasi     clumsy     x1 (action) is clumsy/awkward by standard x2
apa     coal     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of coal/peat/anthracite/bituminous from source x2
ukili     coat     x1 is a coat/jacket/sweater/cloak/[cape/shawl/pullover] [extra outer garment] of material x2
asuta     cockroach     x1 is a cockroach/[orthopteran/termite] of order/species/breed x2
uki     code     x1 is encoded/cipher text of plain-text x2 by code/coding system x3; x1 is in code; x3 is a code
vula     coffee     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of coffee from source/bean/grain x2
navipa     coin     x1 is a coin/token/is specie issued by x2 having value x3 of composition including x4
lituki     cold     x1 is cold/cool by standard x2
vuku     collar     x1 is a collar/ring/belt/band around/surrounding x2 made of material x3
itu     collide     x1 collides with/crashes/bumps/runs into x2
ati     column     x1 is a column/pillar of material x2
kuvuni     comb     x1 is a comb [many-needled shape] of material x2 with tines/needles x3
latu     come     x1 comes/goes to destination x2 from origin x3 via route x4 using means/vehicle x5
tatiku     comfort     x1 feels comfort/is comfortable with conditions/environmental property(ies) x2
aliti     command     x1 issues commands/orders to x2 for result x3 (event/state) to happen; x3 is commanded to occur
tanipu     comment     x1 (text) is a comment/remark/observation about subject x2 expressed by x3 to audience x4
tavava     committee     x1 (mass) is a committee with task/purpose x2 of body x3
avipa     common     x1 (property - ka) is common/general/universal among members of set x2 (complete set)
aluni     community     x1 is a community/colony of organisms x2
iku     company     x1 is a company/corporation/firm/partnership chartered by authority x2 for purpose x3
napa     compare     "x1 [observer] compares x2 with x3 in property x4 (ka), determining comparison x5 (state)"
asu     compete     x1 competes/vies with opponent x2 in contest/competition x3 (event) for gain x4; x1 rivals x2
vasu     complete     x1 (event) is complete/done/finished; x1 (object) has become whole in property x2 by standard x3
pila     complicated     x1 is complex/complicated/involved in aspect/property x2 (ka) by standard x3
talula     computer     x1 is a computer for purpose x2
isipi     condense     "x1 condenses/liquefies on/into x2 at temperature x3, pressure x4; x1 is dew/condensate on x2"
ututi     cone     x1 is a cone [shape/form] of material x2 with vertex x3
nuvata     confusing     x1 (event/state) confuses/baffles x2 [observer] due to [confusing] property x3 (ka)
tali     conifer     x1 is a conifer/pine/fir of species/strain x2 with cones x3
tukusa     conjunction     "x1 is a conjunction, stating that x2 (du'u) and x3 (du'u) are both true"
utupa     conscious     x1 is conscious/aware of x2 (object/abstract); x1 discerns/recognizes x2 (object/abstract)
lunali     constant     x1 is constant/invariant/unchanging in property x2 (ka) in response to stimulus/conditions x3
sitati     contain     x1 contains/holds/encloses/includes contents x2 within; x1 is a vessel containing x2
kapi     continue     x1 (event/state) continues/persists over interval x2; x1 (property - ka) is continuous over x2
atanu     control     x1 has control over/harnesses/manages/directs/conducts x2 in x3 (activity/event/performance)
unapu     cook     x1 cooks/prepares food-for-eating x2 by recipe/method x3 (process)
nasu     copper     "x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of copper (Cu); [metaphor: reddish, electrical conductor]"
nalatu     copulate     x1 copulates/fucks/mates/has coitus/sexual intercourse with x2
aki     copy     x1 is a copy/replica/duplicate/clone of x2 in form/medium x3 made by method x4 (event)
vilu     cord     x1 is cord/cable/rope/line/twine/cordage/woven strands of material x2
vataka     cork     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of cork/bark from tree/species x2; [material]
atusu     corner     "x1 is a corner/point/at-least-3-dimensional [solid] angle [shape/form] in/on x2, of material x3"
unili     correct     x1 is correct/proper/right/perfect in property/aspect x2 (ka) in situation x3 by standard x4
inavi     costly     x1 (object/commodity/property/event) is costly/expensive/dear to x2 by standard x3
nupiki     cotton     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of cotton [type of fabric/material]
apuki     cough     x1 coughs/farts/burps up/out x2 [predominantly gaseous] from orifice x3
upata     count     x1 (agent) counts the number in set x2 to be x3 [number/count] counting [off] by units x4
nukupi     country     x1 is the country of peoples x2 with land/territory x3; (people/territory relationship)
vivaki     cousin     "x1 is cousin to x2 by bond/tie x3; [non-immediate family member, default same generation]"
nasita     cover     x1 is a cover/[lid/top] for covering/concealing/sheltering x2
napasi     crack     x1 is a crack/fissure/pass/cleft/ravine/chasm/[defect/flaw] [shape/form] in x2
lakanu     crazy     x1 (action/event) is crazy/insane/mad/frantic/in a frenzy (one sense) by standard x2
ivuku     cream     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of cream/emulsion/puree [consistency] of composition x2
supuni     crew     x1 is a crew/team/gang/squad/band of persons x2 directed/led by x3 organized for purpose x4
avi     crime     x1 (event/state) is a punishable crime/[taboo/sin] to people/culture/judges/jury x2
itasu     cruel     x1 (person) is cruel/mean/unkind to victim x2
avunu     crust     x1 is a crust/rind/peel/skin/hide/outer cover of x2
atiti     cry out     x1 cries out/yells/howls sound x2; x1 is a crier
ili     crystal     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of crystal of composition x2 in form/arrangement x3
anupu     cube     "x1 is a cube/regular polyhedron/polygon of dimensions x2 (def. 3), surfaces/sides x3 (def. 6)"
ipu     cubit     "x1 is x2 (default 1) short local distance unit(s) [non-metric], standard x3, x4 subunits"
nukaka     culture     "x1 [mass of ideas, customs, skills, arts] is culture of nation/ethos x2 (mass); x1 is ethnic"
alisu     cup     "x1 is a cup/glass/tumbler/mug/vessel/[bowl] containing contents x2, and of material x3"
vusi     curious     x1 is curious/wonders about/is interested in/[inquisitive about] x2 (object/abstract)
aputi     curse     x1 curses/damns/condemns x2 to fate (event) x3
ikisa     curtain     "x1 is a curtain/blinds/drapes for covering/obscuring aperture x2, and made of material x3"
utipa     curve     "x1 is a curve/turn/bend in x2, at locus x3, and defined by set of points/properties x4"
isuva     cushion     x1 cushions x2 with material x3; x1 is a cushion/pillow/pad [for x2] of padding material x3
isuki     custom     x1 is a custom/habit/[ritual/rut] of x2 under conditions x3
isana     cut     x1 (tool/blade/force) cuts [through]/splits/divides x2 (object) into pieces x3
vivupa     cyan     x1 is cyan/turquoise/greenish-blue [color adjective]
luti     cylinder     x1 is a cylinder [shape/form] of material x2
kipi     dance     "x1 (individual, mass) dances to accompaniment/music/rhythm x2"
akiku     dark     x1 is dark/lacking in illumination
anipa     data     x1 (du'u) [fact/measurement] is data/information/statistic(s) about x2 gathered by method x3
puna     date     "x1 is the date [day,{week},{month},year] of event/state x2, at location x3, by calendar x4"
ikipu     daughter     x1 is a daughter of mother/father/parents x2; [not necessarily biological]
tilu     daytime     x1 is the daytime of day x2 at location x3; (adjective:) x1 is diurnal (vs. nocturnal)
piti     dead     x1 is dead/has ceased to be alive
asuvu     dear     x1 is dear/precious/darling to x2; x1 is emotionally valued by x2
nunitu     deceive     x1 (event/experience) misleads/deceives/dupes/fools/cheats/tricks x2 into x3 (event/state)
tuvu     decide     x1 (person) decides/makes decision x2 (du'u) about matter x3 (event/state)
pilisa     decimal     x1 (me'o) is the [decimal/binary] equivalent of fractional x2 (me'o) in base x3 (quantity)
titapu     decrease     x1 (experiencer) decreases/contracts/is reduced/diminished in property/quantity x2 by amount x3
uvu     deep     x1 is deep in extent in direction/property x2 away from reference point x3 by standard x4
tunisi     defend     x1 (event) defends/protects x2 (object/state) from threat/peril/potential x3 (event)
pupiki     delicate     x1 is delicate/fragile/subtle/refined in property x2 (ka)
kupapa     delicious     "x1 is delicious/tasty/delightful to observer/sense x2 [person, or sensory activity]"
tavuvu     dense     x1 is dense/concentrated/packed/intense in property x2 (ka) at location/locus x3
anali     deny     x1 (du'u) contradicts/denies/refutes/negates x2 (du'u) under rules/logic x3
putika     deputy     x1 is a deputy/vice/subordinate in aspect [or organization principle] x2 (ka) to principal x3
vilani     derogative     x1 is a derogative connotation/sense of x2 used by x3; x3 derogates/'curses at' x2 in form x1
ulata     describe     x1 tells about/describes x2 (object/event/state) to audience x3 with description x4 (property)
tisani     desire     x1 desires/wants/wishes x2 (event/state) for purpose x3
usa     destroy     x1 (event) destroys/ruins/wrecks/despoils x2; x1 is destructive
sivu     detail     x1 is a detail/feature/particular of x2
papi     develop     x1 develops/evolves towards/into x2 from x3 through stages x4
pisini     differ     x1 differs/is distinct from/contrasts with/is unlike x2 in property/dimension/quantity x3
vuna     difficult     x1 is difficult/hard/challenging for x2 under conditions x3; x1 challenges (non-agentive) x2
sisi     dig     x1 (agent) digs x2 [material] up/out of x3 [source/hole] with limbs/tool(s) x4
ivi     dim     x1 is dim/dull/pale/non-intense in property x2 (ka) as received/measured by observer x3
livi     dimension     x1 (property - ka) is a dimension of space/object x2 according to rules/model x3
kitu     diplomat     x1 is a diplomat/consul representing polity x2 in/at negotiation x3 for function/purpose x4
vuvi     direction     x1 is the direction of x2 (object/event) from origin/in frame of reference x3
ilika     dirt     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of dirt/soil/earth/ground from source x2 of composition x3
pinu     discover     x1 discovers/finds out x2 (du'u) about subject/object x3; x1 finds (fi) x3 (object)
lilivu     discuss     "x1(s) (mass normally, but 1 individual/jo'u possible) discuss(es)/talk(s) about topic/subject x2"
tipava     disgusting     x1 is repugnant to/causes disgust to x2 under conditions x3
tila     dissolve     x1 dissolves in solvent x2 forming solution/[suspension] x3 under conditions x4
iti     distribute     x1 is distributed/allotted/allocated/shared among x2 with shares/portions x3; (x2/x3 fa'u)
unuli     dive     x1 dives/swoops [manner of controlled falling] to x2 from x3
takavi     divide     x1 (agent) divides/partitions/separates x2 into sections/parts/ind. x3 by method/partition x4
vulaku     do     x1 [person/agent] is an agentive cause of event x2; x1 does/brings about x2
nupa     doctor     x1 doctors/treats/nurses/[cures]/is physician/midwife to x2 for ailment x3 by treatment/cure x4
kani     dollar     "x1 is measured in major-money-units (dollar/yuan/ruble) as x2 (quantity), monetary system x3"
vipuli     door     x1 is a doorway/gateway/access way between x2 and x3 of structure x4
navaki     doubt     x1 doubts/is dubious/doubtful/skeptical/questions that x2 (du'u) is true
isula     drain     x1 liquid/fluid drains/strains/flushes from source x2 through drain/strainer x3 by force x4
susu     drama     x1 is a drama/play about x2 [plot/theme/subject] by dramatist x3 for audience x4 with actors x5
suna     drawer     "x1 is a drawer/file in structure x2, a [sliding compartment] container for contents x3"
akupu     dream     x1 dreams about/that x2 (fact/idea/event/state); x2 is a dream/reverie of x1
lavini     drink     x1 (agent) drinks/imbibes beverage/drink/liquid refreshment x2 from/out-of container/source x3
luluvi     drop     "x1 is a drop [small, cohesive shape] of material [liquid/vapor] x2 in surrounding material x3"
unaka     drum     x1 is a drum/cymbal/gong [percussion musical instrument] with beater/actuator x2
sina     dry     x1 is dry of liquid x2; (adjective:) x1 is arid
lasuvi     duck     x1 is a duck/[drake] of species/breed x2
uvuna     dust     x1 is dust/precipitate [suspensible solid] from x2 in medium/on surface x3
vikaka     dwell     x1 dwells/lives/resides/abides at/inhabits/is a resident of location/habitat/nest/home/abode x2
sanu     ear     "x1 is a/the ear [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: sensory apparatus, information gathering]"
tisa     early     x1 (event) is early by standard x2
akali     earn     x1 (agent/person) earns/[deserves/merits] wages/salary/pay x2 for work/service x3 (activity)
saniva     earth     x1 is the Earth/the home planet of race x2; (adjective:) x1 is terrestrial/earthbound
suviku     east     x1 is to the east/eastern side of x2 according to frame of reference x3
salivi     easy     x1 (action) is easy/simple/facile for x2 (agent) under conditions x3; x2 does x1 freely/easily
apila     eat     x1 eats/ingests/consumes (transitive verb) x2
usuvi     edge     x1 is an edge/margin/border/curb/boundary of x2 next-to/bordering-on x3
nula     egg     x1 is an egg/ovum/sperm/pollen/gamete of/from organism [mother/father] x2
vuka     elastic     (adjective:) x1 is elastic/springy
asaku     elder     x1 is an elder/ancestor of x2 by bond/tie/degree x3; x1's generation precedes x2's parents
puku     electric     x1 is electricity [electric charge or current] in/on x2 of polarity/quantity x3 (def. negative)
nalinu     elephant     x1 is an elephant of species/breed x2
pituta     embarrassed     x1 is embarrassed/disconcerted/flustered/ill-at-ease about/under conditions x2 (abstraction)
panuvi     embryo     "x1 is an embryo/zygote/fetus/fertilized egg with mother x2, and father x3"
akipi     emotion     x1 feels emotion x2 (ka) about x3
sisu     emphasize     x1 emphasizes/accentuates/gives emphasis/stress/accent to x2 by (action) x3
sanana     empty     x1 [container] is empty/vacant of x2 [material]; x1 is hollow
vava     end     x1 is an end/finish/termination of thing/process x2; [not necessarily implying completeness]
ulaki     enemy     x1 is an enemy/opponent/adversary/foe of x2 in struggle x3
pusa     energy     x1 is energy of type x2 in form x3
vitupu     environment     x1 (ind./mass) is part of an environment/surroundings/context/ambience of x2
vukuku     equal     x1 is equal/congruent to/as much as x2 in property/dimension/quantity x3
upiva     era     x1 is an era/epoch/age characterized by x2 (event/property/interval/idea)
uvati     err     "x1 errs in doing/being/making mistake x2 (event), an error under conditions x3 by standard x4"
taku     esteem     x1 esteems/respects/venerates/highly regards x2 [object of respect]
lasita     evening     x1 is an evening [from end-of-work until sleep typical for locale] of day x2 at location x3
ukana     event     x1 (event) is an event that happens/occurs/takes place; x1 is an incident/happening/occurrence
ula     evil     x1 is evil/depraved/wicked [morally bad] by standard x2
vaku     exact     x1 [measurement/match] is exact/precise to precision x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni)
apata     example     x1 is an example/sample/specimen/instance/case/illustration of common property(s) x2 of set x3
sinaka     excess     x1 is an excess of/too much of x2 by standard x3
kavupi     exchange     "x1 exchanges/trades/barters commodity x2 for x3 with x4; x1, x4 is a trader/merchant/businessman"
susi     excrete     x1 [body] excretes waste x2 from source x3 via means/route x4
nipu     exist     x1 exists/is real/actual/reality for x2 under metaphysics x3
apu     experience     x1 [person/passive/state] undergoes/experiences x2 (event/experience); x2 happens to x1
anisi     expert     x1 is an expert/pro/has prowess in/is skilled at x2 (event/activity) by standard x3
lukusi     explain     x1 (person) explains x2 (event/state/property) to x3 with explanation x4 (du'u)
papa     explode     x1 bursts/explodes/violently breaks up/decomposes/combusts into pieces/energy/fragments x2
inatu     exponential     x1 is the exponential result of base x2 to power/exponent x3
pulusa     express     x1 (agent) expresses/says x2 (sedu'u/text/lu'e concept) for audience x3 via expressive medium x4
silisu     eye     x1 is a/the eye [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: sensory apparatus]; (adjective:) x1 is ocular
asuki     fact     "x1 (du'u) is a fact/reality/truth/actuality, in the absolute"
tuna     factory     x1 is a factory/foundry/industrial plant/mill producing x2 from materials x3
lini     fail     x1 fails at doing x2 (state/event); x1 is a failure at its role in x2
pula     fairy     x1 is a fairy/elf/gnome/brownie/pixie/goblin/kobold [mythical humanoid] of mythos/religion x2
ikuka     fall     x1 falls/drops to x2 from x3 in gravity well/frame of reference x4
ulana     falsehood     x1 (du'u) is false/is an untruth by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x2
natisi     familiar     x1 is old/familiar/well-known to observer x2 in feature x3 (ka) by standard x4
satisi     family     x1 (mass) is a family with members including x2 bonded/tied/joined according to standard x3
luku     famous     x1 (person/object/event) is famous/renowned/is a celebrity among community of persons x2 (mass)
akuka     fast     x1 is fast/swift/quick/hastes/rapid at doing/being/bringing about x2 (event/state)
vuli     fasten     x1 (agent) fastens/connects/attaches/binds/lashes x2 to x3 with fastener x4
sunu     fate     "x1 is a fate/destiny of x2; [doom, curse are mabla-forms]; x2 is fated/predestined/doomed to x1"
livala     father     x1 is a father of x2; x1 begets/sires/acts paternal towards x2; [not necessarily biological]
itipi     favorable     x1 is a favorable connotation/sense/way-of-looking-at x2 used by x3
usili     fear     x1 fears x2; x1 is afraid/scared/frightened by/fearful of x2 (event/tu'a object)
pivi     feather     x1 is a/the feather/plume(s)/plumage [body-part] of animal/species x2
kakavi     feces     x1 is a/the feces/excrement/dung/shit of x2 (animal/person); (adjective:) x1 is fecal (matter)
ataki     female     x1 is a female/doe of species x2 evidencing feminine trait(s) x3 (ka); x1 is feminine
nipuku     fertile     x1 is fertile/conducive for supporting the growth/development of x2; x1 is fruitful/prolific
aku     fiction     x1 is a work of fiction about plot/theme/subject x2/under convention x2 by author x3
ikani     field     x1 is a field [shape/form] of material x2; x1 is a broad uniform expanse of x2
ipili     fig     x1 is a fig [fruit/tree] of species/strain x2
tisasa     fight     x1 fights/combats/struggles with x2 over issue x3 (abstract); x1 is a fighter/combatant
pasuku     fill     x1 (object) fills/becomes stuffed [up]/inflates/blows up with material x2; x2 pours into x1
tikiku     finger     x1 is a/the finger/digit/toe [body-part] on limb/body site x2 of body x3; [metaphor: peninsula]
isiki     fire     x1 is a fire/flame in fuel x2 burning-in/reacting-with oxidizer x3 (default air/oxygen)
tanavi     firm     x1 is firm/hard/resistant/unyielding to force x2 under conditions x3
lisa     fit     x1 fits/matches/suits/is compatible/appropriate/corresponds to/with x2 in property/aspect x3
ali     flag     x1 is a flag/banner/standard of/symbolizing x2 with pattern(s) x3 on material x4
sanuta     flaw     x1 (property - ka) is a flaw/fault/defect in x2 causing x3
salaku     flight     x1 flies [in air/atmosphere] using lifting/propulsion means x2
vikuta     float     x1 (passive) floats on/in fluid (gas/liquid) x2; x1 is buoyant
apiva     floor     x1 is a floor/bottom/ground of x2
itipu     flow     x1 is a current/flow/river of/in x2 flowing in direction to/towards x3 from direction/source x4
ilasa     flower     x1 is a/the flower/blossom/bloom [body-part] of plant/species x2; (adjective:) x1 is floral
utala     flute     x1 is a flute/pipe/fife/recorder [flute-like/air-reed musical instrument]
usipu     fly     x1 is a fly [a small non-stinging flying insect] of species/breed x2
lisuta     foam     "x1 is a quantity of foam/froth/suds of material x2, with bubbles/vacuoles of material x3"
silivi     fog     x1 is foggy/misty/covered by a fog/mist/vapor of liquid x2
kapitu     fold     x1 (force) folds/creases x2 at locus/loci/forming crease(s)/bend(s) x3
kana     fond     x1 is fond of/likes/has a taste for x2 (object/state)
sisa     food     x1 is food/feed/nutriment for x2; x1 is edible/gives nutrition to x2
luvini     foolish     x1 is foolish/silly in event/action/property [folly] (ka) x2; x1 is a boob
apapu     foot     x1 is a/the foot [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: lowest portion] (adjective:) x1 is pedal
ulili     force     x1 [force] (ka) forces/compels event x2 to occur; x1 determines property x2 to manifest
tukulu     forgive     x1 forgives x2 for event/state/activity x3
tipitu     fork     x1 is a fork/fork-type tool/utensil for purpose x2 with tines/prongs x3 on base/support x4
apapi     fraction     "x1 is a fraction, with numerator x2, denominator x3 (x2/x3)"
vikuti     frame     x1 is a frame/structure/skeleton/outline supporting/load-bearing/determining the form of x2
tata     free     x1 is free/at liberty to do/be x2 (event/state) under conditions x3
ivuva     freeze     x1 freezes/jells/solidifies at temperature x2 and pressure x3
vivini     fresh     (adjective:) x1 is fresh/unspoiled
kivuku     friction     x1 is friction [force opposing motion] due to contact/rubbing between x2 and x3; (fe) x2 rubs x3
lila     friend     x1 is/acts as a friend of/to x2 (experiencer); x2 befriends x1
alaki     front     x1 is anterior/ahead/forward/(in/on) the front of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3
natupa     frown     x1 frowns/grimaces (facial expression)
vatu     fruit     x1 is a fruit [body-part] of species x2
nanitu     frustration     x1 feels frustration about x2 (abstraction)
lavilu     fuel     x1 is a fuel/energy-source for powering x2
tasivu     full     x1 is full/completely filled with x2
apaki     full day     x1 is x2 full days in duration (default is 1 day) by standard x3; (adjective:) x1 is diurnal
nutili     function     x1 is a function/single-valued mapping from domain x2 to range x3 defined by expression/rule x4
kaputu     funny     x1 is funny/comical to x2 in property/aspect x3 (nu/ka); x3 is what is funny about x1 to x2
isapa     funny     x1 is funny/comical to x2 in property/aspect x3 (nu/ka); x3 is what is funny about x1 to x2
vanu     furniture     x1 [furniture items] furnishes x2 [location] serving purpose/function x3
liki     future     x1 is in the future of/later than/after x2 in time sequence; x1 is latter; x2 is former
uvupa     gallon     "x1 is x2 (default 1) local volume unit(s) [non-metric; e.g. bushel], standard x3, x4 subunits"
ivu     garden     x1 is a garden/tended/cultivated field of family/community/farmer x2 growing plants/crop x3
kutiti     garlic     x1 is a quantity of garlic [bulb] of species/strain x2
kini     garment     x1 is dress/a garment/clothing for wearing by x2 (gender/species/body part) serving purpose x3
utuka     gas     "x1 is gaseous/fumes/a gas/vapor of material/composition including x2, under conditions x3"
aviku     gather     x1 (mass/jo'u) gathers/collects at location x2 from locations x3 (mass/jo'u)
tatupi     gem     x1 is a gem/polished stone/pearl of type x2 from gemstone/material/source x3
napuva     gene     x1 is a gene of creature [or locus on creature] x2 determining trait/process x3
kivali     germ     x1 is a bacteria/germ/microbe/protozoan/amoeba [1-celled life] of species/defining property x2
upavi     get     x1 gets/procures/acquires/obtains/accepts x2 from source x3 [previous possessor not implied]
ipini     girl     x1 is a girl [young female person] of age x2 immature by standard x3
tinipa     give     x1 [donor] gives/donates gift/present x2 to recipient/beneficiary x3 [without payment/exchange]
nitipa     gland     "x1 is a/the gland [body-part] secreting x2, of body x3; x2 is a secretion of x1"
ukuta     glass     x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains glass of composition including x2
ilipa     glimmering     x1 is the [astronomical] twilight/dawn/dusk/half-light/glimmering of day x2 at location x3
pusasi     glove     x1 is a mitten/glove [hand and lower arm garment] of material x2
kakava     god     x1 is a/the god/deity of people(s)/religion x2 with dominion over x3 [sphere]; x1 is divine
vili     gold     "x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of gold (Au); [metaphor: valuable, heavy, non-reactive]"
katu     gonad     "x1 is a/the testes/ovary/testicle/scrotum/balls/gonad/stamen/pistil [body-part] of x2, gender x3"
alanu     good     x1 (object/event) is good/beneficial/nice/[acceptable] for x2 by standard x3
pinapi     goose     x1 is a goose/[gander] of species/breed x2
akanu     govern     x1 governs/rules/is ruler/governor/sovereign/reigns over people/territory/domain/subjects x2
ususi     grain     x1 is grain/[British: corn]/cereal from plant/species x2
uluva     gram     x1 is x2 gram(s) [metric unit] in mass (default is 1) by standard x3
ulavi     grammar     x1 is the grammar/rules/defining form of language x2 for structure/text x3
nila     grasp     x1 grasps/holds/clutches/seizes/grips/[hugs] x2 with x3 (part of x1) at locus x4 (part of x2)
inati     grass     x1 is a blade/expanse of grass of species x2
ikunu     grateful     x1 is grateful/thankful to/appreciative of x2 for x3 (event/property)
unuva     gray     x1 is gray [color adjective]
kapalu     grease     x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains grease/fat/oil from source x2
pilu     great     x1 is great/grand in property x2 (ka) by standard x3
uti     green     x1 is green/verdant [color adjective]
apapa     greet     x1 (agent) greets/hails/[welcomes/says hello to]/responds to arrival of x2 in manner x3 (action)
uvasi     grind     x1 [individual or mass of hard surfaces] grinds/pulverizes/crushes x2 into powder x3
vakipu     groove     x1 is a groove/trench/furrow [shape/form] in object/surface x2
ituki     group     x1 is group/cluster/team showing common property (ka) x2 due to set x3 linked by relations x4
usipa     grow     x1 grows/expands [an increasing development] to size/into form x2 from x3
asasu     guess     x1 guesses/conjectures/surmises x2 (du'u) is true about subject x3; [epistemology]
suvisi     guest     x1 is a guest/visitor of x2 at place/event x3; x1 visits x2/x3
kitapa     guide     x1 (person/object/event) guides/conducts/pilots/leads x2 (active participants) in/at x3 (event)
kasasu     guilt     x1 feels guilt/remorse about x2 (abstraction)
vitiva     guitar     x1 is guitar/violin/fiddle/harp [stringed musical instrument] with actuator/plectrum/bow x2
vuva     gut     x1 is a/the gut(s)/entrails/intestines/viscera/innards/digestive system [body-part] of x2
nituvi     gymnast     x1 is a gymnast at/performs gymnastics feat x2
atana     hail     x1 is hail/sleet/freezing rain/solid precipitation of material/composition including x2
lusuku     half     x1 is exactly/approximately half/semi-/demi-/hemi- of x2 by standard x3
kita     hammer     x1 [tool] is a hammer for/hammers x2 [target] consisting of weight/head x3 propelled by x4
asipi     hang     x1 hangs/dangles/is suspended from x2 by/at/with joint x3
ukata     happy     x1 is happy/gay/merry/glad/gleeful about x2 (event/state)
anuvi     harmonious     x1 is harmonious/concordant/in agreement/concord with x2 in property x3 (ka)
ulula     harvest     x1 (agent) harvests/reaps/gathers crop/product/objects x2 from source/area x3
viva     hate     x1 hates/despises x2 (object/abstraction); x1 is full of hate for x2; x2 is odious to x1
sili     head     x1 is a/the head [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: uppermost portion]
litana     healthy     x1 is healthy/fit/well/in good health by standard x2
vinala     heap     x1 is a heap/pile/stack/mound/hill of materials x2 at location x3
pisa     hear     x1 hears x2 against background/noise x3; x2 is audible; (adjective:) x1 is aural
nasa     heart     x1 is a/the heart [body-part] of x2; [emotional/shape metaphors are NOT culturally neutral]
tipiki     heavy     x1 is heavy/weighty in mass/weight by standard x2
nipisi     heir     x1 is an heir to/is to inherit x2 (object/quality) from x3 according to rule x4
uvipu     help     x1 helps/assists/aids object/person x2 do/achieve/maintain event/activity x3
lupuva     hemp     x1 is a quantity of hemp/marijuana/jute of species/strain x2
sinala     high     x1 is high/up/upward in frame of reference x2 as compared with baseline/standard height x3
pukilu     history     x1 is a history of x2 according to x3 (person)/from point-of-view x3
usapi     hit     x1 hits/strikes/[beats] x2 with instrument [or body-part] x3 at locus x4
nina     holy     x1 is holy/sacred to person/people/culture/religion/cult/group x2
aluvi     honest     x1 is honest/open/truthfully revealing to/candid/frank with x2 about matter/fact x3
livaka     hoof     x1 is a/the hoof [body-part] of x2
susaka     hook     x1 is a hook/crook [shape/form] of material x2
usiva     hope     "x1 hopes/wishes for/desires x2 (event), expected likelihood x3 (0-1); x1 hopes that x2 happens"
kapa     horn     x1 is a/the horn [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: pointed extremity]
lasi     hospital     x1 is a hospital treating patient(s) x2 for condition/injuries/disease/illness x3
inusi     hot     x1 is hot/[warm] by standard x2
utuvi     hotel     x1 is a hotel/inn/hostel at location x2 operated by x3
isu     hour     x1 is x2 hours in duration (default is 1 hour) by standard x3
paka     human     x1 is a human/human being/man (non-specific gender-free sense); (adjective:) x1 is human
naluka     humble     x1 is humble/modest about x2 (abstraction); x1 displays humility about x2
ikiti     hunger     x1 hungers for x2; x1 needs/wants food/fuel x2
lipuli     hunt     x1 hunts/stalks prey/quarry/game x2 for purpose x3
unipa     hydrogen     "x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of hydrogen (H); [metaphor: light, flammable]"
avini     ice     x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains ice [frozen crystal] of composition/material x2
puka     idea     x1 (idea abstract) is an idea/concept/thought about x2 (object/abstract) by thinker x3
visi     idle     x1 is idle/at rest/inactive
uvusu     ill     x1 is ill/sick/diseased with symptoms x2 from disease x3
anisa     illumine     x1 [energy] is light/illumination illuminating x2 from light source x3
kunani     imaginary     x1 [concept] exists in the imagination of/is imagined by/is imaginary to x2
ipila     immaterial     x1 is immaterial/not physical/without material form
nanu     immerse     x1 (object/person) is immersed/submerged/bathes in liquid x2
utanu     important     x1 (object/event) is important/significant to x2 (person/event) in aspect/for reason x3 (nu/ka)
vuvu     in     x1 is in/inside/within x2; x1 is on the inside/interior of x2 [totally within the bounds of x2]
apana     increase     x1 (experiencer) increases/is incremented/augmented in property/quantity x2 by amount x3
sipa     industry     x1 is industry/industrial/systematic manufacturing activity producing x2 by process/means x3
avasu     infant     x1 is an infant/baby [helpless through youth/incomplete development] of species x2
inaka     infinite     "x1 is infinite/unending/eternal in property/dimension x2, to degree x3 (quantity)/of type x3"
ipuva     influence     x1 (agent) influences/lures/tempts x2 into action/state x3 by influence/threat/lure x4
paniti     initiate     x1 [state/event/process] commences/initiates/starts/begins to occur; (intransitive verb)
lilu     injure     x1 (event) injures/harms/damages victim x2 in property x3 (ka) resulting in injury x4 (state)
putili     ink     x1 is a quantity of ink of color/pigment x2 used by writing device x3
isiti     innate     x1 (property - ka) is an innate/inherent/intrinsic/natural property/quality/aspect of x2
pasu     insect     x1 is an insect/arthropod of species x2; [bug/beetle]
tivu     insert     x1 (agent) inserts/interposes/puts/deposits x2 into interior x3/into among/between members of x3
kuluni     insure     x1 insures/indemnifies x2 (person) against peril x3 (event) providing benefit(s) x4 (event)
vitu     intense     x1 is intense/bright/saturated/brilliant in property (ka) x2 as received/measured by observer x3
vavu     interesting     x1 (abstraction) interests/is interesting to x2; x2 is interested in x1
utiku     interfere     x1 (evt./state) interferes with/hinders/disrupts x2 (evt./state/process) due to quality x3 (ka)
kuvapu     interrupt     x1 (event) interrupts/stops/halts/[disrupts] x2 (object/event/process) due to quality x3
vaka     intersect     x1 intersects/crosses/traverses x2 at locus x3
sapa     intuit     x1 (person) intuits x2 (du'u) about subject x3; [epistemology]
lasili     invent     x1 invents/creates/composes/authors x2 for function/purpose x3 from existing elements/ideas x4
uvusa     invest     x1 (agent) invests resources x2 in investment x3 expecting return/profit x4 (object(s)/event)
nana     iron     "x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of iron (Fe); [metaphor: strong, durable, tarnishing]"
valilu     irony     x1 is ironic(al)/contrary to expectation x2 in state/property/aspect x3
katavu     irregular     x1 is irregular/occasional/intermittent in property/action/aspect x2
avali     island     x1 is an island/atoll/key of [material/properties] x2 in surroundings/body x3; x1 is insular
latitu     jaw     x1 is a/the jaw [body-part] of x2
nita     jealous     x1 (person) is jealous of/envies x2 (person) about/for x3 (property - ka)
kapinu     jelly     x1 is a quantity of jelly/semisolid [texture] of material/composition including x2
kikusa     jet     x1 is a jet [expelled stream] of material x2 expelled from x3
suvasi     job     x1 is a job/occupation/employment/vocation (a type of work regularly done for pay) of person x2
tutiku     joined     x1 is joined to/connects to/is united with x2 at common locus x3; x1 and x2 are a union
katiki     jointly     "x1 is a mass/team/aggregate/whole, together composed of components x2, considered jointly"
pitunu     journal     x1 is a journal/periodical/magazine/[newspaper] with content x2 published by x3 for audience x4
ulani     judge     x1 judges/referees/arbitrates/is a judge determining/deciding matter x2 (abstract)
lavapu     juice     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of juice/nectar from-source/of-type x2
alina     key     "x1 is a key fitting/releasing/opening/unlocking lock x2, and having relevant properties x3"
ipusu     kick     "x1 kicks [hits with x1's foot/feet x4] x2 in/at locus x3, using x1's foot/feet x4"
kiki     kill     x1 (agent) kills/slaughters/murders x2 by action/method x3
tuka     kind     x1 (person) is kind to x2 in actions/behavior x3
usita     kiss     x1 (agent) kisses/busses x2 at locus x3
lavivu     knee     "x1 is a/the knee/elbow/knuckle [hinged joint, body-part] of limb x2 of body x3"
nitisa     knife     "x1 is a knife (tool) for cutting x2, with blade of material x3"
ikapi     knit     x1 (agent) knits x2 [cloth/object] from yarn/thread x3
pakulu     knot     x1 is a knot/tangle in/between x2 (object/jo'u-objects)
lunapi     know     x1 knows fact(s) x2 (du'u) about subject x3 by epistemology x4
ninu     label     x1 is a label/tag of x2 showing information x3
isasi     lake     x1 is a lake/lagoon/pool at site/within land mass x2
pana     land     x1 is a parcel/expanse of land at location x2; x1 is terrain
analu     language     "x1 is a/the language/dialect used by x2 to express/communicate x3 (si'o/du'u, not quote)"
vila     late     x1 (event) is late by standard x2
luvika     laugh     x1 laughs (emotional expression)
inina     launcher     "x1 launches/fires/shoots projectile/missile x2, propelled by x3 [propellant/propulsion]"
sasaku     law     x1 is a law specifying x2 (state/event) for community x3 under conditions x4 by lawgiver(s) x5
pipa     layer     x1 is a layer/stratum [shape/form] of x2 [material] within structure/continuum/composite x3
sakuki     lazy     x1 (person) is lazy/avoiding work/effort concerning action x2
pava     lead     "x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of lead (Pb); [metaphor: heavy, malleable, soft metal]"
pasita     leaf     x1 is a leaf of plant x2; x1 is foliage of x2
ilani     learn     x1 learns x2 (du'u) about subject x3 from source x4 (obj./event) by method x5 (event/process)
aviti     leave     x1 leaves/goes away/departs/parts/separates from x2 via route x3
vatulu     left     x1 is to the left/left-hand side of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3
avila     left     x1 is to the left/left-hand side of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3
kutipi     leg     x1 is a/the leg [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: supporting branch]
kavu     lens     x1 is a lens/glass [focussing shape/form] focussing x2 to focus/foci x3 by means/material x4
kusu     let     x1 (agent) lets/permits/allows x2 (event) under conditions x3; x1 grants privilege x2
akaki     letter     x1 is a letter/missive/[note] to intended audience x2 from author/originator x3 with content x4
tula     letteral     x1 (la'e zo BY/word-bu) is a letter/digit/symbol in alphabet/character-set x2 representing x3
ulatu     level     x1 is flat/level/horizontal in gravity/frame of reference x2
supa     levity     x1 uses levity/is non-serious/frivolous about x2 (abstraction)
pulupa     lift     x1 (force) lifts/applies raising/supporting force to x2 at locus x3 in gravity well x4
ilisi     lightning     x1 is lightning/electrical arc/thunderbolt striking at/extending to x2 from x3
avuni     lightweight     x1 is light in mass/weight by standard x2
valasu     limit     x1 is a limit/extreme/bound/border/[confinement] of x2 in property/domain x3
nukipi     line     x1 is a line/among lines [1-dimensional shape/form] defined by set of points x2
lunuvu     linen     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of linen/flax [type of fabric/material]
pisati     lion     x1 is a lion/[lioness] of species/breed x2
sakaka     lip     x1 is a/the lip [body-part]/rim of orifice x2 of body x3; (adjective:) x1 is labial
lupipa     liquid     "x1 is liquid/fluid, of composition/material including x2, under conditions x3"
tilupa     liquor     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of liquor/spirits distilled from x2
ulupi     list     x1 (physical object) is a list/catalog/register of sequence/set x2 in order x3 in medium x4
isusi     liter     x1 is x2 liter(s) [metric unit] in volume (default is 1) by standard x3
suvuni     live     x1 lives/is alive by standard x2; x1 is an organism/living thing
ivina     liver     x1 is a/the liver [body-part] of x2
kapiki     local     x1 is local to x2; x1 is confined to locus x2 within range x3
ivuta     lock     x1 is a lock/seal of/on/for sealing x2 with/by locking mechanism x3
lusa     logarithm     x1 is the logarithm of x2 with base x3
avuka     logic     x1 [rules/methods] is a logic for deducing/concluding/inferring/reasoning to/about x2 (du'u)
ukuku     long     x1 is long in dimension/direction x2 (default longest dimension) by measurement standard x3
tiku     look     x1 looks at/examines/views/inspects/regards/watches/gazes at x2
ununu     loop     x1 is a loop/circuit of x2 [material]
nakava     loose     x1 (obj.) is loose/bloused/not tight on x2 (obj.) at locus x3
tapava     lose     x1 loses person/thing x2 at/near x3; x1 loses property/feature x2 in conditions/situation x3
lusu     loud     x1 is loud/noisy at observation point x2 by standard x3
pukavu     louse     "x1 is a louse/flea [blood-sucking arthropod] of species/breed x2, parasitic on x3"
tupi     love     x1 loves/feels strong affectionate devotion towards x2 (object/state)
pulini     low     x1 is low/down/downward in frame of reference x2 as compared with baseline/standard height x3
tupu     luck     x1 (event/property) is determined by the luck/fortune of x2; (note mabla/zabna not implied)
valitu     lunar     x1 is Earth's moon (default); x1 is a major natural satellite/moon of planet x2
vusilu     lung     x1 is a/the lung [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: breathing/respiratory apparatus/bellows]
vali     machine     "x1 is a machine for use/function x2; [automated apparatus, without direct function control]"
ililu     magenta     x1 is magenta/fuchsia/purplish-red [color adjective]
nala     magic     "x1 is magic/supernatural/sorcery/witchcraft/wizardry to x2, performed by person/force/deity x3"
ilita     magnet     x1 is magnetic [adjective] producing magnetic field x2
kuti     mail     x1 mails/posts [transfer via intermediary service] x2 to x3 from x4 by carrier/network/system x5
kusapi     maize     x1 is a quantity of maize/corn [grain] of species/strain x2
kati     make     x1 makes/assembles/builds/manufactures/creates x2 out of materials/parts/components x3
unana     male     x1 is a male/buck of species x2 evidencing masculine trait(s) x3 (ka); x1 is masculine
luva     mammal     x1 is a mammal/'animal'/beast of species x2
ulisa     man     x1 is a man/men; x1 is a male humanoid person [not necessarily adult]
vaki     manual     x1 (event/action/process) is manual [not automatic] in function x2 under conditions x3
pakapi     mark     x1(s) is a/are mark(s)/spot(s) on x2 of material x3
tusuli     market     "x1 is a market/store/exchange/shop(s) selling/trading (for) x2, operated by/with participants x3"
nuvaka     married     x1 is married to x2; x1 is a spouse of x2 under law/custom/tradition/system/convention x3
linupi     mash     x1 [force] mashes/crushes/squashes/smashes x2 into pulp/mash/crumbs/deformed mass x3
kali     mat     "x1 is a mat/pad/mattress/pallet [flat, soft, dense form] of material x2"
suvusu     match     x1 is a match [incendiary device] made of x2
usala     material     x1 is material/stuff/matter of type/composition including x2 in shape/form x3
vituta     mathematics     x1 is a mathematics of type/describing x2
savapa     mature     x1 is mature/ripe/fully-grown/adult in development-quality x2 (ka)
likalu     meal     x1 (mass) is a meal composed of dishes including x2
itinu     meaning     x1 is a meaning/interpretation of x2 recognized/seen/accepted by x3
tuvali     measure     "x1 (agent) measures/evaluates x2 [quantity] as x3 units on scale x4 (si'o), with accuracy x5"
nupiku     meat     x1 is a quantity of/contains meat/flesh from source/animal x2
puva     meet     x1 meets/encounters x2 at/in location x3
katana     melon     x1 is a melon/squash [fruit/plant] of species/strain x2
lanupi     melt     x1 melts [becomes liquid from solid state] at temperature x2 and pressure x3
livina     member     x1 is a member/element of set x2; x1 belongs to group x2; x1 is amid/among/amongst group x2
papu     mercury     x1 is a quantity of/contains/made of mercury/quicksilver; [metaphor: fluid metal; temperature]
nati     message     x1 is a message/notice/memorandum about subject x2 from author x3 to intended audience x4
upupu     metal     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of made of metal of composition including x2
vatita     meter     x1 is x2 meter(s) [metric unit] in length (default 1) measured in direction x3 by standard x4
vunapu     method     x1 [process] is a method/technique/approach/means for doing x2 (event) under conditions x3
aka     middle     x1 is in/at the middle/center/midpoint/[is a focus] of x2; (adjective:) x1 is central
ikutu     mild     x1 is mild/non-extreme/gentle/middling/somewhat in property x2 (ka); x1 is not very x2
linusi     mile     "x1 is x2 (default 1) long local distance unit(s) [non-metric], x3 subunits, standard x4"
nika     military     x1 is military/regimented/is strongly organized/prepared by system x2 for purpose x3
utini     milk     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of milk from source x2; (adjective:) x1 is lactic/dairy
nipavu     mill     x1 is a mill/foundry/industrial plant/[assembly line] performing process x2
ivutu     millet     x1 is a quantity of millet [grain] of species/strain x2
ulali     mind     x1 is a mind/intellect/psyche/mentality/[consciousness] of body x2
linu     mineral     x1 is/contains/is made from a mineral/ore of type/metal x2 mined from location/lode/mine x3
tikupu     minute     x1 is x2 minutes in duration (default is 1 minute) by standard x3
suvu     miscellaneous     x1 (set/mass/ind.) is miscellaneous/various/assorted in property x2 (ka)
avu     mixture     x1 (mass) is a mixture/blend/colloid/commingling with ingredients including x2
lavipa     moan     x1 utters moan/groan/howl/scream [non-linguistic utterance] x2 expressing x3 (property)
luvu     modify     x1 (event) modifies/alters/changes/transforms/converts x2 into x3
nilinu     moist     x1 is moist/wet/damp with liquid x2
tavu     mold     x1 is a mold/fungus/mushrooms/truffles of species/strain x2 parasitic/growing on x3
tatu     money     x1 is money/currency issued by x2; (adjective:) x1 is financial/monetary/pecuniary/fiscal
akati     monkey     x1 is a monkey/ape/simian/baboon/chimpanzee of species/breed x2
napiki     month     x1 is x2 months in duration (default is 1 month) by month standard x3
ukalu     morals     x1 are the ethics/morals/moral standards/ethical standards of x2 (ind./mass) about situation x3
viti     more     x1 exceeds/is more than x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni) by amount/excess x4
tuvapu     morning     x1 is a morning [dawn until after typical start-of-work for locale] of day x2 at location x3
vupi     mossy     x1 is a moss/lichen of species/strain x2 growing on x3; (adjective:) x1 is mossy
nisa     mother     x1 is a mother of x2; x1 bears/mothers/acts maternally toward x2; [not necessarily biological]
atapu     motive     "x1 (action/event/state) motivates/is a motive/incentive for action/event x2, per volition of x3"
pulaki     motor     "x1 is a motor/engine, driving/propelling/providing power to x2"
asisu     mountain     x1 is a mountain/hill/mound/[rise]/[peak]/[summit]/[highlands] projecting from land mass x2
kuna     mouse     x1 is a mouse of species/breed x2
ipipu     mouse     x1 is a mouse of species/breed x2
iluva     mouth     x1 is a/the mouth/oral cavity [body-part] of x2; (metaphor: entrance/intake for consumption)
nusavu     move     x1 (object) moves to destination/receiver x2 [away] from origin x3 over path/route x4
lilala     much     "x1 is much/extreme in property x2 (ka), towards x3 extreme/direction; x1 is, in x2, very x3"
usutu     multiply     x1 is the product/total/result of factors/multiplicands (x2 and x3) x2 multiplied by x3
unina     muscle     "x1 is a/the muscle [body-part] controlling x2, of body x3; [metaphor: tools of physical power]"
taviki     museum     x1 is a museum for preserving [and possibly exhibiting] x2 at location x3
vavata     music     x1 is music performed/produced by x2 (event)
atasa     mutual     x1 (set) has members who mutually/reciprocally x2 (event [x1 should be reflexive in 1+ sumti])
ava     myth     "x1 is a myth/legend, a culturally significant story about x2 in mythos x3 of culture x4"
tusu     nail     "x1 is a nail/tack [pointed driven/frictional fastener] of type/size x2 (ka), made of material x3"
apipa     name     x1 (quoted word(s)) is a/the name/title/tag of x2 to/used-by namer/name-user x3 (person)
takini     narrow     x1 is narrow in dimension x2 [2nd most significant dimension] by standard x3
siku     nation     x1 is a nation/ethnic group of peoples x2; [people sharing a history/culture]
vulusu     natural     "x1 is natural/spontaneous/instinctive, not [consciously] caused by person(s)"
anasu     near     x1 is near/close to/approximates x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni)
uvina     necessary     x1 (abstract) is necessary/required for continuing state/process x2 under conditions x3
usunu     necessitate     x1 logically necessitates/entails/implies action/event/state x2 under rules/logic system x3
tikisa     neck     x1 is a/the neck [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: a relatively narrow point]
niti     need     x1 needs/requires/is dependent on/[wants] necessity x2 for purpose/action/stage of process x3
piku     needle     "x1 is a needle [pointed shape/form, not tool] of material x2"
kisivi     neon     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of inert gas of type x2 [neon/argon/radon/xenon]
luni     nerve     x1 is a nerve/neuron [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: information/control network connection]
lututa     nervous     x1 is nervous/anxious about x2 (abstraction) under conditions x3
niniva     nest     x1 is a nest/house/lair/den/[home] of/for x2
nikila     net     "x1 is a net/filter allowing passage of x2, prohibiting passage of x3, netting properties x4"
patu     neutral     x1 is neutral/not taking sides/medial/not towards any extreme on scale/in dissension x2
nusi     new     x1 is new/unfamiliar/novel to observer x2 in feature x3 (ka) by standard x4; x1 is a novelty
ativu     news     "x1 (du'u) is news/tidings/new information about subject x2 from source x3, to observer x4"
inivu     nickel     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of nickel/other metal resistant to oxidation
kisusa     night     x1 is a nighttime of day x2 at location x3; (adjective:) x1 is at night/nocturnal
supusu     nitrogen     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of nitrogen/ammonia/nitrates
aluva     noble     x1 is noble/aristocratic/elite/high-born/titled in/under culture/society/standard x2
kituti     noise     x1 is a noise/din/clamor [sensory input without useful information] to x2 via sensory channel x3
atavi     norm     x1 [value] is a norm/average in property/amount x2 (ka/ni) among x3(s) (set) by standard x4
sutati     north     x1 is to the north/northern side [right-hand-rule pole] of x2 according to frame of reference x3
kaka     nose     x1 is the nose [body-part] of x2 with nostril(s)/nasal passage(s) x3; [metaphor: protrusion]
kalusu     now     x1 is current at/in the present of/during/concurrent/simultaneous with x2 in time
inipu     number     x1 (li) is a number/quantifier/digit/value/figure (noun); refers to the value and not the symbol
tisi     nut     x1 is a nut [body-part: hard-shelled fruit] from plant/species x2 with shell x3 and kernel x4
palaku     oak     "x1 is an oak, a type of tree of species/strain x2"
uvuki     oats     x1 is a quantity of oats [grain] of species/strain x2
ivapa     obey     x1 obeys/follows the command/rule x2 made by x3; (adjective:) x1 is obedient
kuvupu     object     x1 is a material object enduring in space-time; x1 is a thing
kusuna     obliged     x1 is bound/obliged to/has the duty to do/be x2 in/by standard/agreement x3; x1 must do x2
iluku     observe     x1 observes/[notices]/watches/beholds x2 using senses/means x3 under conditions x4
puli     odor     x1 is an odor/fragrance/scent/smell emitted by x2 and detected by observer/sensor x3
lipaku     offer     x1 offers/proffers x2 [offering] to x3 with conditions x4
laki     office     x1 is an office/bureau/work-place of worker x2 at location x3
lakika     offspring     x1 is a [biological] offspring/child/kid/hybrid of parent(s) x2; (adjective:) x1 is filial
nikapi     often     x1 (event) often/frequently/commonly/customarily occurs/recurs by standard x2
kuputi     onion     x1 is a quantity of/contains onions/scallions of type/cultivar x2
sulipi     open     x1 (portal/passage/entrance-way) is open/ajar/not shut permitting passage/access to x2 by x3
tasa     operate     x1 operates/drives/runs x2 [apparatus/machine] with goal/objective/use/end/function x3
putaku     opine     x1 thinks/opines x2 [opinion] (du'u) is true about subject/issue x3 on grounds x4
kakina     oppose     x1 opposes/balances/contends against opponent(s) x2 (person/force ind./mass) about x3 (abstract)
ululi     opposite     x1 is polar opposite from/contrary to x2 in property/on scale x3 (property/si'o)
tipula     orange     x1 is orange [color adjective]
pupa     orderly     x1 is orderly/neat/ordered in property/quantity x2 (ka/ni)
linipa     ordinary     x1 [member] is ordinary/common/typical/usual in property x2 (ka) among members of x3 (set)
ipuki     organ     x1 is a/the body organ [body-part] of body/species x2 performing function x3
sivisi     organize     x1 organizes x2 [relative chaos] into x3 [ordered/organized result] by system/principle(s) x4
anati     oscillate     x1 oscillates at rate/frequency x2 through set/sequence-of-states x3 (complete specification)
vuvunu     other     x1 isn't the-same-thing-as/is different-from/other-than x2 by standard x3; x1 is something else
sunala     out     x1 is on the outside of x2; x1 is exterior to x2
vavi     outer space     x1 is outer space near/associated with celestial body/region x2
upila     oven     x1 is an oven [enclosure that heats its contents] for baking/heating/drying x2
ulapi     owe     "x1 owes x2 in debt/obligation to creditor x3 in return for x4 [service, loan]; x1 is a debtor"
navula     oxygen     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of oxygen (O); [metaphor: supporting life/combustion]
vuta     page     x1 is a [physical] page/leaf of book/document/bound mass of pages x2
nilaku     pain     x1 hurts/feels pain/hurt at locus x2
pilana     paint     "x1 [material] is a paint of pigment/active substance x2, in a base of x3"
nuta     pan     "x1 is a pan/basin/tub/sink, a shallow container for contents x2, of material/properties x3"
tiluli     panic     x1 (person) is panicked by crisis x2 (event/state)
upuli     pants     x1 are pants/trousers/slacks/leggings [legged garment] of material x2
vikina     paper     x1 is paper from source x2
inupa     parallel     x1 parallels x2 differing only in property x3 (ka; jo'u/fa'u term) by standard/geometry x4
pavu     parent     x1 is a parent of/raises/rears x2; x1 mentors/acts parental toward child/protege x2
ukatu     park     x1 is a park/land reserve managed by community/polity/company x2 for purpose x3
panaku     part     x1 is a part/component/piece/portion/segment of x2 [where x2 is a whole/mass]; x2 is partly x1
avuvu     pass through     x1 passes through/penetrates barrier/medium/portal x2 to destination side x3 from origin side x4
sakala     passport     x1 is a passport issued to x2 (person) by authority x3 allowing x4 (activity)
itupu     past     x1 is in the past of/earlier than/before x2 in time sequence; x1 is former; x2 is latter
ikipi     paste     "x1 is paste/pulp/dough/mash/mud/slurry [soft, smooth-textured, moist solid] of composition x2"
siluna     pattern     x1 is/reflects/represents a pattern of forms/events x2 arranged according to structure x3
ukuka     pay     x1 pays/compensates/remunerates/[rewards] payment x2 to recipient/payee x3 for goods/services x4
tasaku     peace     x1 is at peace with x2
silini     pear     x1 is a pear [fruit] of species/strain x2
akunu     pedestal     "x1 is a pedestal/base/stand/pallet supporting x2 (object/event), of materials/properties x3"
asuti     pelt     x1 is a pelt/skin/hide/leather from x2
liti     pen     x1 is a pen using ink x2 applied by process x3
kuva     pencil     "x1 is a pencil/crayon/stylus applying lead/marking material x2, frame/support [of material] x3"
vakilu     penis     x1 is a/the clitoris/penis [projecting reproductive organ; body-part] of x2
nupi     perfect     x1 is perfect/ideal/archetypical/faultless/flawless/un-improvable in property/aspect x2 (ka)
sukuku     perform     x1 performs x2 [performance] for/before audience x3
nupiva     peril     x1 is perilous/dangerous/potentially harmful to x2 under conditions x3
nipa     permanent     x1 is permanent/lasting/[eternal] in property x2 (ka) by standard x3 [time-span/expectant one]
apatu     person     x1 is a person/people (noun) [not necessarily human]; x1 displays personality/a persona
sululu     pertain     x1 pertains to/is germane/relevant to/concerns/is related/associated with/is about x2
sunanu     petroleum     x1 is a quantity of petroleum/oil from source x2
sanisi     phrase compound     "x1 is a binary metaphor formed with x2 modifying x3, giving meaning x4 in usage/instance x5"
punivu     piano     x1 is a piano/harpsichord/synthesizer/organ; a keyboard musical instrument
ivinu     picture     "x1 is a picture/illustration representing/showing x2, made by artist x3 in medium x4"
ulala     piece     x1 [object/substance] is a piece/portion/lump/chunk/particle of x2 [substance]
suva     pin     "x1 is a pin/peg (needle-shaped tool) for fastening to/piercing x2, of material/properties x3"
asivu     pity     x1 (person) pities/feels sorry for x2 (person) about x3 (abstraction)
nivusu     plan     x1 (agent) plans/designs/plots plan/arrangement/plot/[schematic] x2 for state/process x3
akiva     plane     x1 is a plane [2-dimensional shape/form] defined by points x2 (set); x1 is flat/[smooth]
inapi     planet     "x1 is a planet revolving around x2 with planetary characteristics x3, orbital parameters x4"
vusa     plant     x1 is a plant/herb/greenery of species/strain/cultivar x2
unapa     plastic     x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains plastic/polymer of type/component unit(s) x2
siki     plate     x1 is a plate/dish/platter/saucer [flat/mildly concave food service bed] made of material x2
ukinu     play     x1 [agent] plays with plaything/toy x2
unuku     pleasant     x1 (event/state) seems pleasant to/pleases x2 under conditions x3
apupa     plow     x1 (agent) plows/furrows/tills [cuts into and turns up] x2 with tool x3 propelled by x4
ukupi     plump     x1 is plump/fat/obese [excessively thick/bulbous/swollen] by standard x2
ivapu     pocket     x1 is a pocket/pouch of/in garment/item x2
vikiku     poem     x1 is a poem/verse about plot/theme/subject/pattern x2 by author x3 for intended audience x4
aluku     point     x1 is a point/instant/moment [0-dimensional shape/form] in/on/at time/place x2
pitivu     poison     x1 is poisonous/venomous/toxic/a toxin to x2
supula     poke     "x1 (object, usually pointed) pokes/jabs/stabs/prods x2 (experiencer)"
tipu     police     x1 is a police officer/[enforcer/vigilante] enforcing law(s)/rule(s)/order x2
avavu     polish     "x1 (agent) polishes object/surface x2 with polish x3, applied using tool x4"
lanuka     polite     x1 is polite/courteous/civil in matter x2 according to standard/custom x3
unasu     polity     x1 is a polity/state governing territory/domain x2; [government/territory relationship]
kiva     poor     x1 is poor/indigent/impoverished/lacking in goods/possessions/property x2
vakaku     possess     x1 possesses/owns/has x2 under law/custom x3; x1 is owner/proprietor of x2 under x3
sisuvu     possible     x1 (event/state/property) is possible under conditions x2; x1 may/might occur; x1 is a maybe
latipa     pot     "x1 is a pot/kettle/urn/tub/sink, a deep container for contents x2, of material/properties x3"
tilipi     potato     x1 is a potato [an edible tuber] of variety/cultivar x2
uvasu     pound     "x1 is x2 (def. 1) local weight unit(s) [non-metric], standard x3, subunits [e.g. ounces] x4"
uvisa     powder     x1 is a powder of material x2
nupalu     powerful     x1 has the power to bring about x2 under conditions x3; x1 is powerful in aspect x2 under x3
pasiva     precede     x1 precedes/leads x2 in sequence x3; x1 is former/preceding/previous; x2 is latter/following
tulu     pressure     x1 (force) puts pressure on/presses/applies force to x2
ituti     prevent     x1 prevents/keeps/stops/restrains/constrains event x2 from occurring
tapivi     price     x1 [amount] is the price of x2 to purchaser/consumer x3 set by vendor x4
nali     pride     x1 (person) feels/has pride in/about x2 (abstraction)
sutala     principal     "x1 is principal/chief/leader/main/[staple], most significant among x2 (set) in property x3 (ka)"
ukiva     print     x1 is a print/impression/image on/in surface x2 of/made by/using tool/press/implement/object x3
aninu     prisoner     "x1 is a prisoner/captive of x2, restrained/held/confined by means/force x3"
lipapi     private     x1 is private/personal/privy/[secret/confidential/confined] to x2; x1 is not-public/hidden
utavi     probable     x1 (event/state/property) is probable/likely under conditions x2
uvala     problem     x1 (event/state) is a problem to/encountered by x2 in situation/task/inquiry x3
ukisa     process     "x1 is a process with inputs x2, outputs/results x3, passing through steps/stages x4"
nivuva     procreate     x1 engenders/procreates/begets x2 with coparent x3
lupipu     produce     x1 produces x2 [product] by process x3
unilu     profit     x1 is a profit/gain/benefit/advantage to x2 accruing/resulting from activity/process x3
ivivi     projectile     x1 is a ballistic projectile [e.g. bullet/missile] for firing by [gun/propelling launcher] x2
sivuti     promise     x1 (agent) promises/commits/assures/threatens x2 (event/state) to x3 [beneficiary/victim]
ulusu     prose     x1 is prose about plot/theme/subject x2 by author x3 for intended audience x4
viliti     protein     x1 is a quantity of protein/albumin of type x2 composed of amino acids (sequence/jo'u)
uluvi     protest     x1 protests/objects to/complains about x2 (event/state) to audience x3 with action x4
ataku     provide     x1 [source] provides/supplies/furnishes x2 [supply/commodity] to x3 [recipient]
sikulu     pubic     x1 is a/the pubic area/external genitalia [body-part] of x2
ikalu     public     x1 is public/un-hidden/open/jointly available to/owned by all among community x2 (mass)
susila     pull     x1 pulls/tugs/draws/drags x2 by handle/at locus x3
uvava     pulley     x1 is a pulley [tool] for performing action/function x2 rotating on axle x3
kiku     pump     x1 is a pump/injector [tool/apparatus] pumping/inserting fluid x2 to x3 from x4 by means x5
pitusa     pungent     x1 is pungent/piquant/peppery/spicy/irritating to sense x2
tivuvi     punish     x1 (agent) punishes x2 for infraction x3 (event/state/action) with punishment x4 (event/state)
nusisu     pure     x1 is pure/unadulterated/unmitigated/simple in property x2 (ka)
sipu     purple     x1 is purple/violet [color adjective]
anapi     put     x1 (agent) puts/places/sets x2 on/at surface/locus x3
patuki     quality     x1 has/is characterized by property/feature/trait/aspect/dimension x2 (ka); x2 is manifest in x1
pika     quantity     x1 is a quantity quantified/measured/enumerated by x2 (quantifier) on scale x3 (si'o)
ipipi     quantum     x1 is a quantum/ray/elementary particle/smallest measurable increment of property/activity x2
paku     question     x1 (quoted text) is a question/query about subject x2 by questioner x3 to audience x4
akiki     quiet     x1 (source) is quiet/silent/[still] at observation point x2 by standard x3
ititi     quotient     "x1 is a quotient of 'x2/x3' [dividend x2 divided by divisor x3], leaving remainder x4"
nikupu     radiate     x1 radiates/emits x2 under conditions x3
tuti     radio     x1 broadcasts/transmits [using radio waves] x2 via station/frequency x3 to [radio] receiver x4
pala     rain     x1 rains/showers/[precipitates] to x2 from x3; x1 is precipitation [not limited to 'rain']
kulu     random     "x1 is random/fortuitous/unpredictable under conditions x2, with probability distribution x3"
kuta     range     x1 ranges/extends/spans/persists/reaches across/over interval/gap/area/scope/extent/range x2
nakupa     rare     x1 [member] is rare/unusual/uncommon/atypical in property x2 (ka) among members of x3 (set)
itaka     ratio     "x1 (me'o, fraction) is a ratio/rate of x2 (quantity) with respect to x3 (quantity), [x2:x3]"
isuvu     react     x1 reacts/responds/answers with action x2 to stimulus x3 under conditions x4; x1 is responsive
nivu     read     x1 [agent] reads x2 [text] from surface/document/reading material x3; x1 is a reader
uvuvi     ready     x1 is ready/prepared for x2 (event)
atuli     reason     x1 (event/state) is a reason/justification/explanation for/causing/permitting x2 (event/state)
lukili     reclining     x1 lies/rests/reclines/reposes on x2; x1 is reclining/recumbent/lying on x2
naka     record     x1 is a record of x2 (data/facts/du'u) about x3 (object/event) preserved in medium x4
tusunu     recur     x1 (event) is the x3'rd recurrence/repetition of x2 (abstract); x2 happens again in [form] x1
sata     red     x1 is red/crimson/ruddy [color adjective]
ipaki     reed     x1 is a oboe/clarinet/saxophone [reed musical instrument] with reed x2
situ     reference     "x1 is a frame of reference/standard for observing/measuring/determining x2, with/by rules x3"
usulu     reflect     x1 reflects/mirrors/echoes x2 [object/radiation] to observer/point x3 as x4; x2 bounces on x1
nanunu     regret     x1 regrets/rues (abstraction) x2; x1 is regretful/rueful/sorry/[remorseful] about x2
titi     regular     x1 is regular/cyclical/periodic in property (ka)/activity x2 with period/interval x3
vituka     related     x1 is related to/associated with/akin to x2 by relationship x3
sinu     relax     x1 relaxes/rests/is at ease in/by doing/being x2 (activity)
suli     religion     x1 is a religion of believers including x2 sharing common beliefs/practices/tenets including x3
ilana     rely     x1 relies/depends/counts on/trusts x2 to bring about/ensure/maintain x3 (event/state)
akuti     remain     x1 remains/stays at/abides/lasts with x2
kanu     remember     x1 remembers/recalls/recollects fact(s)/memory x2 (du'u) about subject x3
utavu     remove     x1 removes/subtracts/deducts/takes away x2 from x3 with/leaving result/remnant/remainder x4
kitavi     repair     x1 repairs/mends/fixes x2 for use x3
panusa     repeat     x1 [action] repeats/is repeated for a total of x2 (quantity) occurrences
tunivi     replace     x1 replaces/substitutes for/instead of x2 in circumstance x3; x1 is a replacement/substitute
ununi     reply     x1 answers/replies to/responds to person/object/event/situation/stimulus x2 with response x3
nini     represent     x1 represents/is an agent/proxy/stands-in for [absent] x2 in matter(s)/function(s) x3
lunika     reptile     x1 is a reptile of species/breed x2
pili     request     x1 requests/asks/petitions/solicits for x2 of/from x3 in manner/form x4
usisu     responsible     x1 is responsible/accountable for x2 (action/resulting state) to judge/authority x3
asavu     restaurant     x1 is a restaurant/cafe/diner serving type-of-food x2 to audience x3
tusi     restrain     x1 is restrained/held [back]/constrained/kept by restraint x2 against x3 (event)
lupu     result     x1 (action/event/state) is a result/outcome/conclusion of antecedent x2 (event/state/process)
kuvapa     retain     x1 retains/keeps/holds x2 in its possession
tanuki     return     x1 (agent) returns x2 to origin/earlier state x3 from x4; x1 moves/gives x2 back to x3 from x4
uvinu     revenge     x1 takes revenge on/retaliates against x2 (person) for wrong x3 (nu) with vengeance x4 (nu)
iluta     reverse     x1 [sequence] is in reverse order from x2 [sequence]; x1 (object) is inverted from x2 (object)
satuvu     reward     x1 (agent) rewards x2 [recipient] for atypical x3 (event/property) with reward/desserts x4
patanu     rhyme     "x1 rhymes/alliterates with x2 in language/phonetics x3, matching sound correspondence x4 (ka)"
sakati     rhythm     x1 (sequence/non-text quote) is a rhythm/beat of music/expressive form x2
livava     ribbon     x1 is a ribbon/tape/strip/band/stripe of material x2
katili     rice     x1 is a quantity of rice [a type of grain] of strain/cultivar x2
anusu     rich     x1 is rich/wealthy in goods/possessions/property/aspect x2
itava     ridicule     x1 ridicules/mocks/scoffs at x2 about x3 (property/event) by doing activity x4 (event)
tikasa     right     x1 is to the right/right-hand side of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3
saka     ring     "x1 is a ring/annulus/torus/circle [shape/form] of material x2, inside diam. x3, outside diam. x4"
ukunu     rite     "x1 is a rite/ceremony/ritual for purpose/goal x2, by custom/in community x3, with form/rules x4"
susuka     river     "x1 is a river of land mass x2, draining watershed x3 into x4/terminating at x4"
kava     road     x1 is a road/highway to x2 from x3 with route x4 (x2/x3 may be unordered)
tuvi     robe     x1 is a robe/tunic/gown/cloak/dress/[coveralls] [a long/full body garment] of material x2
uvalu     rock     x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains rock/stone of type/composition x2 from location x3
ikuvu     rocket     x1 is a rocket [vehicle] propelled by jet expelling x2 carrying payload x3
papiti     rod     x1 is a rod/pole/staff/stick/cane [shape/form] of material x2
linaki     roll     x1 rolls/trundles on/against surface x2 rotating on axis/axle x3; x1 is a roller
sipusa     roof     x1 is a roof/top/ceiling/lid of x2
avitu     room     x1 is a room of/in structure x2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x3 (mass/jo'u)
asanu     root     "x1 is a root [body-part] of plant/species x2; [metaphor: immobile, supporting, nourishing]"
uniti     root word     "x1 is a (Lojban) root word expressing relation x2 among argument roles x3, with affix(es) x4"
lapu     rose     x1 is a rose [flower - characterized by prickly stem/fragrance] of species/strain x2
lika     rotten     x1 rots/decays/ferments with decay/fermentation agent x2; x1 is rotten/decayed/fermented
tikunu     rough     x1 is rough/coarse/uneven/[grainy/scabrous/rugged] in texture/regularity
sitivu     route     x1 is a route/path/way/course/track to x2 from x3 via/defined by points including x4 (set)
nuni     rubber     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of rubber/latex from source x2 of composition including x3
vani     rule     x1 is a rule prescribing/mandating/requiring x2 (event/state) within system/community x3
ikina     run     x1 runs on surface x2 using limbs x3 with gait x4
pusini     rural     x1 is a rural/rustic/pastoral area of x2; x1 is in the country
suluvu     rye     x1 is a quantity of rye [grain] of species/strain x2
kalipi     sack     "x1 is a sack/bag with contents x2, and of material x3"
kaliti     sad     x1 is sad/depressed/dejected/[unhappy/feels sorrow/grief] about x2 (abstraction)
sapanu     sail     x1 is a sail for gathering propelling material x2 on vehicle/motor x3
vasava     salad     x1 (mass) is a quantity of salad [food] with ingredients/components including x2
usupa     salt     "x1 is a portion/quantity of salt from source x2, of composition including x3"
avuki     same     x1 is the same/identical thing as x2 by standard x3; (x1 and x2 interchangeable)
itavi     sand     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sand/grit from source x2 of composition including x3
kukasu     sandwich     x1 is a sandwich/layering [not restricted to food] of x2 sandwiched between x3
nalisa     sane     x1 (action/activity/behavior) is sane/rational by standard x2
kupu     satellite     "x1 is a satellite/moon orbiting x2 with characteristics x3, orbital parameters x4"
ululu     satisfy     x1 satisfies evaluator x2 in property (ka)/state x3
tukapi     sauce     "x1 is a sauce/topping/gravy/frosting for use with x2, containing ingredient(s) including x3"
pusavi     scale     x1 (si'o) is a scale of units for measuring/observing/determining x2 (state)
univa     school     x1 is school/institute/academy at x2 teaching subject(s) x3 to audien./commun. x4 operated by x5
kipulu     science     x1 (mass of facts) is science of/about subject matter x2 based on methodology x3
apuvu     scrape     x1 blade/scraper/erosive scrapes/erodes/abrades x2 from x3
ikisi     scratch     x1 [abrasive/cutting/scratching object/implement] scratches/[carves]/erodes/cuts [into] x2
puki     screw     "x1 is a screw [fastener] for purpose x2, threads [pitch, material] x3, frame [size, material] x4"
vitita     sea     "x1 is a sea/ocean/gulf/[atmosphere] of planet x2, of fluid x3; (adjective:) x1 is marine"
puti     season     "x1 is a season/is seasonal [cyclical interval], defined by interval/property x2, of year(s) x3"
atuki     seasoning     x1 is a seasoning/condiment/spice causing flavor/effect x2 (event/property)
sunili     second     x1 is x2 seconds in duration (default is 1 second) by standard x3
vini     secret     x1 keeps x2 secret/hidden from x3 by method x4; x2 is a secret; x1 hides/conceals x2
sikusa     secure     x1 is secure/safe from threat x2 (event)
akula     see     x1 sees/views/perceives visually x2 under conditions x3
vivi     seed     x1(s) is/are (a) seed(s)/spore(s) [body-part] of organism x2 for producing offspring x3
ipivi     seek     x1 seeks/searches/looks for property x2 among set x3 (complete specification of set)
vapa     seem     x1 seems/appears to have property(ies) x2 to observer x3 under conditions x4
livupi     self     x1 is a self/ego/id/identity-image of x2
lupuna     sell     x1 [seller] sells/vends x2 [goods/service/commodity] to buyer x3 for amount/cost/expense x4
ipatu     sense     x1 [observer] senses/detects/notices stimulus property x2 (ka) by means x3 under conditions x4
kivitu     sentence     x1 (text) is a sentence/statement about x2 [topic/subject/predicate/focus] in language x3
paki     sequence     x1 [ordered set] is sequenced/ordered/listed by comparison/rules x2 on unordered set x3
nanisa     serious     x1 (person) is serious/earnest/has gravity about x2 (event/state/activity)
ilisu     serve     x1 (agent) serves x2 with service x3 (activity); x1 is a servant (noun) of x2 performing x3
viniti     severe     x1 (event/action/state) is severe/harsh to x2 [victim/experiencer]
natu     sew     "x1 sews/stitches/sutures materials x2 (ind./set) together with tool(s) x3, using filament x4"
pitu     sexual     x1 in activity/state x2 exhibits sexuality/gender/sexual orientation x3 (ka) by standard x4
apita     shadow     "x1 is a shadow/the shade of object x2, made by light/energy source x3"
asilu     shake     x1 shakes/quakes/trembles/quivers/shudders/wobbles/vibrates from force x2
vatipi     shallow     x1 is shallow in extent in direction/property x2 away from reference point x3 by standard x4
visa     shallow     x1 is shallow in extent in direction/property x2 away from reference point x3 by standard x4
luka     shape     x1 [ideal] is the conceptual shape/form of object/abstraction/manifestation x2 (object/abstract)
nipuvu     sharp     x1 is sharp/keen at locus x2
kipu     shears     x1 is a pair of shears/scissors for cutting x2
papini     sheet     x1 is a sheet/foil/blanket [2-dimensional shape/form flexible in 3 dimensions] of material x2
sivuva     shelf     "x1 is a shelf/counter/bar in/on/attached to supporting object x2, for purpose x3"
valani     shell     "x1 is a shell/husk [hard, protective covering] around x2 composed of x3"
lusisi     shelter     x1 is a shelter/haven/refuge/retreat/harbor for/protecting x2 from danger/threat x3
sakanu     shirt     "x1 is a shirt/blouse/top [upper-body garment - not necessarily sleeved or buttoned], material x2"
supivu     shoal     x1 is a shoal [shallow hazard]/reef of material x2 in body of water x3
avita     shock     x1 (event) shocks/stuns x2
kativi     shoe     "x1 is a shoe/boot/sandal for covering/protecting [feet/hooves] x2, and of material x3"
sika     short     x1 is short in dimension/direction x2 (default longest dimension) by measurement standard x3
kivata     shoulder     x1 is a/the shoulder/hip/joint [body-part] attaching limb/extremity x2 to body x3
akasi     shove     x1 [agent] shoves/pushes x2 at locus x3
itani     shovel     x1 is a shovel/spade [bladed digging implement] for digging x2
alata     show     x1 (agent) shows/exhibits/displays/[reveals]/demonstrates x2 (property) to audience x3
tilipa     sibling     x1 is a sibling of x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x3
asiti     side     x1 is to the side of/lateral to x2 and facing x3 from point of view/in-frame-of-reference x4
usini     sign     x1 is a sign/symbol/signal representing/referring/signifying/meaning x2 to observer x3
uvitu     silk     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of silk produced by x2
pisi     silver     "x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of silver/argentum (Ag); [metaphor: valuable, tarnishing]"
sanusa     similar     x1 is similar/parallel to x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni); x1 looks/appears like x2
kuvuta     simple     x1 is simple/unmixed/uncomplicated in property x2 (ka)
lipili     sing     x1 sings/chants x2 [song/hymn/melody/melodic sounds] to audience x3
ivuvi     sister     x1 is a sister of/sororal to x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x3; [not necessarily biological]
ivisu     sit     x1 sits [assumes sitting position] on surface x2
lipina     site     x1 is an inherent/inalienable site/place/position/situation/spot/location of x2 (object/event)
ilala     situation     x1 [state/property] is a situation/condition/state/position/are conditions/circumstances of x2
vunasu     ski     x1 is a ski/skid/skate/runner for surface (of material) x2 supporting skier/skater/sled/cargo x3
vulatu     skirt     x1 is a skirt/kilt/dress of material x2; x1 is skirted [garment open at the bottom; not legged]
kinunu     sky     x1 is an expanse of sky/the heavens at place x2; [celestial]
akasu     sleep     x1 is asleep (adjective); x1 sleeps/is sleeping
vulivu     slice     x1 is a slice [thin flat portion] of x2 (mass)
usuti     slide     x1 slides/slips/glides on x2
nusatu     slope     x1 is sloped/inclined/slanted/aslant with angle x2 to horizon/frame x3
inalu     slow     x1 is slow/sluggish at doing/being/bringing about x2 (event/state)
usula     small     x1 is small in property/dimension(s) x2 (ka) as compared with standard/norm x3
ilina     smell     x1 (experiencer) smells/scents (transitive verb) x2; x2 smells/has odor/scent to observer x1
isupa     smile     x1 smiles/grins (facial expression)
nivasa     smoke     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of smoke/smog/air pollution from source x2
sukinu     smooth     x1 is smooth/even/[soft/silky] in texture/regularity
taki     snake     x1 is a snake/serpent of species/breed x2
ipuvu     sneeze     x1 sneezes (intransitive verb)
utatu     snow     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity/expanse of snow
lavitu     snug     x1 is snug/tight on x2 in dimension/direction x3 at locus x4
savani     soak up     x1 soaks up/absorbs/sucks up x2 from x3 into x4; x1 is an absorbant
vusu     soap     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of soap from source x2 of composition including x3
vana     socialize     x1 interacts/behaves socially with x2; x1 socializes with/is sociable towards x2
visu     sock     x1 is a sock/stocking [flexible foot and lower leg garment] of material x2
tulapi     soda     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of a carbonated beverage/soda of flavor/brand x2
uvuvu     sodium     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alkali metal of type x2 [default sodium]
vapi     sofa     x1 is a sofa/couch (noun)
kilava     soft     x1 is soft/malleable/moldable/yielding to force x2 in conditions x3
pisitu     solar     x1 is the sun of home planet x2 (default Earth) of race x3; (adjective:) x1 is solar
nuti     soldier     x1 is a soldier/warrior/fighter of army x2
nasuni     solid     "x1 is solid, of composition/material including x2, under conditions x3"
naluva     son     x1 is a son of mother/father/parents x2 [not necessarily biological]
valutu     sound     x1 is sound produced/emitted by x2
napivu     soup     x1 is a quantity of soup/stew/olla/olio [food] of ingredients including x2
ilipi     sour     x1 is sour/tart to observer x2
tutila     source     x1 (site/event) is a source/start/beginning/origin of x2 (object/event/process)
sukapu     south     x1 is to the south/southern side of x2 according to frame of reference x3
lani     sow     x1 sows/plants x2 [crop/plants] at/in x3
kukunu     soya     x1 is a quantity of soya [grain/bean] of species/strain x2
uvatu     space     x1 is space/volume/region/room [at-least-3-dimensional area] occupied by x2
tisu     species     "x1 is a species of genus x2, family x3, etc.; [open-ended tree-structure categorization]"
isiva     specific     x1 (ka) is specific/particular/specialized/[special]/a defining property of x2 among x3 (set)
kasavi     spider     x1 is a spider/arachnid/[crustacean/crab/lobster/non-insect arthropod] of species/breed x2
vupata     spiral     "x1 is a spiral/helix/whorl/[vortex] [shape/form] with limits x2, of dimensionality x3"
akipa     spirit     x1 is spiritual/pertains to the soul in nature [either energy or being]; x1 is ghostly/ethereal
ukanu     spit     x1 spits/expectorates x2 [predominantly liquid] from x3 to/onto x4
uvila     sponge     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sponge/porous material
lati     spoon     "x1 is a spoon/scoop (tool) for use x2, made of material x3"
kavuli     spread     x1 spreads/expands over/into x2 from initial state x3
liputi     spring     x1 is spring/springtime [warming season] of year x2 at location x3; (adjective:) x1 is vernal
ivuti     square     "x1 is a right-angled shape/form defined by set of vertices x2, dimensions x3 (default 2)"
uninu     stage     "x1 is a stage/platform/dais/[scaffold] at/in x2 supporting x3, made of material x4"
vala     stairs     x1 are stairs/stairway/steps for climbing structure x2 with steps x3
nalavi     stalk     x1 is a/the stalk/stem/trunk [body-part] of plant/species x2; [metaphor: main support]
sutiku     stand     x1 stands [is vertically oriented] on surface x2 supported by limbs/support/pedestal x3
kanini     star     x1 is a star/sun with stellar properties x2
akika     starch     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of starch from source x2 of composition including x3
savi     station     x1 is a station/node of/in/on transport/communication/distribution system/network x2
asala     steel     x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains steel of composition including x2
piki     step     x1 steps/treads on/in surface x2 using limbs x3
vasi     sticky     x1 adheres/sticks to x2; (adjective:) x1 is sticky/gummy/adhesive
ukuvi     stiff     x1 is stiff/rigid/inflexible/resistant in direction x2 against force x3 under conditions x4
ulisi     stir     "x1 (object, or event: force) stirs/mixes/[roils/agitates] fluid (gas/liquid) x2"
utivi     store     x1 is a store/deposit/supply/reserve of materials/energy x2 in containment x3
nunuki     story     x1 is a story/tale/yarn/narrative about plot/subject/moral x2 by storyteller x3 to audience x4
kiniti     straight     x1 is straight/direct/line segment/interval between x2 and x3; (adjective:) x1 is linear
tiputa     strange     x1 is strange/weird/deviant/bizarre/odd to x2 in property x3 (ka)
kiti     street     x1 is a street/avenue/lane/drive/cul-de-sac/way/alley/[road] at x2 accessing x3
inavu     stretch     x1 stretches/extends to range x2 [interval/extent] in dimension x3 from relaxed range x4
kulusa     stroke     x1 (agent) strokes/rubs/pets x2 with x3
atutu     strong     x1 is strong/powerful/[tough] in property/quality x2 (ka) by standard x3
aliki     structure     x1 is a structure/arrangement/organization of x2 [set/system/complexity]
itita     stubborn     x1 is stubborn/willfully opposing/resisting x2 about x3 (event/state)
ipati     study     x1 studies/is a student of x2; x1 is a scholar; (adjective:) x1 is scholarly
uvani     suburb     x1 is a suburban area of city/metropolis x2
litu     succeed     x1 [agent] succeeds in/achieves/completes/accomplishes x2 as a result of effort/attempt/try x3
nupuka     suck     x1 sucks/is suction/vacuum/relatively low pressure of fluid/gas x2 relative to high pressure x3
pikuta     sudden     x1 (event/state) is sudden/sharply changes at stage/point x2 in process/property/function x3
tunuta     suffice     x1 (object) suffices/is enough/sufficient for purpose x2 under conditions x3
suka     sugar     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of sugar [sweet edible] from source x2 of composition x3
akila     suggest     x1 (agent) suggests/proposes idea/action x2 to audience x3; x1 (event) inspires x2 in/among x3
tini     sulfur     "x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sulfur/brimstone (S); [metaphor: foul odor, volcanic]"
visila     sum     x1 is a mathematical sum/result/total of x2 plus/increased by x3
kuvasa     summer     x1 is summer/summertime [hot season] of year x2 at location x3
utili     superlative     "x1 is superlative in property x2 (ka), the x3 extreme (ka; default ka zmadu) among set/range x4"
utuki     support     x1 supports/holds up/is underpinning of/[helps] x2 against force/opposition x3 with/by means x4
ivavu     surface     "x1 is surface/face [bounded shape/form] of [higher-dimension] object x2, on side x3, edges x4"
kakipu     surprise     x1 (event/action abstract) surprises/startles/is unexpected [and generally sudden] to x2
napisu     surround     x1 encircles/encloses/is surrounding x2 in direction(s)/dimension(s)/plane x3
lapi     survive     x1 survives/endures/undergoes/abides/lasts/persists through x2 for interval/duration x3
ikivu     swallow     x1 gulps/swallows
anapa     sweat     "x1 is a/the sweat/perspiration from body x2, excreted by gland(s)/organs x3"
iviva     sweet     x1 is sweet/sugary/saccharine to observer x2
sikaka     swelling     "x1 is a swelling/protrusion/convexity [shape/form] at/in/on x2, of material x3"
vipasi     swim     x1 (agent) swims in fluid x2
aniki     syllable     x1 is a syllable in language x2
kisusi     system     x1 (mass) system interrelated by structure x2 among components x3 (set) displaying x4 (ka)
nuka     table     "x1 is a table/flat solid upper surface of material x2, supported by legs/base/pedestal x3"
avala     tail     "x1 is a/the tail/appendix [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: trailing, following portion/appendage]"
nulupu     take     x1 takes/gets/gains/obtains/seizes/[removes] x2 (object/property) from x3 (possessor)
nupaka     take care of     x1 takes-care-of/looks after/attends to/provides for/is caretaker for x2 (object/event/person)
lilika     talent     x1 has a talent/aptitude/innate skill for doing/being x2
apunu     talk     x1 talks/speaks to x2 about subject x3 in language x4
visuva     tar     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of tar/asphalt from source x2
unaku     taste     x1 (ka) is a taste/flavor of/emitted by x2; x2 tastes of/like x1
kalu     taut     x1 is taut/tense/strained tight in direction x2
lanipa     tax     x1 is a tax/levy/duty on goods/services/event x2 levied against x3 by authority/collector x4
kula     tea     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of tea brewed from leaves x2
upunu     teach     x1 teaches audience x2 ideas/methods/lore x3 (du'u) about subject(s) x4 by method x5 (event)
talivu     telephone     x1 is a telephone transceiver/modem attached to system/network x2
upula     television     x1 broadcasts/televises programming x2 via medium/channel x3 to television receiver x4
tuta     temple     x1 is a temple/church/sanctuary/synagogue/shrine of religion x2 at location/serving area x3
alapu     temporary     x1 is temporary/not permanent/expected to change in property x2 (ka) by standard/expectant x3
pututa     territory     x1 is territory/domain/space of/belonging to/controlled by x2
luvivu     test     x1 (process/event) is a test for/proof of property/state x2 in subject x3 (individ./set/mass)
utika     texture     x1 (property-ka) is a texture of x2
upipu     thick     x1 is thick in dimension/direction x2 by standard x3; [relatively long in smallest dimension]
apipi     thin     x1 is thin in direction/dimension x2 by standard x3; [relatively short in smallest dimension]
iliti     think     x1 thinks/considers/cogitates/reasons/is pensive about/reflects upon subject/concept x2
ipilu     thirst     x1 thirsts for x2; x1 needs/wants drink/fluid/lubrication x2
isuni     throat     x1 is a/the throat/gullet [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: narrow(ing) opening of a deep hole]
apisi     throw     x1 throws/launches/casts/hurls x2 to/at/in direction x3 (propulsion derives internally to x1)
ikipa     thumb     x1 is a/the thumb/big toe [body-part] on limb x2 of x3; [metaphor based on relative shape]
tupana     ticket     x1 is a ticket entitling x2 to entitlement/privilege x3 (event/state) under conditions x4
supavu     tide     x1 is a tide [cyclical/periodic expansion] in x2 caused by x3
pali     tiger     x1 is a tiger/leopard/jaguar/[tigress] of species/breed x2 with coat markings x3
savasa     tile     "x1 is a tile/cake [shape/form] of material x2, shape x3, thickness x4"
sanali     time     x1 is the time-duration/interval/period/[elapsed time] from time/event x2 to time/event x3
inupi     time of day     "x1 [hours, {minutes}, {seconds}] is the time/hour of state/event x2 on day x3 at location x4"
italu     tin     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of tin (Sn); [metaphor: cheap or base metal]
satusa     tip     x1 is a tip/point/vertex/extremity/end [0-dimension shape/form] on object x2 at locus x3
ivisi     tired     x1 is tired/fatigued by effort/situation x2 (event); x1 needs/wants rest
ipupi     tobacco     x1 is a quantity of tobacco [leaf] of species/strain x2
nuva     tomato     x1 is a tomato [fruit/vegetable/plant] of species/strain x2
sipipa     tone     x1 is a tone/note of frequency/pitch x2 from source x3
vasa     tongs     x1 is a/are tong(s)/chopsticks/pincers/tweezers/pliers [tool/body-part] for x2 to pinch x3
kivapi     tongue     "x1 is a/the tongue [body-part] of x2; (metaphor: similar to nazbi, tamji, degji)"
ivini     tool     x1 is a tool/utensil/resource/instrument/implement used for doing x2; [form determines function]
kisutu     tooth     x1 is a/the tooth [body-part] of x2; (adjective:) x1 is dental
titusa     touch     x1 (agent) touches x2 with x3 [a locus on x1 or an instrument] at x4 [a locus on x2]
pati     tragedy     x1 is a tragedy/disaster/tragic for x2
latulu     train     "x1 is a train [vehicle] of cars/units x2 (mass) for rails/system/railroad x3, propelled by x4"
vasila     transfer     x1 transfers/sends/transmits x2 to receiver x3 from transmitter/origin x4 via means/medium x5
vavuki     translate     x1 translates text/utterance x2 to language x3 from language x4 with translation result x5
nisi     travel     x1 travels/journeys/goes/moves via route x2 using means/vehicle x3; x1 is a traveller
tulavu     tray     "x1 is a tray/platter/flat container [pan/sheet/griddle] of contents x2, and made of material x3"
avupu     trouble     x1 (object/person/event/situation) troubles/disturbs x2 (person) causing problem(s) x3
tava     trumpet     x1 is a horn/trumpet/trombone/bugle [brass-wind/lip-reed musical instrument]
naku     truth     x1 (du'u) is true/truth by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x2
nuku     try     x1 tries/attempts/makes an effort to do/attain x2 (event/state/property) by actions/method x3
valuka     tube     "x1 is a length of tubing/pipe/hollow cylinder [shape/form] of material x2, hollow of material x3"
pusali     tulip     x1 is a tulip (defined by flower shape) of species/strain x2
navatu     turn     x1 turns/rotates/revolves around axis x2 in direction x3
susinu     twist     x1 twists under load/force/torsion x2
tivi     umbrella     "x1 is an umbrella/parasol shielding x2 from x3, made of material x4, supported by x5"
usapa     understand     x1 understands/comprehends fact/truth x2 (du'u) about subject x3; x1 understands (fi) x3
susisi     uniform     x1 (object/event) is uniform/homogeneous in property x2 (ka)
ukuni     unit     x1 [magnitude] is a unit/degree of/on scale/reference standard x2 (si'o) measuring property x3
laku     universe     x1 is a universe/cosmos [complete and ordered entirety] of domain/sphere x2 defined by rules x3
ikana     upon     x1 is upon/atop/resting on/lying on [the upper surface of] x2 in frame of reference/gravity x3
kanisu     urine     x1 is a/the urine/piss/pee of x2
avusu     use     "x1 uses/employs x2 [tool, apparatus, machine, agent, acting entity, material] for purpose x3"
nupini     use up     x1 (event) uses up/depletes/consumes/[wastes] x2 [resource]
anuka     utter     x1 utters verbally/says/phonates/speaks [vocally makes sound] x2
puvu     vaccine     x1 is a vaccine/immune-system stimulant protecting x2 against disease x3 introduced by method x4
pipu     value     x1 (ni) is the equivalent value/worth of x2 [item(s) of value] to x3 for use/appreciation x4
salilu     vanish     x1 vanishes/disappears from location x2; x1 ceases to be observed at x2 using senses/sensor x3
kala     vary     x1 varies/changes in property/quantity x2 (ka/ni) in amount/degree x3 under conditions x4
sunuta     vegetable     x1 is the edible x2 portion of plant x3; x1 is a vegetable
ukini     vehicle     "x1 is a vehicle/mode of transport carrying x2 in/on surface/medium x3, propelled by x4"
putaka     vertical     x1 is vertical/upright/erect/plumb/oriented straight up and down in reference frame/gravity x2
ulutu     video     x1 is a video monitor/CRT/screen [machine] serving function x2
vupu     view     x1 is the view/scene/panorama/sight/prospect of x2 (object/location) from point-of-view x3
inava     violent     x1 is an event/state/act of violence
vuviku     virtue     x1 is virtuous/saintly/[fine/moral/nice/holy/morally good] by standard x2
ununa     virus     x1 is a virus of species/breed/defining property x2 capable of infecting [at] x3
ikuti     viscous     x1 is thick/viscous under conditions x2
vilipi     voice     x1 is a voice/speech sound of individual x2
tukipa     vomit     x1 vomits/regurgitates x2; x1 throws x2 up; [violent] digestive expulsion
vilutu     vulva     x1 is a/the vulva [body-part] of x2
kila     wait     x1 awaits/waits/pauses for/until x2 at state x3 before starting/continuing x4 (activity/process)
tana     walk     x1 walks/strides/paces on surface x2 using limbs x3
tuni     wall     x1 is a wall/fence separating x2 and x3 (unordered) of/in structure x4
kiviku     war     x1 (person/mass) wars against x2 over territory/matter x3; x1 is at war with x2
inisu     warn     x1 (event/experience) warns/cautions x2 (person) of/about danger x3 (event/state/property)
sapavi     wash     x1 (agent) washes/cleanses x2 of soil/contaminant x3 in/with cleaning material(s) x4
alisi     waste     x1(s) is/are waste product(s) [left to waste] by x2 (event/activity)
nalasi     water     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity/expanse of water; (adjective:) x1 is aqueous/[aquatic]
pasupa     wave     "x1 is a wave [periodic pattern] in medium x2, wave-form x3, wave-length x4, frequency x5"
kunusi     wax     x1 is quantity of wax [substance especially soft/moldable when warm] from source x2
pita     weak     x1 is weak/feeble/frail in property/quality/aspect x2 (ka) by standard x3
nitu     weapon     x1 is a weapon/arms for use against x2 by x3
tunaka     wear     x1 wears/is robed/garbed in x2 as a garment of type x3
pupasu     weather     x1 is weather at place/region x2; (adjective:) x1 is meteorological
vusuli     weave     x1 weaves x2 from material/[yarn] x3
vikiva     wedge     x1 is a wedge [shape/form/tool] of material x2
vipupu     week     x1 is x2 weeks in duration (default is 1 week) by standard x3
suvipu     weep     x1 weeps/cries tears x2 about/for reason x3 (event/state)
pasinu     weight     x1 is the weight of object x2 in [gravitational or other force] field x3
apuni     well     x1 is a well/spring of fluid x2 at location x3
atita     west     x1 is to the west/western side of x2 according to frame of reference x3
vupa     wheat     x1 is a quantity of wheat [grain] of species/strain x2
tapipu     wheel     "x1 is a wheel [tool] of device/vehicle x2, made of materials/having properties x3"
lava     whip     x1 whips/lashes/snaps [a sudden violent motion]
suvaki     whistle     x1 [sound source] whistles/makes whistling sound/note/tone/melody x2
avapa     white     x1 is white/very-light colored [color adjective]
palunu     wild     (adjective:) x1 is wild/untamed
sitita     win     x1 (person/team) wins/gains prize x2 from/over x3 [competitors/losers] in competition x4
apiti     window     x1 is a window/portal/opening [portal] in wall/building/structure x2
luli     wine     x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of wine from fruit/grapes x2
uvasa     wing     x1 is a/the wing [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: lateral supporting surface]
supasu     winter     x1 is winter/wintertime [cold season] of year x2 at location x3
inuvi     wise     x1 is wise/sage about matter x2 (abstraction) to observer x3
nutuku     with     "x1 is with/accompanies/is a companion of x2, in state/condition/enterprise x3 (event/state)"
ikusa     without     x1 is without/lacking/free of/lacks x2; x1 is x2-less
kusipi     wolf     x1 is a wolf/lupine of species/breed x2
uluku     woman     x1 is a woman/women; x1 is a female humanoid person [not necessarily adult]
kivi     womb     "x1 is a/the womb/uterus [body-part] of x2; [metaphor: nourishing, protective, giving birth]"
sivipa     wonder     x1 feels wonder/awe/marvels about x2
kivu     wood     x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains wood/lumber from tree(s) of type/species x2
sapu     wool     x1 is a quantity of/made from/consists of wool [tight curly hair] from animal/species/source x2
susalu     word     x1 is a word meaning/causing x2 in language x3; (adjective: x1 is lexical/verbal)
natavi     work     x1 [person] labors/works on/at x2 [activity] with goal/objective x3
vapipa     worm     x1 is a worm/invertebrate animal of species/breed x2
sanuvu     wrinkle     x1 is a wrinkle/crease/fold [shape/form] in x2
ipusi     write     x1 inscribes/writes x2 on display/storage medium x3 with writing implement x4; x1 is a scribe
utapi     year     x1 is x2 years in duration (default is 1 year) by standard x3; (adjective:) x1 is annual
latava     yellow     x1 is yellow/golden [color adjective]
tuli     yield     x1 yields/gives way/surrenders to x2 (force/agent) under conditions x3
sisulu     young     x1 is young/youthful [relatively short in elapsed duration] by standard x2
kisani     zinc     x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of zinc (Zn); [metaphor: hard metal]
Viku: Etymological Notes All the predicate words listed in the Vocabulary were randomly generated by LangMaker, software available on the Web. None of those words are based on any natural languages.
Some of the structure words are derived from other languages.
Structure WordMeaningSource Language
ancommon articleTagalog 'ang'
inproper articleNahuatl (Aztec) 'in'
kalquestion particleJapanese 'ka'
kut, kus, kupI, weIndonesian 'aku' (Malayo-Polynesian)
luval2Samoan, Hawaiian 'lua' (Malayo-Polynesian)
nanin6Tagalog 'anim' (Malayo-Polynesian)
nulun0Latin 'nullus'
panap5Hindi 'pa~ch'
pitup7Tagalog 'pito' (Malayo-Polynesian)
satus1Indonesian 'satu' (Malayo-Polynesian)
sivas9Balinese 'sia' , Maori 'iwa', (Malayo-Polynesian)
talut3Tagalog 'tatlo' (Malayo-Polynesian)
tipat4Tagalog 'apat' (Malayo-Polynesian)
valuv8Hawaiian 'walu', Tagalog 'walo' (Malayo-Polynesian)
vat, vasyouFrench 'vous'